Demographics of Vietnam
|Demographics of Vietnam1|
|Population||92,477,857 (July 2013 est.) (14th)|
|Growth rate||1.03% (2013 est.) (113th)|
|Birth rate||16.56 births/1000 population (2013 est.)|
|Death rate||5.94 deaths/1000 population (July 2013 est.)|
|Life expectancy||72.65 years (2013 est.)|
|• male||70.2 years (2013 est.)|
|• female||75.4 years (2013 est.)|
|Fertility rate||1.87 born/woman (2013 est.)|
|Infant mortality rate||19.61 deaths/1000 live births|
|0–14 years||24.6% (male 11,931,623/female 10,807,661) (2013 est.)|
|15–64 years||69.8% (male 31,301,879/female 31,419,306) (2011 est.)|
|65 and over||5.5% (male 1,921,652/female 3,092,589) (2011 est.)|
|At birth||1.12 male(s)/female|
|Under 15||1.1 male(s)/female|
|15–64 years||1 male (s)/female|
|65 and over||0.62 male(s)/female|
|Nationality||noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural) adjective: Vietnamese|
|Major ethnic||Kinh (Viet) (85.7%)|
|Minor ethnic||Tay (1.9%), Thai (1.8%), Muong (1.5%), Khmer (1.5%), Mong (1.2%), Nung (1.1%), others (5.3%)|
|Spoken||Vietnamese, English, French, and many minority and mountain area languages|
This article is about the demographic features of the population of Vietnam, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennium to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Ethnic Vietnamese, or Viet (known officially as Kinh), live in the lowlands and speak the Vietnamese language. This group dominates much of the cultural and political landscape of Vietnam.
|Total population (000's)||Population aged 0–14 (%)||Population aged 15–64 (%)||Population aged 65+ (%)|
UN estimates of births and deaths2
|Period||Live births per year||Deaths per year||Natural change per year||CBR1||CDR1||NC1||TFR1||IMR1|
|1950-1955||1 335 000||722 000||613 000||44.8||24.2||20.6||6.20||157.9|
|1955-1960||1 533 000||764 000||769 000||46.1||23.0||23.1||6.76||143.7|
|1960-1965||1 732 000||790 000||942 000||46.2||21.0||25.2||7.33||130.3|
|1965-1970||1 798 000||790 000||1 009 000||42.4||18.6||23.8||7.38||117.8|
|1970-1975||1 853 000||859 000||994 000||39.1||18.1||21.0||7.15||118.4|
|1975-1980||1 797 000||760 000||1 036 000||34.6||14.6||20.0||5.89||97.6|
|1980-1985||1 952 000||630 000||1 322 000||34.1||11.0||23.1||4.93||70.0|
|1985-1990||2 000 000||574 000||1 425 000||31.4||9.0||22.4||3.96||54.8|
|1990-1995||1 929 000||484 000||1 444 000||27.3||6.9||20.4||3.23||37.9|
|1995-2000||1 448 000||441 000||1 007 000||19.0||5.8||13.2||2.18||29.2|
|2000-2005||1 392 000||425 000||967 000||17.2||5.3||11.9||1.93||23.1|
|2005-2010||1 472 000||448 000||1 024 000||17.2||5.2||12.0||1.89||20.4|
|1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births|
|Average population (x 1000)||Live births||Deaths||Natural change||Crude birth rate (per 1000)||Crude death rate (per 1000)||Natural change (per 1000)||Total fertility rate (children per woman)|
The Vietnamese government recognizes 54 ethnic groups, of which the Viet (Kinh) is the largest; according to official Vietnamese figures (1999 census), ethnic Vietnamese account for 86% of the nation's population. The ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).
The Khmer Krom are found in the delta of the Mekong River, in the south of Vietnam, where they form in many areas the majority of the rural population. They live in an area which was previously part of Cambodia and which Vietnam conquered in the 17th and 18th centuries. Official Vietnamese figures put the Khmer Krom at 1.3 million people. However, estimates vary from 1.1 to 7 million.
Vietnam's approximately 1 million ethnic Chinese, constitute one of Vietnam's largest minority groups. Long important in the Vietnamese economy, Vietnamese of Chinese ancestry have been active in rice trading, milling, real estate, and banking in the south and shopkeeping, stevedoring, and mining in the north. Restrictions on economic activity following reunification in 1975 and the subsequent but unrelated general deterioration in Vietnamese-Chinese relations sent chills through the Chinese-Vietnamese community.
The relation between China and Vietnam also declined in this period, with Vietnam siding with the Soviet Union against China in the Chinese-Soviet split. Tensions peaked when Vietnam invaded Cambodia, an ally of China, to depose Pol Pot, resulting in a Chinese invasion of Vietnam in 1979. In 1978-79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China. However in recent years the government has performed an about turn and is encouraging overseas Hoa to return and invest.
The central highland peoples commonly termed Degar or Montagnards (mountain people) comprise two main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo-Polynesian and Mon–Khmer. About 30 groups of various cultures and dialects are spread over the highland territory.
|census 19895||census 19996||census 20097|
Vietnamese is the official language of the country. It is a language pertaining to the Austroasiatic language family, a language family also including Khmer, Mon, etc. Vietnamese was spoken by 65.8 million people in Vietnam at the 1999 census. In the early 21st century, around another three million Vietnamese speakers are found outside of Vietnam. Thus Vietnamese is the most spoken language of the Austroasiatic family, being spoken by three times more people than the second most spoken language of the family, Khmer. Both languages, however, are extremely different: under the influence of Chinese, Vietnamese has become a tonal language, while Khmer has remained non-tonal. Vietnamese was heavily influenced by Chinese and a great part of the Vietnamese vocabulary is Chinese, while Khmer was heavily influenced by Sanskrit and Pali and a great part of its vocabulary is now made up of Indian words, so that both languages look very dissimilar on the surface. Since the early 20th century, the Vietnamese have used a Romanized script introduced by the French. (See Vietnamese language and Vietnamese alphabet).
According to some sources, the dominant religion in Vietnam is Buddhism which accounts for more than 85% of the population. The second largest religion is Christianity, which makes up 8% of the population:89101112
- Buddhism, 85%1314
- Christianity, 8%
- Cao Đài, 3%
- Other religions, 4%
In contradiction, some other sources such as the CIA World Factbook state that more than 80% of the people claim to be atheists. Buddhists and Christians account for more than two thirds of the remaining 20%. In this account, Vietnam is one of the most atheist countries in the world:15
- Atheism, 80.8%16
- Buddhism, 9.3%
- Christianity, 7.2%
- Roman Catholic, 6.7%
- Protestant, 0.5%
- Hòa Hảo, 1.5%
- Cao Đài, 1.1%
- And other religions
The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.
- at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
- under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
- 15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
- 65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
- total population: 0.98 male(s)/female
- total population: 71.33 years
- male: 68.52 years
- female: 74.33 years
- definition: age 15 and over can read and write
- total population: 94% (2004 consensus)
- male: 96.9%
- female: 91.9% (2012)
- CIA-The World Factbook-Vietnam, CIA. Retrieved 24 July 2012.
- Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision
- General Statistics Office of Vietnam: Population and employment
- Socio-economic situation in 2013
- United Nations 1993 Demographic Yearbook
- 1999 Population and Housing Census Vietnam
- 2009 Vietnam Population and Housing Census
- APEC - Vietnam
- Encyclopedia of the Nations - Vietnam
- Vietnam travel and holidays - Vietnam's religions
- Religion of the Vietnamese
- "Vietnam: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". U.S. Department of State: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2008-01-21.
- Embassy of Vietnam - Beliefs and religions
- CIA Factbook- Vietnam
- Vietnam - History & Background
- Religion Statistics > Religions (most recent) by country