Demographics of Vietnam

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Demographics of Vietnam1
Population 92,477,857 (July 2013 est.) (14th)
Growth rate 1.03% (2013 est.) (113th)
Birth rate 16.56 births/1000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate 5.94 deaths/1000 population (July 2013 est.)
Life expectancy 72.65 years (2013 est.)
 • male 70.2 years (2013 est.)
 • female 75.4 years (2013 est.)
Fertility rate 1.87 born/woman (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate 19.61 deaths/1000 live births
Age structure
0–14 years 24.6% (male 11,931,623/female 10,807,661) (2013 est.)
15–64 years 69.8% (male 31,301,879/female 31,419,306) (2011 est.)
65 and over 5.5% (male 1,921,652/female 3,092,589) (2011 est.)
Sex ratio
At birth 1.12 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.1 male(s)/female
15–64 years 1 male (s)/female
65 and over 0.62 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural) adjective: Vietnamese
Major ethnic Kinh (Viet) (85.7%)
Minor ethnic Tay (1.9%), Thai (1.8%), Muong (1.5%), Khmer (1.5%), Mong (1.2%), Nung (1.1%), others (5.3%)
Language
Official Vietnamese language
Spoken Vietnamese, English, French, and many minority and mountain area languages

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Vietnam, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Originating in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam, the Vietnamese people pushed southward over two millennium to occupy the entire eastern seacoast of the Indochinese Peninsula. Ethnic Vietnamese, or Viet (known officially as Kinh), live in the lowlands and speak the Vietnamese language. This group dominates much of the cultural and political landscape of Vietnam.

Population

UN estimates2

Total population (000's) Population aged 0–14 (%) Population aged 15–64 (%) Population aged 65+ (%)
1950 28 264 31.9 63.9 4.2
1955 31 329 35.6 60.1 4.3
1960 35 173 40.1 55.5 4.4
1965 39 885 44.1 51.3 4.6
1970 44 928 44.2 50.9 4.8
1975 49 896 42.9 52.3 4.8
1980 54 023 40.7 54.3 4.9
1985 60 307 39.4 55.7 4.9
1990 67 102 38.0 57.0 5.0
1995 74 008 36.5 58.4 5.1
2000 78 758 32.1 62.3 5.6
2005 83 161 27.3 66.8 5.9
2010 87 100 23.8 69.4 6.8

Vital statistics

UN estimates of births and deaths2

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 1 335 000 722 000 613 000 44.8 24.2 20.6 6.20 157.9
1955-1960 1 533 000 764 000 769 000 46.1 23.0 23.1 6.76 143.7
1960-1965 1 732 000 790 000 942 000 46.2 21.0 25.2 7.33 130.3
1965-1970 1 798 000 790 000 1 009 000 42.4 18.6 23.8 7.38 117.8
1970-1975 1 853 000 859 000 994 000 39.1 18.1 21.0 7.15 118.4
1975-1980 1 797 000 760 000 1 036 000 34.6 14.6 20.0 5.89 97.6
1980-1985 1 952 000 630 000 1 322 000 34.1 11.0 23.1 4.93 70.0
1985-1990 2 000 000 574 000 1 425 000 31.4 9.0 22.4 3.96 54.8
1990-1995 1 929 000 484 000 1 444 000 27.3 6.9 20.4 3.23 37.9
1995-2000 1 448 000 441 000 1 007 000 19.0 5.8 13.2 2.18 29.2
2000-2005 1 392 000 425 000 967 000 17.2 5.3 11.9 1.93 23.1
2005-2010 1 472 000 448 000 1 024 000 17.2 5.2 12.0 1.89 20.4
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births
Historical populations
Year Pop.   ±%  
1950 28,264,000 —    
1960 35,173,000 +24.4%
1970 44,928,000 +27.7%
1980 54,023,000 +20.2%
1990 67,102,000 +24.2%
2000 78,758,000 +17.4%
2010 87,100,000 +10.6%
Source:https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html

Birth, death and fertility rates

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate (children per woman)
2001 78.620,5 18.6 5.1 13.5 2.25
2002 79.537,7 19.0 5.8 13.2 2.28
2003 80.467,4 17.5 5.8 11.7 2.12
2004 81.436,4 19.2 5.4 13.8 2.23
2005 82.392,1 18.6 5.3 13.3 2.11
2006 83.311,2 17.4 5.3 12.1 2.09
2007 84.218,5 16.9 5.3 11.6 2.07
2008 85.118,7 16.7 5.3 11.4 2.08
2009 86.025,0 17.6 6.8 10.8 2.03
2010 86.932,5 17.1 6.8 10.3 2.00
2011 87.840,0 16.6 6.9 9.7 1.99
2012 88.772,9 16.9 7.0 9.9 2.05
2013 89.708,9 17.1 7.0 10.1 2.10

Source: General Statistics Office of Vietnam.34

Ethnic groups

The Vietnamese government recognizes 54 ethnic groups, of which the Viet (Kinh) is the largest; according to official Vietnamese figures (1999 census), ethnic Vietnamese account for 86% of the nation's population. The ethnic Vietnamese inhabit a little less than half of Vietnam, while the ethnic minorities inhabit the majority of Vietnam's land (albeit the least fertile parts of the country).

The Khmer Krom are found in the delta of the Mekong River, in the south of Vietnam, where they form in many areas the majority of the rural population. They live in an area which was previously part of Cambodia and which Vietnam conquered in the 17th and 18th centuries. Official Vietnamese figures put the Khmer Krom at 1.3 million people. However, estimates vary from 1.1 to 7 million.

Vietnam's approximately 1 million ethnic Chinese, constitute one of Vietnam's largest minority groups. Long important in the Vietnamese economy, Vietnamese of Chinese ancestry have been active in rice trading, milling, real estate, and banking in the south and shopkeeping, stevedoring, and mining in the north. Restrictions on economic activity following reunification in 1975 and the subsequent but unrelated general deterioration in Vietnamese-Chinese relations sent chills through the Chinese-Vietnamese community.

The relation between China and Vietnam also declined in this period, with Vietnam siding with the Soviet Union against China in the Chinese-Soviet split. Tensions peaked when Vietnam invaded Cambodia, an ally of China, to depose Pol Pot, resulting in a Chinese invasion of Vietnam in 1979. In 1978-79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China. However in recent years the government has performed an about turn and is encouraging overseas Hoa to return and invest.

The central highland peoples commonly termed Degar or Montagnards (mountain people) comprise two main ethnolinguistic groups--Malayo-Polynesian and Mon–Khmer. About 30 groups of various cultures and dialects are spread over the highland territory.

Other minority groups include the Cham—remnants of the once-mighty Champa Kingdom, conquered by the Vietnamese in the 15th century, Hmong, and Tai ("Thái").

Population of Vietnam according to ethnic group 1989-2009
Ethnic
group
Language
family
census 19895 census 19996 census 20097
Number  % Number  % Number  %
Kinh Vietic 56,101,583 87.1 65,795,748 86.2 73,594,427 85.7
Tày Tai-Kadai 1,145,235 1.8 1,477,514 1.9 1,626,392 1.9
Thai Tai-Kadai 992,809 1.5 1,328,725 1.7 1,550,423 1.8
Mường Vietic 874,195 1.4 1,137,515 1.5 1,268,963 1.5
Khmer Mon-Khmer 872,382 1.4 1,055,174 1.4 1,260,640 1.5
Mong Hmong-Dao 787,604 1.0 1,068,189 1.2
Nùng Tai-Kadai 696,305 1.1 856,412 1.1 968,800 1.1
Hoa Chinese 961,702 1.5 862,371 1.1 823,071 1.0
Dao Hmong-Dao 620,538 0.81 751,067 0.87
Gia Rai Malayo-Polynesian 317,557 0.42 411,275 0.48
Ê Đê Malayo-Polynesian 270,348 0.35 331,194 0.39
Ba Na Mon-Khmer 174,456 0.23 227,716 0.27
Xơ Đăng Mon-Khmer 127,148 0.17 169,501 0.20
Sán Chay Tai-Kadai 147,315 0.19 169,410 0.20
Cờ Ho Mon-Khmer 128,723 0.17 166,112 0.19
Chăm Malayo-Polynesian 132,873 0.17 161,729 0.19
Sán Dìu Chinese 126,237 0.17 146,821 0.17
Ra Glai Malayo-Polynesian 96,931 0.13 122,245 0.14
M'Nông Mon-Khmer 92,451 0.12 102,741 0.12
Xtiêng Mon-Khmer 66,788 0.09 85,436 0.10
Bru-Vân Kiều Mon-Khmer 55,559 0.07 74,506 0.09
Thổ Vietic 68,394 0.09 74,458 0.09
Khơ Mú Mon-Khmer 56,542 0.07 72,929 0.08
Hrê Mon-Khmer 113,111 0.15 63,012 0.07
Cơ Tu Mon-Khmer 50,458 0.07 61,588 0.07
Giáy Tai-Kadai 49,098 0.06 58,617 0.07
Giẻ Triêng Mon-Khmer 30,243 0.04 50,962 0.06
Tà Ôi Mon-Khmer 34,960 0.05 43,886 0.05
Mạ Mon-Khmer 33,338 0.04 41,405 0.05
Co Mon-Khmer 27,766 0.04 33,817 0.04
Chơ Ro Mon-Khmer 22,567 0.03 26,855 0.03
Xinh Mun Mon-Khmer 18,018 0.02 23,278 0.03
Chu Ru Malayo-Polynesian 14,978 0.02 19,314 0.02
Lao Tai-Kadai 11,611 0.02 14,928 0.02
Kháng Mon-Khmer 10,272 0.01 13,840 0.02
La Chí Tai-Kadai 10,765 0.01 13,158 0.02
Hà Nhì Tibeto-Burman 17,535 0.02 10,923 0.01
La Hủ Tibeto-Burman 6,874 0.01 9,651 0.01
La Ha Tai-Kadai 5,686 0.01 8,177 0.01
Pà Thẻn Hmong-Dao 5,569 0.01 6,811 0.01
Chứt Vietic 3,829 0.01 6,022 0.01
Lự Tai-Kadai 4,964 0.01 5,601 0.01
Phù Lá Tibeto-Burman 9,046 0.01 5,535 0.01
Mảng Mon-Khmer 2,663 0.00 3,700 0.00
Cờ Lao Tai-Kadai 1,865 0.00 2,636 0.00
Bố Y Tai-Kadai 1,864 0.00 2,273 0.00
Lô Lô Tibeto-Burman 3,307 0.00 2,218 0.00
Cống Tibeto-Burman 1,676 0.00 2,029 0.00
Ngái Chinese 4,841 0.01 1,035 0.00
Si La Tibeto-Burman 840 0.00 709 0.00
Pu Péo Tai-Kadai 705 0.00 687 0.00
Rơ Măm Mon-Khmer 352 0.00 436 0.00
Brâu Mon-Khmer 313 0.00 397 0.00
Ơ Đu Mon-Khmer 301 0.00 376 0.00
Foreigners 39,532 0.05 2,134 0.00
Others 2,767,512 4.3 1,333 0.0 82,942 0.0
Total 64,411,713 76,323,173 85,846,997

Language

Vietnamese is the official language of the country. It is a language pertaining to the Austroasiatic language family, a language family also including Khmer, Mon, etc. Vietnamese was spoken by 65.8 million people in Vietnam at the 1999 census. In the early 21st century, around another three million Vietnamese speakers are found outside of Vietnam. Thus Vietnamese is the most spoken language of the Austroasiatic family, being spoken by three times more people than the second most spoken language of the family, Khmer. Both languages, however, are extremely different: under the influence of Chinese, Vietnamese has become a tonal language, while Khmer has remained non-tonal. Vietnamese was heavily influenced by Chinese and a great part of the Vietnamese vocabulary is Chinese, while Khmer was heavily influenced by Sanskrit and Pali and a great part of its vocabulary is now made up of Indian words, so that both languages look very dissimilar on the surface. Since the early 20th century, the Vietnamese have used a Romanized script introduced by the French. (See Vietnamese language and Vietnamese alphabet).

Religions

According to some sources, the dominant religion in Vietnam is Buddhism which accounts for more than 85% of the population. The second largest religion is Christianity, which makes up 8% of the population:89101112

In contradiction, some other sources such as the CIA World Factbook state that more than 80% of the people claim to be atheists. Buddhists and Christians account for more than two thirds of the remaining 20%. In this account, Vietnam is one of the most atheist countries in the world:15

  • Atheism, 80.8%16
  • Buddhism, 9.3%
  • Christianity, 7.2%
    • Roman Catholic, 6.7%
    • Protestant, 0.5%
  • Hòa Hảo, 1.5%
  • Cao Đài, 1.1%
  • And other religions

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.63 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female

(2008 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 71.33 years
male: 68.52 years
female: 74.33 years

(2008 est.)

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 94% (2004 consensus)
male: 96.9%
female: 91.9% (2012)

See also

Sources

References








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