Demography of the United Kingdom

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According to the 2011 census, the total population of the United Kingdom is around 63,182,000.1 It is the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and France) and the 22nd-largest in the world. Its overall population density is one of the highest in the world at 256 people per square kilometre, due to the particularly high population density in England. Almost one-third of the population lives in England's southeast which is predominantly urban and suburban, with about 8 million in the capital city of London, the population density of which is just over 5,200 per square kilometre.2

The United Kingdom's extremely high literacy rate (99% at age 15 and above)3 is attributable to universal public education introduced for the primary level in 1870 (Scotland 1872, free 18904) and secondary level in 1900. Parents are obliged to have their children educated from the ages of 5 to 16 (with legislation passed to raise this to 18), and can continue education free of charge in the form of A-Levels, vocational training or apprenticeship to age 18. About 40% of British students go on to post-secondary education (18+). The Church of England and the Church of Scotland function as the national churches in their respective countries, but all the major religions found in the world are represented in the United Kingdom.

The UK's population is predominantly White British. Being located close to continental Europe, the countries that formed the United Kingdom were subject to many invasions and migrations, especially from Scandinavia and the continent, including Roman occupation for several centuries. Historically, British people were thought to be descended mainly from the different ethnic stocks that settled there before the 11th century; pre-Celtic, Celtic, Anglo-Saxon, Viking and Norman. However, the geneticist Stephen Oppenheimer carried out an extensive research of the British Isles, finding that the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon influx had little effect, with the majority of British ethnicity tracing back from an ancient Palaeolithic Iberian migration, now represented by the Basques so that 75% of the modern British population could (in theory) trace their ancestry back 15,000 years.56 Although Celtic languages are partially spoken in Scotland, Cornwall, and Northern Ireland, the predominant language overall is English. In North and West Wales, Welsh is widely spoken as a first language, but much less so in the South East of the country where English is the predominant language.

History

Three sets of demographic statistics are useful to governments and others concerned with their nations’ political and economic stability. The first is an enumeration of the number of inhabitants distinguished by age, sex, and occupation. The second involves a continuous record of population trends from the registration of births, marriages, and burials. The third is documentation of the extent of internal and external migration.relevant?

England and Wales

Before 1801, England had none of these except for the civil registration of births, marriages, and burials briefly attempted under the Commonwealth (1653–1660) and an even more short-lived initiative of the same kind in 1694 in connection with the attempt to raise a tax on the occasion of every birth, marriage, and death—paupers excepted. At that time, the chief source of information on the demography was provided by parish registration of baptisms, marriages, and burials that had occurred in the parish churches, supplemented by information on mortality in the Bills of Mortality that were published for certain large towns and by inferences drawn from various counts of taxpayers.

The articlewhich? focuses on the reliability of the parochial registration system and the way in which it was exploited by the state as measured against the state’s objectives for establishing it in 1538. These objectives were rarely achieved. By the end of the 18th century, the parish registers were falling short of providing a national system of registration. Neither had the registers at any time provided the requisite detail to allow the verification of age, lineal descent, or right of inheritance. They had not been used as a way of raising revenue except briefly between 1694 and 1705. Moreover, the Anglican Church was extremely lax about the enforcement of its own regulations regarding the appropriate time for registering baptisms, burials, and marriages.

The ability of the registration system to fulfil these original objectives can be measured in terms of the breadth of its coverage and the quality of the information provided. Each category can be further subdivided. For example, the breadth of coverage can be defined to include the speed with which parishes throughout the country commenced the registration of baptisms, marriages, and burials; the percentage of the population whose vital events went unrecorded even in the parishes that established registers; and the success of the incumbents and churchwardens in preserving the registers completed by their predecessors.

The quality of the recording can be assessed based on the amount of information offered about individuals mentioned in the registers, the extent to which that information was provided in a standard form across the country, and the clarity of the presentation (whether separate registers for baptisms, marriages, and burials were maintained). The accuracy of the work undertaken by the parochial clergy as unpaid servants of the state in providing Rickman with the totals of baptisms, marriages, and burials can also be assessed. Each of these aspects will now be considered in turn before an assessment of the overall effectiveness of the registration system is attempted.

Cromwell’s brief instructions establishing the registration system did not specify what sort of register book was to be provided. Not unnaturally, most parishes chose to use paper rather than the dearer, but more durable, parchment. In 1597, the Convocation of the clergy, bishops, and archbishop of the province of Canterbury found it necessary to order parchment copies of all entries from old paper registers, instructions that were soon reissued in 1603.

The first census held throughout the UK was organised in 1801. England and Wales started the civil registration of births, marriages, and deaths in 1837. The first attempt by the state to compile statistics on migration was included in the census of 1841.

United Kingdom

During the Industrial Revolution, the life expectancy of children increased dramatically. The proportion of the children born in London who died before the age of five decreased from 74.5 per thousand in 1730–1749 to 31.8 per thousand in 1810–1829.7 According to Robert Hughes in The Fatal Shore, the population of England and Wales, which had remained steady at 6 million from 1700 to 1740, rose dramatically after 1740.

The first Census in 1801 revealed that the population of Great Britain was 10.5 million.89 In 1800 the population of Ireland was between 4.5 and 5.5 million.1011

The 1841 UK Census counted the population of England and Wales to be 15.9 million.12 Ireland's population was 8.2 million in 1841.13 The population of Scotland was 2.6 million.

The Great Irish Famine, which began in the 1840s, caused the deaths of one million Irish people, and caused over a million to emigrate.14 Mass emigration became entrenched as a result of the famine and the population continued to decline until the mid-20th century.

The population of England had almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901. Ireland’s population decreased rapidly, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901.15

Population

Map of population density in the UK as at the 2011 census.

The estimated population of the United Kingdom in the 2011 census was 63.182 million of whom 31.029m were men and 32.153m women.16

Based on the 2011 census the population of England was 53.012m (84% of the UK), Scotland was estimated at 5.295m (8.4%), Wales was 3.063m (4.8%) and Northern Ireland 1,811m (2.9%).

Part Population (2011) Percentage (2011)
England 53,012,456 83.9 83.9
 
Scotland 5,295,000 8.4 8.4
 
Wales 3,063,456 4.8 4.8
 
Northern Ireland 1,810,863 2.9 2.9
 
United Kingdom 63,182,000 100 100
 

More recent estimates for mid-2012 suggest that there are 53.5m in England, 5.3m in Scotland, 3.1m in Wales and 1.8m in Northern Ireland.17

There are 13 urban areas which exceed 500,000 inhabitants, these being centred on London, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds and Bradford, Southampton and Portsmouth, Sheffield, Liverpool, Leicester, Manchester, Belfast, Bristol, Newcastle upon Tyne and Nottingham.18

Age structure

The key features of the age distribution profile for the UK were summarised in December 2012 by the Office for National Statistics in terms of peaks and wide bands of the pyramid reflecting high numbers of births in previous years particularly for people aged 60–64 born following the Second World War and those aged 40–49, born during the 1960s baby boom. There is a smaller number of children aged five to nine years than ten years ago which is a consequence of low numbers of births at the beginning of the 21st century, and the broadening of the pyramid in the 0–4 years category is due to a higher numbers of births in recent years. At older ages, females outnumber males, reflecting the higher life expectancy of females. At younger ages there are more males than females, reflecting that there are slightly more boys than girls born each year.19

Age structure for each five year band

Ages attained
(years)
Population  % of total
0–4 3,914,000 6.2
5–9 3,517,000 5.6
10–14 3,670,000 5.8
15–19 3,997,000 6.3
20–24 4,297,000 6.8
25–29 4,307,000 6.8
30–34 4,126,000 6.5
35–39 4,194,000 6.6
40–44 4,626,000 7.3
45–49 4,643,000 7.3
50–54 4,095,000 6.5
55–59 3,614,000 5.7
60–64 3,807,000 6.0
65–69 3,017,000 4.8
70–74 2,463,000 3.9
75–79 2,006,000 3.2
80–84 1,496,000 2.4
85–89 918,000 1.5
90+ 476,000 0.8
Source: 2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, local authorities in the United Kingdom, Accessed 23 December 2012

Age structure for men and women in 2011

Age group Population  %
Male
(million)
Female
(million)
Total
(million)
0–14 5.681 5.419 11.100 17.6
15–64 20.751 20.953 41.704 66.0
65+ 4.597 5.781 10.378 16.4
All ages 31.029 32.153 63.182 100
Source: Table 1 2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries, Accessed 20 December 2012

Population forecast

The UK Office of National Statistics forecasted in 2011 that by 2035, the UK's population is expected to increase to just over 73 million people. This is an average annual growth rate of 0.6% per annum. In 2010 the average (median) population age was 39.9 projected to increase to age 42.2 by 2035. The population growth between 2011 and 2020 of the constituent countries of the UK vary. For England it is 8%, Northern Ireland 6%, and Scotland and Wales 5%.20

Population projections 2015 - 203520

Year Total
Population
(millions)
Population
(millions)
Age 0-16
Percentage
Aged 0–16
Population
(millions)
Aged 75+
Percentage
Aged 75+
2015 64.8 11.6 17.9 5.4 8.3
2020 67.2 12.2 18.2 6.1 9.0
2025 69.4 13.2 18.5 7.3 10.5
2030 71.4 13.0 17.6 8.1 11.3
2035 73.2 12.1 16.5 8.9 12.2

UK Population change over time

Population levels at census dates

United Kingdom Population
at start of period
Annual annual change Annual annual births Annual annual deaths Annual annual natural change Annual annual net migration
and other changeswhich?
1901 – 1911 38,237,000 385,000 1,091,000 624,000 467,000 -82,000
1911 – 1921 42,082,000 195,000 975,000 689,000 286,000 -92,000
1921 – 1931 44,027,000 201,000 824,000 555,000 268,000 -67,000
1931 – 1951 46,038,000 213,000 793,000 603,000 190,000  22,000
1951 – 1961 50,225,000 258,000 839,000 593,000 246,000  12,000
1961 – 1971 52,807,000 312,000 962,000 638,000 324,000 -12,000
1971 – 1981 55,928,000 42,000 736,000 666,000 69,000 -27,000
1981 – 1991 56,357,000 108,000 757,000 655,000 103,000   5,000
1991 – 2001 57,439,000 161,000 731,000 631,000 100,000  61,000
2001 – 2008 59,113,000 324,000 722,000 588,000 134,000 191,000

21

Vital statistics 1960 - 2012

Average population (in thousands) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1960 52,164 918,286 604,592 313,694 17.5 11.5 6.0 2.71
1961 52,589 944,365 635,507 308,858 17.9 12.0 5.9 2.80
1962 53,049 975,635 632,951 342,684 18.3 11.9 6.4 2.88
1963 53,458 990,160 654,300 335,860 18.5 12.2 6.3 2.91
1964 53,807 1,014,672 610,508 404,164 18.8 11.3 7.5 2.95
1965 54,170 992,275 627,567 369,708 18.3 11.5 6.8 2.86
1966 54,496 979,587 644,193 335,394 17.9 11.8 6.1 2.77
1967 54,800 961,700 620,385 341,315 17.5 11.3 6.2 2.68
1968 55,086 947,231 652,135 295,099 17.2 11.8 5.4 2.61
1969 55,337 920,258 661,509 258,749 16.6 11.9 4.7 2.50
1970 55,546 903,907 652,817 251,090 16.2 11.7 4.5 2.43
1971 55,780 901,650 644,042 257,608 16.1 11.5 4.6 2.41
1972 56,012 833,993 679,211 154,782 14.9 12.1 2.8 2.20
1973 56,159 779,545 664,722 114,823 13.9 11.8 2.1 2.04
1974 56,229 737,138 666,393 70,745 13.1 11.9 1.2 1.92
1975 56,230 697,518 661,803 35,715 12.4 11.8 0.6 1.81
1976 56,220 675,526 680,096 -4,570 12.0 12.3 -0.3 1.74
1977 56,203 657,038 656,042 996 11.7 11.7 0.0 1.68
1978 56,183 686,952 668,747 18,205 12.2 11.9 0.3 1.75
1979 56,209 734,572 672,641 61,931 13.1 12.0 1.1 1.86
1980 56,284 753,708 659,862 93,846 13.4 11.7 1.7 1.89
1981 56,343 730,836 658,524 72,312 13.0 11.7 1.3 1.82
1982 56,324 719,155 662,801 56,354 12.8 11.8 1.0 1.78
1983 56,301 721,467 659,101 62,366 12.8 11.7 1.1 1.77
1984 56,362 729,617 644,918 84,699 12.9 11.4 1.5 1.76
1985 56,481 750,728 670,656 80,072 13.2 11.8 1.4 1.79
1986 56,618 754,982 660,465 94,517 13.3 11.6 1.7 1.78
1987 56,743 775,617 644,342 131,275 13.6 11.3 2.3 1.81
1988 56,860 787,556 649,185 138,371 13.8 11.4 2.4 1.82
1989 56,996 777,825 657,733 119,552 13.6 11.5 2.1 1.79
1990 57,156 798,612 641,799 156,813 13.9 11.2 2.7 1.83
1991 57,338 792,506 646,181 146,325 13.7 11.3 2.5 1.82
1992 57,511 780,799 634,288 146,561 13.5 11.0 2.6 1.79
1993 57,649 761,526 657,852 103,674 13.1 11.4 1.8 1.76
1994 57,788 750,480 627,637 122,843 12.9 10.9 2.2 1.74
1995 57,943 731,882 645,493 86,389 12.5 11.1 1.5 1.71
1996 58,094 733,163 636,024 97,139 12.6 10.9 1.7 1.73
1997 58,239 726,622 629,746 96,876 12.5 10.8 1.7 1.73
1998 58,394 716,889 629,172 87,717 12.3 10.8 1.8 1.71
1999 58,579 699,979 632,062 67,917 11.9 10.8 1.1 1.68
2000 58,785 679,029 608,366 70,663 11.5 10.3 1.2 1.64
2001 58,999 669,123 602,268 66,855 11.3 10.2 1.1 1.63
2002 59,217 668,777 606,214 62,563 11.3 10.2 1.5 1.64
2003 59,437 695,549 611,185 84,364 11.7 10.3 1.4 1.71
2004 59,699 715,996 583,082 132,914 12.0 9.8 2.3 1.77
2005 60,059 722,549 582,964 139,585 12.0 9.7 2.3 1.78
2006 60,409 748,563 572,224 176,339 12.4 9.5 3.0 1.82
2007 60,781 772,245 574,687 197,558 12.7 9.5 3.3 1.87
2008 61,191 794,383 579,697 214,686 12.9 9.5 3.5 1.96
2009 61,595 790,204 559,617 230,587 12.8 9.1 3.7 1.90
2010 62,027 807,271 561,666 245,605 13.0 9.0 4.0 1.93
2011 63,285 807,776 552,232 255,544 12.8 8.7 4.1 1.91
2012 63,705 812,970 569,024 243,946 12.8 8.9 3.9 1.92

Current vital statistics

Source:22

  • Live births from January to March 2012 = Increase 201,200
  • Live births from January to March 2013 = Decrease 190,600
  • Total deaths from January to March 2012 = negative increase 153,800
  • Total deaths from January to March 2013 = negative increase 160,900

Social issues

Fertility

In 2008 the UK's total fertility rate (TFR) was 1.96 children per woman,23 below the replacement rate, which in the UK is 2.075.24 In 2001, the TFR was at a record low of 1.63, but it has increased each year since. The TFR was considerably higher during the 1960s 'baby boom', peaking at 2.95 children per woman in 1964.25

In 2010, England and Wales TFR rose to 2.00.26 TFR in England in 2009 was 1.96.27 In Scotland however TFR is lower: in 2009 it was 1.77.27 Northern Ireland had the highest TFR in 2009, at 2.04; in Wales TFR was 1.93.27

The TFR for British residents also varies by country of birth. In England and Wales in 1996, people born in the UK had a TFR of 1.67, India 2.21 and Pakistan and Bangladesh 4.90, for example.28

Statistics for 2011 live births in England and Wales:29

  • total fertility rate was 1.98
  • 47.2% of children were born to un-married women
  • average (mean) age of mother at birth was 29.7 years
  • 25.5% of children were born to mothers born outside the UK

Other statistics:

  • 64.4% of children born in England and Wales in 2005 were recorded as White British.30
  • in Scotland, in 2007, 78.4% of live births were to mothers born in Scotland, 9.2% to mothers born in England, 1.6% in Poland, 1.1% in Pakistan, 0.9% Northern Ireland, 0.7% Germany, 0.6% India, 0.5% Ireland, and 6.9% other countries31
  • in 2009, in England and Wales, 25% of births were to women under 25, while 20% of births were to women 35 and over32
  • 52% of babies born in 2012 in Northern Ireland were to mothers aged 30 or over33
  • 6% of babies born in Scotland in 2010 were to mothers under 20; 18% to mothers 20-24; 27% to mothers 25-29; 28% to mothers 30-34; 16% to mothers 35-39; 4% to mothers 40 and over34
  • 51.3% of babies born in Scotland in 2012 were born to unmarried mothers 35
  • in England and Wales, in 2009, of the women born in 1964: 20% did not have any children; 12% had 1 child; 38% had 2 children; 19% had 3 children; 10% had 4+ children36

LGBT

A British journal published in 2004 estimated that approximately 5% of the British population is gay.37 A government figure estimated in 2005 that there are 3.6 million gay people in Britain comprising 6 percent of the population.38

The Gender Identity Research and Education Society (GIRES) estimated in 2009 that "56,000 might potentially be transsexual people".39 They note that it's very difficult to make a reliable estimate. This would be 0.09% of the population at the time.

The UK Census of 201140 gives the following figures

• 1.1 per cent of the surveyed UK population, approximately 545,000 adults, identified themselves as Gay or Lesbian,

• 0.4 per cent of the surveyed UK population, approximately 220,000 adults, identified themselves as Bisexual,

• 0.3 per cent identified themselves as ‘Other’,

• 3.6 per cent of adults stated ‘Don’t know’ or refused to answer the question,

• 0.6 per cent of respondents provided ‘No response’ to the question.

• 2.7 per cent of 16 to 24 year olds in the UK identified themselves as Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual compared with 0.4 per cent of 65 year olds and over.

Ethnicity

United Kingdom

Map showing the percentage of the population who are not white according to the 2011 census.
Estimated foreign-born population by country of birth, April 2007 – March 2008.
Estimated foreign-nationals population by country of nationality, April 2007 – March 2008.

2011 census estimate for the main ethnic group categories

Ethnic group 2011
population
2011
%
White 55,010,359 87.1
White: Irish Traveller 63,193 0.1
Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,451,862

2.3

Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1,173,892

1.9

Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 451,529

0.7

Asian or Asian British: Chinese 433,150

0.7

Asian or Asian British: Asian Other 861,815

1.4

Asian or Asian British: Total 4,373,339

7.0

Black or Black British 1,904,684

3.0

British Mixed 1,250,229

2.0

Other: Total 580,374

0.9

Total 63,182,178

100

Note:
Due to question and response category differences in the country specific ethnic group question asked in the 2011 Censuses of the UK, some responses are not directly comparable, so a high level classification which is common to all census analyses was used by the ONS to standardize the composite data for the United Kingdom.

Sources: 2011 Census Ethnic Group, local authorities in the United Kingdom41

England and Wales

Ethnic group 2011 population 2011%
White: British 45,682,100 81.46
White: Irish and Irish Traveller 574,200 1
White: Other White 1,932,600 3.45
White: Total 48,188,900 85.93
Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,412,958 2.52
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 1,124,511 2
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 447,201 0.8
Asian or Asian British: Chinese 393,141 0.7
Asian or Asian British: Other Asian 835,720 1.49
Asian or Asian British: Total 4,213,531 7.51
Black or Black British: Caribbean 594,835 1.06
Black or Black British: African 989,628 1.76
Black or Black British: Other Black 280,437 0.5
Black or Black British: Total 1,864,900 3.33
Mixed: White-Caribbean 426,715 0.76
Mixed: White-African 165,974 0.3
Mixed: White-Asian 341,727 0.61
Mixed: Other Mixed 298,984 0.53
Mixed: Total 1,233,400 2.2
British Arab 230,600 0.41
Other Ethnic Group: Total 336,096 0.6
Total 56,076,000 100

Sources: Ethnic breakdown 2009 (2011 Census), Accessed 29 December 2013
How has ethnic diversity grown 1991-2001-2011?, Accessed 29 December 2013

Religion

This chart shows the proportion of UK citizens responses with regards to their religion at the 2011 census.
Percentage of respondents in the 2011 census in the UK who said they were Christian.

The traditional religion in the United Kingdom is Christianity. In England the established church is the Church of England (Anglican). In Scotland, the Church of Scotland (a Presbyterian Church) is regarded as the 'national church' but there is not an established church.

In Wales there is no established church, with the Church in Wales having been disestablished in 1920. Likewise, in Ireland the Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1871. In Northern Ireland and similarly in parts of Scotland, there is a sectarian divide between Roman Catholic and Protestant communities.

The table below shows the most recent census data (2011) regarding religion:42

Religion Number  %
Christian 33,243,175 59.28%
No religion 14,097,229 25.14%
Muslim 2,706,066 4.83%
Hindu 816,633 1.46%
Sikh 423,158 0.75%
Jewish 263,346 0.47%
Buddhist 247,743 0.44%
Other religion 240,530 0.43%
Not stated 4,038,032 7.2%
Total religious 38,181,181 68.09%

These figures represent a decrease of 12% in the number of people identifying themselves as Christian in the 10 year period from 2001 to 2011, and an increase of 10% in the number of people stating that they have no religion.43

In the 2001 Census, rather than select one of the specified religions offered on the Census form, many people chose to write in their own religion. Some of these religions were reassigned to one of the main religions offered, predominantly within the Christian group. In England and Wales, 151,000 people belonged to religious groups which did not fall into any of the main religions. The largest of these were Spiritualists (32,000) and Pagans (31,000), followed by Jain (15,000), Wicca (7,000), Rastafarian (5,000), Bahà'ì (5,000) and Zoroastrian (4,000).

Although the Census 2001 also recorded 390,000 Jedi Knights, making Jedi the fourth-largest "religion" in the UK, this does not confer them any official recognition. In fact, all returns with "Jedi Knight" were classified as "No religion", along with Atheist, Agnostic, Heathen and those who ticked "Other" but did not write in any religion.

An Office for National Statistics survey of 450,000 Britons in 2010 found that 71% are Christian, 4% are Muslim and 21% have no religious affiliation.44

Languages

The United Kingdom's de facto official language is English which is spoken as a first language by 95% of the population. Six regional languages; Scots, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Irish and Scottish Gaelic are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Abilities in these languages (other than Cornish) for those aged three and above were recorded in the UK census 2011 as follows.454647

Ability Wales Scotland Northern Ireland
Welsh Scottish Gaelic Scots Irish Ulster-Scots
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Understands but does not speak, read or write 157,792 5.15% 23,357 0.46% 267,412 5.22% 70,501 4.06% 92,040 5.30%
Speaks, reads and writes 430,717 14.06% 32,191 0.63% 1,225,622 23.95% 71,996 4.15% 17,228 0.99%
Speaks but does not read or write 80,429 2.63% 18,966 0.37% 179,295 3.50% 24,677 1.42% 10,265 0.59%
Speaks and reads but does not write 45,524 1.49% 6,218 0.12% 132,709 2.59% 7,414 0.43% 7,801 0.45%
Reads but does not speak or write 44,327 1.45% 4,646 0.09% 107,025 2.09% 5,659 0.33% 11,911 0.69%
Other combination of skills 40,692 1.33% 1,678 0.03% 17,381 0.34% 4,651 0.27% 959 0.06%
No skills 2,263,975 73.90% 5,031,167 98.30% 3,188,779 62.30% 1,550,813 89.35% 1,595,507 91.92%
Total 3,063,456 100.00% 5,118,223 100.00% 5,118,223 100.00% 1,735,711 100.00% 1,735,711 100.00%
Can speak 562,016 18.35% 57,602 1.13% 1,541,693 30.12% 104,943 6.05% 35,404 2.04%
Has some ability 799,481 26.10% 87,056 1.70% 1,929,444 37.70% 184,898 10.65% 140,204 8.08%

Cornish is spoken by around 2,500 people.

The Polish minority in the United Kingdom estimated over 600,000 people speak mostly Polish at home, Poles are mainly Polish-born immigrants to the UK, although many are those who settled in Britain after the second world war and their descendants. The French language is spoken in the Channel Islands.citation needed British Sign Language is also common.

National Identity

Respondents to the 2011 UK census gave their national identities as follows.484950

National Identity United Kingdom Country
England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland
English only 51.41% 60.38% 2.28% 11.22% 0.60%
Scottish only 5.93% 0.79% 62.43% 0.50% 0.37%
Welsh only 3.26% 0.55% 0.15% 57.51% 0.06%
Northern Irish only 0.81% 0.21% 0.33% 0.14% 20.94%
British only 18.77% 19.19% 8.37% 16.95% 39.89%
English and British only 7.82% 9.09% 1.26% 1.54% 0.27%
Scottish and British only 1.67% 0.15% 18.29% 0.07% 0.09%
Welsh and British only 0.44% 0.11% 0.06% 7.11% 0.02%
Northern Irish and British only 0.22% 0.03% 0.15% 0.02% 6.17%
Other combination of UK identities only (excludes Irish) 0.45% 0.37% 1.01% 1.10% 0.13%
Other identity and at least one UK identity 0.97% 0.90% 1.25% 0.43% 3.05%
Irish only 1.31% 0.64% 0.41% 0.32% 25.26%
Other 6.94% 7.59% 4.01% 3.10% 3.12%
Total 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00% 100.00%

Education

University Place, University of Manchester

Each country of the United Kingdom has a separate education system, with power over education matters in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland being devolved.

The Secretary of State for Education and the Secretary of State for Innovation, Universities and Skills are responsible to the UK Parliament for education in England, though the day to day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of Local Education Authorities. Universal state education in England and Wales was introduced for primary level in 1870 and secondary level in 1900.51 Education is mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, only a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Despite a fall in actual numbers, the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%.52

Just over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools.53 State schools which are allowed to select pupils according to intelligence and academic ability can achieve comparable results to the most selective private schools: out of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 two were state-run grammar schools. England has 4 Universities ranked amongst the top 10 in the 2011 THES - QS World University Rankings.54

In Scotland, the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning is responsible to the Scottish Parliament for education, with day to day administration and funding of state schools being the responsibility of Local Authorities. Scotland first legislated for universal provision of education in 1696. The proportion of children in Scotland attending private schools is just over 4% though it has been rising slowly in recent years.55 Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay neither tuition fees nor graduate endowment charges as the fees were abolished in 2001 and the graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.56

The National Assembly for Wales has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of students in Wales are educated either wholly or largely through the medium of Welsh and lessons in the language are compulsory for all until the age of 16. There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh Medium schools as part of the policy of having a fully bi-lingual Wales.

The Northern Ireland Assembly is responsible for education in Northern Ireland though responsibility at a local level is administered by 5 Education and Library Boards covering different geographical areas.

The UK has some of the top universities in the world with Cambridge, Oxford, London and Edinburgh ranked amongst the top 20 in the 2011 THES - QS World University Rankings.54

See also

References

  1. ^ "2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom". Office for National Statistics. 27 March 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  2. ^ "Table 2 2011 Census: Usual resident population and population density, local authorities in the United Kingdom 17 December 2012". Ons.gov.uk. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-23. 
  3. ^ UK Literacy Rate 2003 [CIA] World Book, Retrieved 17 June 2013
  4. ^ Education (Scotland) Act 1872
  5. ^ Review of "The Tribes of Britain" James Owen, National Geographic 19 July 2005.
  6. ^ Stephen Oppenheimer, Myths of British ancestry, Prospect, October 2006. Retrieved 21 September 2006.
  7. ^ Mabel C. Buer, Health, Wealth and Population in the Early Days of the Industrial Revolution, London: George Routledge & Sons, 1926, page 30 ISBN 0-415-38218-1
  8. ^ The UK population: past, present and future, statistics.gov.uk
  9. ^ A portrait of Britain in 2031, The Independent, 24 October 2007
  10. ^ Statistics | Counting the Emigrants, Public Record Office of Northern Ireland
  11. ^ History and Lessons of Potato Late Blight, University of California
  12. ^ 1841: A window on Victorian Britain, The Independent
  13. ^ Irish-Catholic Immigration, The Library of Congress
  14. ^ Mintz, Steven. "The Irish Potato Famine". Digitalhistory.uh.edu. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  15. ^ "Ireland – Population Summary". Homepage.tinet.ie. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  16. ^ Table 1 2011 Census: Usual resident population by five-year age group and sex, United Kingdom and constituent countries, Accessed 20 December 2012
  17. ^ http://www.agediscrimination.info/statistics/Pages/CurrentUKpopulation.aspx
  18. ^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
  19. ^ 2011 Census: Population Estimates for the United Kingdom, 27 March 2011, Accessed 21 December 2012
  20. ^ a b National Population Projections, 2010-Based Statistical Bulletin published 26 October 2011, Accessed 11 July 2013
  21. ^ National Statistics Onlinedead link
  22. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/vital-statistics--population-and-health-reference-tables/autumn-2013-update/index.html
  23. ^ Population Trends, Office for National Statistics
  24. ^ [1]dead link
  25. ^ "Fertility: UK fertility highest since 1980". Office for National Statistics. 22 August 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
  26. ^ [2]dead link
  27. ^ a b c [3]dead link
  28. ^ Charles F. Westoff and Tomas Frejka, Fertility and religiousness among European Muslims, 21 February 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
  29. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_270569.pdf
  30. ^ Moser, Kath; Stanfield, Kristina M. and Leon, David A. (2008). "Birthweight and gestational age by ethnic group, England and Wales 2005: Introducing new data on births". Health Statistics Quarterly 39 (39): 22–31. PMID 18810886. 
  31. ^ "Scotland's Population 2007: The Registrar General's Annual Review of Demographic Trends: 153rd Edition". Gro-scotland.gov.uk. Retrieved 2012-07-26. 
  32. ^ [4]dead link
  33. ^ http://www.nisra.gov.uk/archive/demography/publications/births_deaths/births_2012.pdf
  34. ^ "2010 Annual review". General Register Office for Scotland. Retrieved 2012-07-31. 
  35. ^ http://www.gro-scotland.gov.uk/files2/stats/births-marriages-deaths-quarterly/ve-2012-q4-tableq1.pdf
  36. ^ [5]dead link
  37. ^ Full text -The British Journal of Psychiatry - Rcpsych.org retrieved 6 January 2013
  38. ^ 3.6m people in Britain are gay - official retrieved 6 January 2013
  39. ^ Gender variance in the UK: prevalence, incidence, growth and geographic distribution (June 2009) page 13, retrieved 12 May 2013
  40. ^ http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171778_280451.pdf
  41. ^ 2011 Census: KS201UK Ethnic group, local authorities in the United Kingdom ONS, Retrieved 21 October 2013
  42. ^ 2011 census data
  43. ^ What does the Census tell us about religion in 2011? - Office for National Statistics
  44. ^ Travis, Alan (23 September 2010). "1.5% of Britons say they are gay or bisexual, ONS survey finds". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  45. ^ https://www.nomisweb.co.uk/census/2011/qs207wa
  46. ^ http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/ods-web/standard-outputs.html
  47. ^ http://www.ninis2.nisra.gov.uk/public/Theme.aspx?themeNumber=136&themeName=Census%202011
  48. ^ 2011 Census, England and Wales: National identity (detailed), local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 2 April 2014
  49. ^ 2011 Census, Scotland: National identity (detailed), Accessed 2 April 2014
  50. ^ 2011 Census, Northern Ireland: National Identity - Full Detail, Accessed 2 April 2014
  51. ^ "United Kingdom". Humana. Retrieved 2006-05-18. 
  52. ^ Private school pupil numbers in decline guardian.co.uk 9 November 2007
  53. ^ More state pupils in universities BBC News, 19 July 2007
  54. ^ a b "QS World University Rankings - 2011". Top Universities. 19 December 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-16. 
  55. ^ in private school intake BBC News 17 April 2007
  56. ^ MSPs vote to scrap endowment fee BBC News, 28 February 2008

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