||This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2011)|
Rigveda manuscript in Devanagari (early 19th century)
|Languages||Several Indian languages and Nepali Languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Pahari (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Nepali, Bhili, Konkani, Bhojpuri, Magahi, Kurukh, Nepal Bhasa, and Sindhi. Sometimes used to write or transliterate Sherpa, Kashmiri and Punjabi. Formerly used to write Gujarati.|
|Time period||c. 1200–present|
Canadian Aboriginal syllabics1
|ISO 15924||Deva, 315|
|Unicode range||U+0900–U+097F Devanagari,
U+A8E0–U+A8FF Devanagari Extended,
U+1CD0–U+1CFF Vedic Extensions
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols.|
|The Brahmic script and its descendants|
Devanagari (//; Hindustani: [d̪eːʋˈnaːɡri]; देवनागरी devanāgarī — a compound of "deva" देव and "nāgarī" नागरी), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी, the name of its parent writing system), is an abugida alphabet of India and Nepal. It is written from left to right, does not have distinct letter cases, and is recognisable (along with most other North Indic scripts, with few exceptions like Gujarati and Oriya) by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. Since the 19th century, it has been the most commonly used script for Sanskrit. Devanagari is used to write Standard Hindi, Marathi, Nepali along with Bodo, Bhojpuri, Gujari, Pahari, (Garhwali and Kumaoni), Konkani, Magahi, Maithili, Marwari, Bhili, Newar, Santhali, Tharu, and sometimes Sindhi, Dogri, Sherpa, Kashmiri and Punjabi. It was formerly used to write Gujarati. Because it is the standardised script for the Hindi language, Devanagari is one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world.
Devanagari is part of the Brahmic family of scripts of India, Nepal, Tibet, and South-East Asia.2 It is a descendant of the Gupta script, along with Siddham and Sharada.2 Eastern variants of Gupta called nāgarī are first attested from the 8th century CE; from c. 1200 CE these gradually replaced Siddham, which survived as a vehicle for Tantric Buddhism in East Asia, and Sharada, which remained in parallel use in Kashmir. An early version of Devanagari is visible in the Kutila inscription of Bareilly dated to Vikram Samvat 1049 (i.e. 992 CE), which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word.3
Sanskrit nāgarī is the feminine of nāgara "relating or belonging to a town or city". It is feminine from its original phrasing with lipi ("script") as nāgarī lipi "script relating to a city", that is, probably from its having originated in some city. 4
The use of the name devanāgarī is relatively recent, and the older term nāgarī is still common.2 The rapid spread of the term devanāgarī may be related to the almost exclusive use of this script to publish sacred Sanskrit texts.2 This has led to such a close connection between Devanagari and Sanskrit that Devanagari is now widely thought to be the Sanskrit script; however, before the colonial period there was no standard script for Sanskrit, which was written in whatever script was familiar to the local populace.
As a Brahmic abugida, the fundamental principle of Devanagari is that each letter represents a consonant, which carries an inherent schwa vowel. This is usually written in Latin as a, though it is represented as [ə] in the International Phonetic Alphabet.5 The letter क is read ka, the two letters कन are kana, the three कनय are kanaya, etc. Other vowels, or the absence of vowels, require modification of these consonants or their own letters:
- A final consonant is marked with the diacritic ्, called the virāma in Sanskrit, halant in Hindi, and occasionally a "killer stroke" in English. This cancels the inherent vowel, so that from क्नय knaya is derived क्नय् knay. The halant is often used for consonant clusters when typesetting conjunct ligatures is not feasible.
- Consonant clusters are written with ligatures (saṃyuktākṣara "conjuncts"). For example, the three consonants क्, न्, and य्, (k , n, y), when written consecutively without virāma form कनय, as shown above. Alternatively, they may be joined as clusters to form क्नय knaya, कन्य kanya, or क्न्य knya. This system was originally created for use with the Middle Indic languages, which have a very limited number of clusters (the only clusters allowed are geminate consonants and clusters involving homorganic nasal stops). When applied to Sanskrit, however, it added a great deal of complexity to the script, due to the large variety of clusters in this language (up to five consonants, e.g. rtsny). Much of this complexity is required at least on occasion in the modern Indo-Aryan languages, due to the large number of clusters allowed and especially due to borrowings from Sanskrit.
- Vowels other than the inherent a are written with diacritics (termed matras). For example, using क ka, the following forms can be derived: के ke, कु ku, की kī, का kā, etc.
- For vowels as an independent syllable (in writing, unattached to a consonant), either at the beginning of a word or (in Hindi) after another vowel, there are full-letter forms. For example, while the vowel ū is written with the diacritic ू in कू kū, it has its own letter ऊ in ऊक ūka and (in Hindi but not Sanskrit) कऊ kaū.
Such a letter or ligature, with its diacritics, is called an akṣara "syllable". For example, कनय kanaya is written with what are counted as three akshara, whereas क्न्य knya and कु ku are each written with one.
The letter order of Devanagari, like nearly all Brahmic scripts, is based on phonetic principles that consider both the manner and place of articulation of the consonants and vowels they represent. This arrangement is usually referred to as the varṇamālā "garland of letters".7 The format of Devanagari for Sanskrit serves as the prototype for its application, with minor variations or additions, to other languages.8
The vowels and their arrangement are:9
|Independent form||Romanised||As diacritic with प||Independent form||Romanised||As diacritic with प|
- Arranged with the vowels are two consonantal diacritics, the final nasal anusvāra ं ṃ and the final fricative visarga ः ḥ (called अं aṃ and अः aḥ).10 notes of the anusvāra in Sanskrit that "there is some controversy as to whether it represents a homorganic nasal stop [...], a nasalised vowel, a nasalised semivowel, or all these according to context". The visarga represents post-vocalic voiceless glottal fricative [h], in Sanskrit an allophone of s, or less commonly r, usually in word-final position. Some traditions of recitation append an echo of the vowel after the breath:11 इः [ihi]. Masica (1991:146) considers the visarga along with letters ङ ṅa and ञ ña for the "largely predictable" velar and palatal nasals to be examples of "phonetic overkill in the system".
- Another diacritic is the candrabindu/anunāsika ँ.12 describes it as a "more emphatic form" of the anusvāra, "sometimes [...] used to mark a true [vowel] nasalization". In a New Indo-Aryan language such as Hindi the distinction is formal: the candrabindu indicates vowel nasalisation13 while the anusvār indicates a homorganic nasal preceding another consonant:14 e.g. हँसी [ɦə̃si] "laughter", गंगा [ɡəŋɡɑ] "the Ganges". When an akshara has a vowel diacritic above the top line, that leaves no room for the candra ("moon") stroke candrabindu, which is dispensed with in favour of the lone dot:15 हूँ [ɦũ] "am", but हैं [ɦɛ̃] "are". Some writers and typesetters dispense with the "moon" stroke altogether, using only the dot in all situations.16
- The avagraha ऽ (usually transliterated with an apostrophe) is a Sanskrit punctuation mark for the elision of a vowel in sandhi: एकोऽयम् ekoyam (< ekas + ayam) "this one". An original long vowel lost to coalescence is sometimes marked with a double avagraha: सदाऽऽत्मा sadātmā (< sadā + ātmā) "always, the self".17 In Hindi,18 states that its "main function is to show that a vowel is sustained in a cry or a shout": आईऽऽऽ! āīīī!. In Madhyadeshi Languages like Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Maithili, etc. which have "quite a number of verbal forms [that] end in that inherent vowel",19 the avagraha is used to mark the non-elision of word-final inherent a, which otherwise is a modern orthographic convention: बइठऽ baiṭha "sit" versus *बइठ baiṭh
- The syllabic consonants ṝ, ḷ, and ḹ are specific to Sanskrit and not included in the varṇamālā of other languages. The sound represented by ṛ has also been lost in the modern languages, and its pronunciation now ranges from [ɾɪ] (Hindi) to [ɾu] (Marathi).
- ḹ is not an actual phoneme of Sanskrit, but rather a graphic convention included among the vowels in order to maintain the symmetry of short–long pairs of letters.8
- There are non-regular formations of रु ru and रू rū.
The table below shows the consonant letters (incombination with inherent vowel a) and their arrangement. To the right of the Devanagari letter it shows the scientific transcription (IAST), the phonetic value (IPA) and the corresponding Urdu letter.20
س، ص، ث
- Rounding this out where applicable is ळ ḷa /ɭ/, which represented the intervocalic lateral flapcitation needed allophone of the voiced retroflex stop in Vedic Sanskrit, which is a phoneme in languages such as Marathi, Konkani, and Rajasthani.
- Beyond the Sanskritic set, new shapes have rarely been formulated. Masica (1991:146) offers the following, "In any case, according to some, all possible sounds had already been described and provided for in this system, as Sanskrit was the original and perfect language. Hence it was difficult to provide for or even to conceive other sounds, unknown to the phoneticians of Sanskrit". Where foreign borrowings and internal developments did inevitably accrue and arise in New Indo-Aryan languages, they have been ignored in writing, or dealt through means such as diacritics and ligatures (ignored in recitation).
- The most prolific diacritic has been the subscript dot (nuqtā) ़. Hindi uses it for the Persian, Arabic and/or English sounds क़ qa /q/, ख़ ḫa /x/, ग़ ġa /ɣ/, ज़ za /z/, झ़ zha /ʒ/, and फ़ fa /f/, and for the allophonic developments ड़ ṛa /ɽ/ and ढ़ ṛha /ɽʱ/. (Although ऴ ḷha /ɭʱ/ could also exist but there is no use of it in Hindi.)
- Sindhi's implosives are accommodated with underlining ॒ : ॻ [ɠə], ॼ [ʄə], ॾ [ɗə], ॿ [ɓə].
- Aspirated sonorants may be represented as conjuncts/ligatures with ह ha: म्ह mha, न्ह nha, ण्ह ṇha, व्ह vha, ल्ह lha, ळ्ह ḷha, र्ह rha.
- Masica (1991:147) notes Marwari as using a special symbol for ḍa [ɗə] (while ड = ऊ [ɽə]).
- When writing Urdu, अ with vowel marking is used for the Perso-Arabic consonant ع ayin, which is silent in Urdu.21
Although the Devanagari script is used as a standard to write modern Hindi, the schwa ('ə') implicit in each consonant of the script is "obligatorily deleted" at the end of words and in certain other contexts, unlike in Sanskrit.22 This phenomenon has been termed the "schwa syncope rule" or the "schwa deletion rule" of Hindi.2223 One formalisation of this rule has been summarised as ə -> ø | VC_CV. In other words, when a schwa-succeeded consonant is followed by a vowel-succeeded consonant, the schwa inherent in the first consonant is deleted.2324 However, this formalisation is inexact and incomplete (it sometimes deletes a schwa when it should not and, at other times, it fails to delete it when it should) and can cause errors. Schwa deletion is computationally important because it is essential to building text-to-speech software for Hindi.2425
As a result of schwa syncope, the Hindi pronunciation of many words differs from that expected from a literal Sanskrit-style rendering of Devanagari. For instance, राम is Rām (not Rāma), रचना is Rachnā (not Rachanā), वेद is Véd (not Véda) and नमकीन is Namkeen (not Namakeen).2425 The name of the script itself is pronounced devnāgrī (not devanāgarī).26
Correct schwa deletion is also critical because, in some cases, the same Devanagari letter sequence is pronounced two different ways in Hindi depending on context, and failure to delete the appropriate schwas can change the sense of the word.27 For instance, the letter sequence 'रक' is pronounced differently in हरकत (har.kat, meaning movement or activity) and सरकना (sarak.na, meaning to slide). Similarly, the sequence धड़कने in दिल धड़कने लगा (the heart started beating) and in दिल की धड़कनें (beats of the heart) is identical prior to the nasalisation in the second usage. Yet, it is pronounced dhadak.ne in the first and dhad.kane in the second.27 While native speakers correctly pronounce the sequences differently in different contexts, non-native speakers and voice-synthesis software can make them "sound very unnatural", making it "extremely difficult for the listener" to grasp the intended meaning.27
[v] (the voiced labiodental fricative) and [w] (the voiced labio-velar approximant) are both allophones of the single letter 'व' in Hindi Devanagari. More specifically, they are conditional allophones, i.e. rules apply on whether 'व' is pronounced as [v] or [w] depending on context. Native Hindi speakers pronounce 'व' as [v] in vrat ('व्रत', fast) and [w] in pakwan ('पकवान', food dish), perceiving them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophone distinctions they are systematically making.28 However, this specific allophony can become obvious when speakers switch languages. Non-native speakers of Hindi might pronounce 'व' in 'व्रत' as [w], i.e. as wrat instead of the more correct vrat. This results in a minor intelligibility problem because wrat can easily be confused for aurat,citation needed which means woman, instead of the intended fast (abstaining from food), in Hindi.28
- You will be able to see the ligatures only if your system has a Unicode font installed that includes the required ligature glyphs (such as one of the TDIL30 fonts, see "external links" below).
As mentioned, successive consonants lacking a vowel in between them may physically join together as a conjunct or ligature. The government of these clusters ranges from widely to narrowly applicable rules, with special exceptions within. While standardised for the most part, there are certain variations in clustering, of which the Unicode used on this page is just one scheme. The following are a number of rules:
- 24 out of the 36 consonants contain a vertical right stroke (ख, घ, ण etc.). As first or middle fragments/members of a cluster, they lose that stroke. e.g. त + व = त्व, ण + ढ = ण्ढ, स + थ = स्थ. In Unicode, these consonants without their vertical stems are called half forms.31 श ś(a) appears as a different, simple ribbon-shaped fragment preceding व va, न na, च ca, ल la, and र ra, causing these second members to be shifted down and reduced in size. Thus श्व śva, श्न śna, श्च śca श्ल śla, and श्र śra.
- र r(a) as a first member takes the form of a curved upward dash above the final character or its ā-diacritic. e.g. र्व rva, र्वा rvā, र्स्प rspa, र्स्पा rspā. As a final member with ट ठ ड ढ ङ छ it is two lines below the character, pointed downwards and apart. Thus ट्र ठ्र ड्र ढ्र ङ्र छ्र. Elsewhere as a final member it is a diagonal stroke extending leftwards and down. e.g. क्र ग्र भ्र. त ta is shifted up to make त्र tra.
- As first members, remaining characters lacking vertical strokes such as द d(a) and ह h(a) may have their second member, reduced in size and lacking its horizontal stroke, placed underneath. क k(a), छ ch(a), and फ ph(a) shorten their right hooks and join them directly to the following member.
- The conjuncts for kṣ and jñ are not clearly derived from the letters making up their components. The conjunct for kṣ is क्ष (क् + ष)and for jñ it is ज्ञ (ज् + ञ). In addition, the conjunct for dya, द्य, is not clearly derived either from द and य.
The table below shows all the 1296 viable symbols for the biconsonantal clusters formed by collating the 36 fundamental symbols of Sanskrit as listed in Masica (1991:161–162). Scroll your cursor over the conjuncts to reveal their romanizations (in ISO 1591932) and IPA transcriptions.
The pitch accent of Vedic Sanskrit is written with various symbols depending on shakha. In the Rigveda, anudātta is written with a bar below the line (॒), svarita with a stroke above the line (॑) while udātta is unmarked.
|This section requires expansion. (October 2008)|
The end of a sentence or half-verse may be marked with a dot known as a pūrṇa virām or a vertical line danda: ।. The end of a full verse may be marked with two vertical lines: ॥. A comma, or alpa virām, is used to denote a natural pause in speech. Nowadays though, with expansion of English speakers in India, the full stop is also sometimes used.
The following letter variants are also in use, particularly in older texts.33
|Standard form||Variant form|
There are several methods of transliteration from Devanagari to the Roman script, a process known in the Indian subcontinent as Romanisation.34 The Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanisation in India" and the one officially adopted by the Government of India.353637 However, there are other transliteration options. The following are some alternative transliteration methods for Devanagari:
A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard of 2001. It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic graphemes to the Latin script. See also: Transliteration of Indic scripts: how to use ISO 15919.38 The Devanagari-specific portion is nearly identical to the academic standard for Sanskrit, IAST.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is the academic standard for the romanisation of Sanskrit. IAST is the de facto standard used in printed publications, like books and magazines, and with the wider availability of Unicode fonts, it is also increasingly used for electronic texts. It is based on a standard established by the Congress of Orientalists at Athens in 1912.
The National Library at Kolkata romanisation, intended for the romanisation of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST.
Compared to IAST, Harvard-Kyoto looks much simpler. It does not contain all the diacritic marks that IAST contains. This makes typing in Harvard-Kyoto much easier than IAST. Harvard-Kyoto uses capital letters that can be difficult to read in the middle of words.
ITRANS is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into ASCII that is widely used on Usenet. It is an extension of the Harvard-Kyoto scheme. In ITRANS, the word devanāgarī is written "devanaagarii" or "devanAgarI". ITRANS is associated with an application of the same name that enables typesetting in Indic scripts. The user inputs in Roman letters and the ITRANS pre-processor displays the Roman letters into Devanagari (or other Indic languages). The latest version of ITRANS is version 5.30 released in July, 2001.
ALA-LC39 romanisation is a transliteration scheme approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, and widely used in North American libraries. Transliteration tables are based on languages, so there is a table for Hindi,40 one for Sanskrit and Prakrit,41 etc.
It has been designed for representing not only Devanagari but also various other Indic scripts as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used for transliteration of the Indic scripts.
ISCII has largely been superseded by Unicode, which has, however, attempted to preserve the ISCII layout for its Indic language blocks.
The Unicode Standard defines three blocks for Devanagari : Devanagari (U+0900–U+097F), Devanagari Extended (U+1CD0–U+1CFF), and Vedic Extensions (U+A8E0–U+A8FF). Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
InScript is the standard keyboard layout for Devanagari. It is inbuilt in all modern major operating systems. Microsoft Windows supports the InScript layout (using the Mangal font), which can be used to input unicode Devanagari characters. InScript is also available in some touchscreen mobile phones.
A Devanagari INSCRIPT bilingual keyboard.
This layout was used on manual typewriters when computers were not available or were uncommon. For backward compatibility some typing tools like Indic IME still provide this layout.
- Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging—Macintosh
- Pango—open source (GNOME)
- WorldScript—Macintosh, replaced by the Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging, mentioned above
- Prakhar Devanagari Font Parivartak (ASCII/ISCII TO UNICODE CONVERTER)  — Windows
- UniDev (UNICODE TO ASCII/ISCII CONVERTER)  —Windows
- Andrew Dalby (2004:139) Dictionary of Languages
- Steven Roger Fischer (2004), A history of writing, Reaktion Books, ISBN 978-1-86189-167-9, "... an early branch of this, as of the fourth century CE, was the Gupta script, Brahmi's first main daughter ... the Gupta alphabet became the ancestor of most Indic scripts (usually through later Devanagari) ... Nagari, of India's north-west, first appeared around 633 CE ... in the eleventh century, Nagari had become Devanagari, or 'heavenly Nagari', since it was now the main vehicle, out of several, for Sanskrit literature ..."
- Isaac Taylor (2003), History of the Alphabet: Aryan Alphabets, Part 2, Kessinger Publishing, ISBN 978-0-7661-5847-4, "... In the Kutila this develops into a short horizontal bar, which, in the Devanagari, becomes a continuous horizontal line ... three cardinal inscriptions of this epoch, namely, the Kutila or Bareli inscription of 992, the Chalukya or Kistna inscription of 945, and a Kawi inscription of 919 ... the Kutila inscription is of great importance in Indian epigraphy, not only from its precise date, but from its offering a definite early form of the standard Indian alphabet, the Devanagari ..."
- Monier Williams Online Dictionary
- Salomon (2003:70)
- "Archives.conlang.info". Archives.conlang.info. 2004-12-07. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- Salomon (2003:71)
- Salomon (2003:75)
- Wikner (1996:13, 14)
- Masica (1991:146)
- Wikner (1996:6)
- Salomon (2003:76–77)
- Snell (2000:44–45)
- Snell (2000:64)
- Snell (2000:45)
- Snell (2000:46)
- Salomon (2003:77)
- Snell (2000:77)
- Verma (2003:501)
- Wikner (1996:73)
- Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in devanagari"
- Larry M. Hyman, Victoria Fromkin, Charles N. Li (1988 (Volume 1988, Part 2)), Language, speech, and mind, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-415-00311-3, "... The implicit /a/ is not read when the symbol appears in word-final position or in certain other contexts where it is obligatorily deleted via the so-called schwa-deletion rule which plays a crucial role in Hindi word phonology ..."
- Tej K. Bhatia (1987), A history of the Hindi grammatical tradition: Hindi-Hindustani grammar, grammarians, history and problems, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-07924-6, "... Hindi literature fails as a reliable indicator of the actual pronunciation because it is written in the Devanagari script ... the schwa syncope rule which operates in Hindi ..."
- Monojit Choudhury, Anupam Basu and Sudeshna Sarkar (July 2004), "A Diachronic Approach for Schwa Deletion in Indo Aryan Languages", Proceedings of the Workshop of the ACL Special Interest Group on Computational Phonology (SIGPHON) (Association for Computations Linguistics), "... schwa deletion is an important issue for grapheme-to-phoneme conversion of IAL, which in turn is required for a good Text-to-Speech synthesiser ..."
- Naim R. Tyson, Ila Nagar (2009 (12:15–25)), "Prosodic rules for schwa-deletion in Hindi text-to-speech synthesis", International Journal of Speech Technology, "... Without the appropriate deletion of schwas, any speech output would sound unnatural. Since the orthographical representation of Devanagari gives little indication of deletion sites, modern TTS systems for Hindi implemented schwa deletion rules based on the segmental context where schwa appears ..."
- Nazir Ali Jairazbhoy, The rāgs of North Indian music: their structure and evolution, Popular Prakashan, 1995, ISBN 978-81-7154-395-3, "... The Devnagri (Devanagari) script is syllabic and all consonants carry the inherent vowel a unless otherwise indicated. The principal difference between modern Hindi and the classical Sanskrit forms is the omission in Hindi ..."
- Monojit Choudhury and Anupam Basu (July 2004), "A Rule Based Schwa Deletion Algorithm for Hindi", Proceedings of the International Conference On Knowledge-Based Computer Systems, "... Without any schwa deletion, not only the two words will sound very unnatural, but it will also be extremely difficult for the listener to distinguish between the two, the only difference being nasalisation of the e at the end of the former. However, a native speaker would pronounce the former as dha.D-kan-eM and the later as dha.Dak-ne, which are clearly distinguishable ..."
- Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks, Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, "... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when /व/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ..."
- "TDIL.mit.gov.in". TDIL.mit.gov.in. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "TDIL.mit.gov.in". TDIL.mit.gov.in. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "The Unicode Standard, chapter 9, South Asian Scripts I". The Unicode Standard, v. 6.0. Unicode, Inc. Retrieved Feb. 12, 2012.
- The romanization shown is identical to IAST, except that ळ (which is not used in Sanskrit) has the ISO romanization ḷ, which in IAST is the dental vowel l.
- (Bahri 2004, p. (xiii))
- Daya Nand Sharma, Transliteration into Roman and Devanagari of the languages of the Indian group, Survey of India, 1972, "... With the passage of time there has emerged a practically uniform system of transliteration of Devanagari and allied alphabets. Nevertheless, no single system of Romanisation has yet developed ..."
- United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Technical reference manual for the standardisation of geographical names, United Nations Publications, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5, "... ISO 15919 ... There is no evidence of the use of the system either in India or in international cartographic products ... The Hunterian system is the actually used national system of romanisation in India ..."
- United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Far East, Volume 2, United Nations, 1955, "... In India the Hunterian system is used, whereby every sound in the local language is uniformly represented by a certain letter in the Roman alphabet ..."
- National Library (India), Indian scientific & technical publications, exhibition 1960: a bibliography, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, Government of India, 1960, "... The Hunterian system of transliteration, which has international acceptance, has been used ..."
- "Homepage.ntlword.com". Homepage.ntlworld.com. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "LOC.gov". LOC.gov. Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "0001.eps" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- "LOC.gov" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-06-13.
- Masica, Colin (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
- Snell, Rupert (2000), Teach Yourself Beginner's Hindi Script, Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 978-0-07-141984-0.
- Salomon, Richard (2003), "Writing Systems of the Indo-Aryan Languages", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 67–103, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
- Verma, Sheela (2003), "Magahi", in Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh, The Indo-Aryan Languages, Routledge, pp. 498–514, ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
- Wikner, Charles (1996), A Practical Sanskrit Introductory.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Devanagari|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Devanagari stroke order|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Devanagari pronunciation|
-  Gandhi's ideas for common Devanagari script for all Indian languages
- Omniglot.com—Devanagari alphabet, including classical/northern variant forms of अ (a) and related letters, झ (jh), ण (ṇ)
- AncientScripts.com—Devanagari Intro
- Hindi/Devanagari Script Tutor
- IS13194:1991 standard for "ISCII"
- Unicode Chart for Devanagari
- Omkarananda-ashram.org, Itranslator Free program to convert Itrans to Devanagari. Uses 16-bit Unicode-compatible fonts. Works only on Windows 2000 / XP / Server 2003.
- DMJoshi.org, To write Devanagari or Gujarati Script Devised by Dayashankar Joshi
- Merosoft.webs.com, Nepali Font Converter/Deconverter 0.3—Java Based Nepali Font Converter/Deconveter. Supports Preeti, Kantipur & Jaga—FontConverter 0.3 is the software based on java language and is used to convert non-Unicode to Unicode. This software is basically focused on Devanagari non-Unicode fonts (only for Nepali language). It works well on Preeti, Kantipur and Jaga HImali.
- Bhashaindia.com—Indic script IMEs (keyboard layouts) and other Indic-language software by Microsoft Windows.
- Devendraparakh.port5.com, HindiWriter—The Phonetic Hindi Writer with AutoWord lookup and Spellcheck for MS Word and OpenOffice.org for Windows.
- Baraha.com—Devanagari Input using English Keyboard
- Lipikaar.com—The indic script typing tool with support for Devanagari through a Windows desktop executable or Firefox Extension.
- Devawriter— comprehensive Devanagari input for Windows and Macintosh.
- instruction on how to install Nepali Devanagari Instructions on installing "Traditional" and "Romanised" Nepali
- Unicode Compliant Open Type Fontsdead link including ligature glyphs (TDIL Data Centre)
- Unicode Devanagari font gallery
- Download Free Marathi Fonts
- Nepali Devanagaridead link fonts free download
- A compilation of Tools and Techniques for Hindi Computing
- Technical information for Hindi Users srijangatha.com Hindi Portal
- Resources for typing in the Nepali language in Devanagari
- Unicode support for Web browsers
- Creating and Viewing Documents in Devanagari
- Microsoft BhashaIndia—Indic language-computing resources
- Online tool for English (roman script) to Hindi (Devanagari script) transliteration by CDAC Mumbai
- Online tools for typing in Unicode Devanagari for the Nepali language
- Romanised Nepali Unicode Keyboard developed by OOPSLite Technologies
- IndiX, Indian language support for Linux, a site by the Indian National Centre for Software Technology
- Devanagari Tools: Wiki Sandbox, Devanagari Mail, Yahoo/Google Search, & Devanagari Transliteration
- Online Latin to Devanagari transliteration tool
- Devawriter & Devawriter Pro digitisation tools.
- TVS Devanagari Hindi keyboard with details of keyboard layout, installation instructions for Windows/Linux, shops and online purchase
- Intex Technologies Swadeshi bilingual Hindi keyboard, keyboard layout is Hindi Typewriter