Some intergovernmental organizations, such as the European Union, and some international non-state organizations, such as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, may also retain diplomatic services in other jurisdictions. For non-state organizations, however, the reciprocation of diplomatic recognition by other jurisdictions is difficult, as diplomacy tends to establish the concept of recognition upon an assumed sovereignty over geographical territory; the SMOM, in this case, receives diplomats at its headquarters in Rome, as all permanent missions to the SMOM are jointly accredited as permanent missions to the Holy See. In relation, many more non-state international organizations, such as the IFRC/ICRC, maintain permanent non-voting observer status to intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, appointing individual representatives to the observer office.
Kopp, Harry W.; Charles A. Gillespie (2008). Career Diplomacy: Life and Work in the U.S. Foreign Service. Washington: Georgetown University Press. p. 266. ISBN978-1-58901-219-6.Cite uses deprecated parameters (help)
Rana K.,(2004) "The 21st Century Ambassador: Plenipotentiary to Chief Executive" ISBN 99909-55-18-2
Rana K.,(2002) "Bilateral Diplomacy", DiploProjects, Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, Malta ISBN 99909-55-16-6