Periodization of the Indus Valley Civilization

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Bronze Age
Neolithic

Near East (c. 3300–1200 BC)

Caucasus, Anatolia, Aegean, Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Elam, Sistan
Bronze Age collapse

South Asia (c. 3000–1200 BC)

Ochre Coloured Pottery
Cemetery H

Europe (c. 2300–600 BC)

Catacomb culture, Srubna culture, Beaker culture, Unetice culture, Tumulus culture, Urnfield culture, Hallstatt culture, Apennine culture
Atlantic Bronze Age, Bronze Age Britain, Nordic Bronze Age

China (c. 2000–700 BC)

Erlitou, Erligang

arsenical bronze
writing, literature
sword, chariot

Iron age

The Indus Valley Tradition is a term used to refer to the cultures of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra rivers, stretching from the Neolithic Mehrgarh period down to the Iron Age or Indo-Gangetic Tradition.

The Indus Valley Tradition is divided into four eras, and each era can be divided into various phases. A phase is an archaeological unit possessing traits sufficiently characteristic to distinguish it from all other units similarly conceived.1 Each phase can be subdivided into interaction systems.

Date range (BCE) Phase Era
7000-5500 Mehrgarh I (aceramic Neolithic) Early Food Producing Era
5500-3300 Mehrgarh II-VI (ceramic Neolithic) Regionalisation Era
5500-2600
3300-2600 Early Harappan
3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase)
2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII)
2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Indus Valley Civilization) Integration Era
2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)
2450-2200 Harappan 3B
2200-1900 Harappan 3C
1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H); Ochre Coloured Pottery Localisation Era
1900-1700 Harappan 4
1700-1300 Harappan 5
1300-300 Painted Gray Ware, Northern Black Polished Ware (Iron Age) Indo-Gangetic Tradition

Early Food Producing Era

The Early Food Producing Era corresponds to ca. 7000-5500 BCE. It is also called the Neolithic period. The economy of this era was based on food production, and agriculture developed in the Indus Valley. Mehrgarh Period I belongs to this era.

Regionalization Era

The Regionalization Era corresponds to 5500-2600 BCE. The Early Harappan phase belongs to this Era. This era was very productive in arts, and new crafts were invented. The Regionalization Era includes the Balakot, Amri, Hakra and Kot Diji Phases.

1A/B Ravi aspect of the Hakra Phase ca. 3300-2800 BCE
2 Early Harappan/Kot Diji Phase ca. 2800-2600 BCE

Integration Era

The Integration Era refers to the period of the "Indus Valley Civilization". It is a period of integration of various smaller cultures.

3A Harappan Phase ca. 2600-2450 BCE
3B Harappan Phase ca. 2450-2200 BCE
3C Harappan Phase ca. 2200-1900 BCE

Localization Era

The Localization Era (1900-1300 BCE) is the fourth and final period of the Indus Valley Tradition. It refers to the fragmentation of the culture of the Integration Era.

The Localization Era comprises several phases (Shaffer 1992):

  • Punjab Phase (Cemetery H, Late Harappan). The Punjab Phase includes the Cemetery H and other cultures. Punjab Phase sites are found in Harappa and in other places.
  • Jhukar Phase (Jhukar and Pirak) The Jhukar Phase refers to Mohenjo-daro and sites in Sindh.
  • Rangpur Phase (Late Harappan and Lustrous Red Ware). Rangpur Phase sites are in Kachchh, Saurashtra and mainland Gujarat.

The Pirak Phase is a phase of the Localization Era of both the Indus Valley Tradition and the Baluchistan Tradition.

4 Harappan/Late Harappan Transitional ca. 1900-1700 BCE
5 Late Harappan Phase (Cemetery H) ca. 1700-1300 BCE

Other Periodizations

S. P. Gupta periodized the Harappan Civilization in a chronological framework that spans the dates from 4000 BCE to 1400 BCE, taking into account new discoveries:2

Formative Phase e.g., Mehrgarh-IV-V ca. 4000-3500 BCE
Early Phase e.g., Kalibangan-I ca. 3500 - 2800 BCE
Period of Transition e.g., Dholavira-III ca. 2800 - 2600 BCE
Mature Phase e.g., Harappa-III, Kalibangan-II ca. 2600 - 1900 BCE
Late Phase e.g., Cemetery H, Jhukar ca. 1900 - 1500 BCE
Final Phase e.g., Dholavira ca. 1500 - 1400 BCE

Another older nomenclature classifies the Indus Valley Civilization into Early, Mature and Late Harappan. According to Erdosy, the Indus Valley Tradition nomenclature "is much more informative than the traditional Early/Mature/Late Harappan classification which should now be discarded." 3

See also

References

  1. ^ Willey and Phillips 1958, Method and Theory in American Archaeology
  2. ^ S.P. Gupta. The dawn of civilization, in G.C. Pande (ed.)(History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, ed., D.P. Chattophadhyaya, vol I Part 1) (New Delhi:Centre for Studies in Civilizations, 1999)
  3. ^ Erdosy, George (editor) The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia, 1995, p. 4

Further reading

  • S.P. Gupta. The dawn of civilization, in G.C. Pande (ed.)(History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization, ed., D.P. Chattophadhyaya, vol I Part 1) (New Delhi:Centre for Studies in Civilizations, 1999)
  • Kenoyer, J.M. 1998 Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press and American Institute of Pakistan Studies, Karachi.
  • Kenoyer, J. M. 1991a The Indus Valley Tradition of Pakistan and Western India. In Journal of World Prehistory 5(4): 331-385.
  • Kenoyer, J. M. 1995a Interaction Systems, Specialized Crafts and Culture Change: The Indus Valley Tradition and the Indo-Gangetic Tradition in South Asia. In The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, edited by G. Erdosy, pp. 213-257. Berlin, W. DeGruyter.
  • Shaffer, J. G. 1992 The Indus Valley, Baluchistan and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology (3rd Edition), edited by R. Ehrich, pp. 441-464. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.







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