Easter egg (media)
An Easter egg is an intentional inside joke, hidden message, or feature in a work such as a computer program, movie, book, or crossword. According to game designer Warren Robinett, the term was coined at Atari by personnel who were alerted to the presence of a secret message which had been hidden by Robinett in his already widely distributed game, Adventure.12 The name has been said to evoke the idea of a traditional Easter egg hunt.3
This practice is similar in some respects to hidden signature motifs such as Diego Rivera's including himself in his murals, Alfred Hitchcock's legendary cameo appearances, Fritz's appearances in the works of Chris van Allsburg, and various "Hidden Mickeys" that can be found throughout the various Disney Parks.
Atari's Adventure, released in 1979, contained the first video game "Easter egg" to be discovered by its players, being the name of the game's programmer, Warren Robinett. In 2004 an earlier Easter egg was found in Video Whizball, a 1978 game for the Fairchild Channel F system, displaying programmer Bradley Reid-Selth's surname.3
In computer software, Easter eggs are secret responses that occur in response to an undocumented set of commands. The results can vary from a simple printed message or image, to a page of programmer credits or a small videogame hidden inside an otherwise serious piece of software. Videogame cheat codes are a specific type of Easter egg, in which entering a secret command will unlock special powers or new levels for the player.34
In the TOPS-10 operating system (for the DEC PDP-10 computer), the
make command was used to invoke the TECO editor to create a file; if given the file name argument
love, so that the command was
make love, it would pause and respond
not war? before creating the file.5 This same behavior occurred on the RSTS/E operating system, where TECO would provide this response.citation needed Other Unix operating systems would respond to "
why" with "
why not" (a reference to The Prisoner in Berkeley Unix 1977).citation needed
Many personal computers have much more elaborate eggs hidden in ROM, including lists of the developers' names, political exhortations, snatches of music, and (in one case) images of the entire development team. Easter eggs in the 1997 version of Microsoft Office include a hidden flight simulator in Microsoft Excel and a pinball game in Microsoft Word.67
An Easter egg is found on all Microsoft Windows operating systems before XP. In the 3D Text screen saver, entering the text "volcano" will display the names of all the volcanoes in the United States. Microsoft removed this Easter egg in XP but added others.10
In the Pinball game in Microsoft Windows, typing in "hidden test" (with the space) and pressing Enter will allow the user to drag the pinball around with the mouse.11
Some computer and video game secret levels are triggered by an Easter egg. In 1993's acclaimed LucasArts video game Day of the Tentacle, the original game Maniac Mansion from 1987 can be played in its full version by using a home computer in one character's room.413
For a time, Google Maps contained several Easter eggs whereby a user asking for directions from Japan to China, from New York to Tokyo, or from Taiwan to China would be directed to either jetski, kayak, or swim across the Pacific Ocean.14 Asking Google Maps for walking directions from the Shire to Mordor produces "One does not simply walk into Mordor", a warning that replicates a line from The Lord of the Rings.15 Google search responds to "Do A Barrel Roll" in the search box by tilting the page 360°, as if a pilot were maneuvering an aircraft.1617 This is a reference to the popular video game series Star Fox, where the phrase became famous.18 In December 2011, Google also introduced an Easter egg that was triggered by typing "let it snow" into the search box, which caused snow to fall and the screen to frost over.16
While computer-related Easter eggs are often found in software, occasionally they exist in hardware or firmware of certain devices. On some home computers, the BIOS ROM contains Easter eggs. Notable examples include several early Apple Macintosh models which had pictures of the development team in the ROM (accessible by pressing the programmer's switch and jumping to a specific memory address, or other equally obscure means), and some errant 1993 AMI BIOS that on November 13, 1993, proceeded to play "Happy Birthday" via the PC speaker over and over again instead of booting.19 Similarly, the Radio Shack Color Computer 3's ROM contained code which would display the likenesses of three Microware developers on a ^ Ctrl+⎇ Alt+Reset keypress sequence—a hard reset which would discard any information currently in the dynamic memory.20 Several oscilloscopes have contained Easter eggs. One example is the HP 54600B, known to have a Tetris clone (and even to save high scores).21 Another is the Tektronix 1755A Vector and Waveform Monitor which displays swimming fish when Remote>Software version are selected on the CONFIG menu.22
The Commodore Amiga models 500, 600, and 1200 each featured Easter eggs, in the form of titles of songs by The B-52's as white printing on the motherboards. The 500 says "B52/Rock Lobster", the 600 says "June Bug", and the 1200 says "Channel Z".24 The Amiga OS software contains hidden messages as well.252627
Many integrated circuit (chip) designers have included hidden graphic elements termed chip art, including images, phrases, developer initials, logos, and so on. This artwork, like the rest of the chip, is reproduced in each copy by lithography and etching. These are visible only when the chip package is opened and examined under magnification, so they are, in a sense, more of an inside joke than most of the Easter eggs included in software.28 The 1984 CVAX microchip implementation of the MicroVAX CPU contained in its etchings the Russian phrase in the Cyrillic alphabet "VAX: When you care enough to steal the very best", placed there because, "knowing that some CVAX's would end up in the USSR, the team wanted the Russians to know that we were thinking of them".29
Easter eggs are also found on movie DVDs and Blu-Rays.303132 Klinger states that their presence is "another signifier of artistry in the world of DVD supplements."31 According to Berardinelli and Ebert, most DVDs do not contain them, and most examples are "inconsequential", but a very few, such as one found on the Memento DVD, are "worth the effort to seek out".32
The TV series Doctor Who has an episode using Easter Eggs as a major part of the plot; the episode in question even has an Easter Egg on the chapter selection for that episode on the disc release, showing the full in-episode Easter Egg.
Unlike DVDs and computer games, broadcast radio and television programmes contain no executable code. Easter eggs may still appear in the content itself, such as a hidden Mickey Mouse in a Disney film or a real telephone number instead of a 555 fictitious telephone number. One 2014 Super Bowl advertisement was leaked on-line in which a lady gives a man a real telephone number which the advertiser had hidden as an marketing ploy; the first caller to the number received a pair of tickets to the match.33
Security author Michel E. Kabay discussed security concerns in 2000: software quality assurance requires that all code be tested, but it is not known if Easter eggs are tested, since they are secret; therefore, a "logic bomb" could also bypass testing. Kabay asserts that this undermined the Trusted Computing Base, a paradigm of trustworthy hardware and software, in place since the 1980s, and is of concern wherever personal or confidential information is stored, which may then be vulnerable to damage or manipulation.34 Microsoft created some of the largest and most elaborate Easter eggs, such as those in Microsoft Office.35 In 2005, Larry Osterman of Microsoft acknowledged Microsoft Easter Eggs, and his involvement in development of one, but described them as "irresponsible", and wrote that the company's Operating System division "has a 'no Easter Eggs' policy" as part of its Trustworthy Computing initiative.36
Douglas W. Jones said in 2006, "some Easter eggs may be intentional tools used to detect illegal copying, others are clearly examples of unauthorized functionality that has slipped through the quality-control tests at the vendor". While hidden Easter eggs themselves are harmless, it may be possible for malware to be hidden in similar ways in voting machines or other computers.37
Netscape Navigator contributor Jamie Zawinski stated in an interview in 1998 that harmless easter eggs impose a negligible burden on shipped software, and serve an important purpose: helping productivity, by keeping programmers happy.3839
- Easter eggs in Microsoft products
- Hidden track
- Magic string
- The Book of Mozilla
- Undocumented feature
- Merrill, Arthur. "Warren Robinett Interview: A. Merrill's Talks to the Programmer of "Adventure" for the Atari 2600". Arthur's Hall of Viking Manliness. Archived from the original on November 22, 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2013.
- Robinett, Warren. "Adventure as a Video Game. Adventure for the Atari 2600" in Katie Salen a. Eric Zimmerman (eds.) The Game Design Reader. A Rules of the Play Anthology. MIT Press. 2006, p. 690–713 (here p. 713) ISBN 0-262-19536-4
- Wolf, Mark J. P. (2012). Encyclopedia of Video Games: The Culture, Technology, and Art of Gaming. ABC-CLIO. p. 177. ISBN 9780313379369.
- Björk, Staffan; Holopainen, Jussi (2005). Patterns In Game Design. Charles River Media. p. 235. ISBN 978-1584503545. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- Montfort, Nick; Bogost, Ian (2009). Racing the Beam: The Atari Video Computer System. MIT Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780262012577. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "Excel 97 Flight to Credits". Retrieved January 4, 2011.
- "Pinball in Word 97". Retrieved January 4, 2011.
- Grant, Rickford; Bull, Phil (2010). Ubuntu for Non-Geeks: A Pain-Free, Get-Things-Done Guide. No Starch Press, p. 168. ISBN 9781593272579. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
- "apt-0.6.46.2/cmdline/apt-get.cc:2368".dead link
- Hoye, David (March 13, 2003), 'Easter egg' hunts can turn up surprises'. The Sacramento Bee (subscription required).
- eeggs.com (March 15, 2006). "3D Pinball for Windows Easter Egg - Control the Pinball with Your Mouse". Eeggs.com. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
- Gaskell, John (1999-07-19). "Excel Easter Egg – Excel 95 Hall of Tortured Souls". Retrieved 30 April 2009.
- "Optical Information Systems Update/library & Information Center Applications". CD-ROM World. Volume 9, Issues 1-5. Meckler Pub., February 1994. "The best Easter egg of all is the entire Maniac Mansion game, which appears on a computer in Doctor Fred's mansion. Users can play the original game in its entirety."
- Firth, Niall (29 October 2010). "How do I get to China? Jet ski! Google Maps joke gives users unorthodox instructions for crossing the Pacific". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
- Wagstaff, Keith (December 12, 2011). "Google Maps Easter Egg: 'One Does Not Simply Walk Into Mordor'". Time, techland.time.com.
- Snider, Mike (December 19, 2011). "Google's 'Let It Snow' feature makes Web winter wonderland". USA Today. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
- "Do A Barrel Roll is going viral". ContactSolicitors.co.uk blog. November 3, 2011.
- Popkin, Helen A.S. (October 29, 2011). "Do it! Make Google 'do a barrel roll'". NBCNews.com.
- "Threat Description: Happy Birthday". F-secure.com. Retrieved 2012-07-03.
- World of 68 Micros, Vol. 5 Number 6, 1998-05, page 4. The CoCo3 Microware 80-column package also had CLS100 as an Easter egg, per .
- "HP 54600B Oscilloscope Easter Egg - Tetris Within Oscilloscope". eeggs.com
- "Tektronix 1751 Digital Video Osciloscope / Vectorscope Easter Egg". eeggs.com.
- Corrigan, Patricia (2007). Bringing Science to Life: A Guide from the Saint Louis Science Center. Reedy Press. p. 69. ISBN 978-1933370163.
- Compute (Small System Service) 12 (6-9). 1990.
- Petersen, Julie K. (2002). The Telecommunications Illustrated Dictionary. CRC Press; 2nd ed. p. 293. ISBN 978-0849311734. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Hyman, Michael I. (1995). PC roadkill. John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 978-1568843483. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Knight, Gareth (2006). "Amiga History Guide: AmigaOS Easter Eggs". amigahistory.co.uk. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Goldstein, Harry (March 2002). "The Secret Art of Chip Graffiti". IEEE Spectrum. Vol 39, Issue 3, pp. 50-55. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Supnik, Bob (February 24, 2008). "CVAX (1987)". SIMH, The Computer History Simulation Project. Retrieved January 24, 2013.
- Saltzman, Marc (2002). DVD Confidential: Hundreds of Hidden Easter Eggs Revealed. McGraw-Hill Osborne Media. ISBN 978-0072226638.
- Klinger, Barbara (2008). "The DVD Cinephile: Viewing Heritages and Home Film Cultures". In Bennett, James; Brown, Tom. Film and Television After DVD. Routledge. p. 38. ISBN 978-0415962414. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Berardinelli, James; Ebert, Roger (2005). "Appendix: Easter Eggs, Extended Editions, and Director's Cuts". ReelViews 2: The Ultimate Guide to the Best Modern Movies on DVD and Video. Justin, Charles & Co. p. 577. ISBN 978-1932112405. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- Kabay, Michel E. (March 27, 2000). "Easter eggs and the Trusted Computing Base". Network World Security Newsletters. NetworkWorld.com.
- Schultz, Greg (August 29, 2010). "Take a look back at Microsoft Word Easter Eggs". ZDNet.com. Retrieved 2012-10-05. "Microsoft’s developers hid multiple Easter Eggs in Word 95/97/2000."
- Osterman, Larry (October 21, 2005). "Why no Easter Eggs?". Larry Osterman's WebLog. MSDN Blogs. Retrieved 2006-07-29.
- Neumann, Peter G. (November 1, 2006). "A Conversation with Douglas W. Jones and Peter G. Neumann". Queue (Association of Computing Machinery) 4 (9). Retrieved 2012-10-05.
- Spolsky, Joel (2004). Joel on Software. Apress. p. 280. ISBN 978-1590593899. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- Zawinski, Jamie (1998). "Easter eggs". jwz.org. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
- "Chip Fun: Microchip-based Easter eggs" – National Museum of American History.
- Hidden DVD & Blu-Ray Easter Eggs
- The Top Ten DVD 'Easter Eggs' – Sound & Vision Magazine.
- "Easter eggs" – Digital Press. Classic video game easter eggs.
- Lee's PeeknPoke Issue 5 – PDF retro game magazine with Atari 2600 hidden Easter egg feature
- Russian based Easter eggs