Education in Pakistan
|Federal Ministry of Education
Provincial Education Ministries
Education in Pakistan is overseen by the government's Ministry of Education and the provincial governments, whereas the federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and in the financing of research. Article 25-A of Constitution of Pakistan obligates the state to provide free and compulsory quality education to children of the age group 5 to 16 years. “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such a manner as may be determined by law”.3
The education system in Pakistan is generally divided into five levels: primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); high (grades nine and ten, leading to the Secondary School Certificate or SSC); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary (School) Certificate or HSC); and university programs leading to undergraduate and graduate degrees.4
The literacy rate ranges from 96% in Islamabad to 28% in the Kohlu District.5 Between 2000 and 2004, Pakistanis in the age group 55–64 had a literacy rate of almost 38%, those ages 45–54 had a literacy rate of nearly 46%, those 25–34 had a literacy rate of 57%, and those ages 15–24 had a literacy rate of 72%.6 Literacy rates vary regionally, particularly by sex. In tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%.7 Moreover, English is fast spreading in Pakistan, with 18 million Pakistanis8 (11% of the population)8 having a command over the English language, which makes it the third largest English-speaking nation9 in the world and the second largest in Asia.8 On top of that, Pakistan produces about 445,000 university graduates and 10,000 computer science graduates per year.10 Despite these statistics, Pakistan still has one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world11 and the second largest out of school population (5.1 million children) after Nigeria.12
- 1 History
- 2 Stages of formal education
- 3 Gender disparity
- 4 Qualitative dimension
- 5 Quantitative dimension
- 6 Achievements
- 7 Education expenditure as percentage of GDP
- 8 Universities world rankings
- 9 Language
- 10 Religion and education
- 11 Statistics
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
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Only 87% of Pakistani children finish primary school education.13 The standard national system of education is mainly inspired from the British system. Pre-school education is designed for 3–5 years old and usually consists of three stages: Play Group, Nursery and Kindergarten (also called 'KG' or 'Prep'). After pre-school education, students go through junior school from grades 1 to 5. This is proceeded by middle school from grades 6 to 8. At middle school, single-sex education is usually preferred by the community, but co-education is also common in urban cities. The curriculum is usually subject to the institution. The eight commonly examined disciplines are Urdu, English, mathematics, arts, science, social studies, Islamiyat and sometimes computer studies (subject to availability of a computer laboratory). Provincial and regional languages such as Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and others may be taught in their respective provinces, particularly in language-medium schools. Some institutes give instruction in foreign languages such as Turkish, Arabic, Persian, French and Chinese. The language of instruction depends on the nature of the institution itself, whether it is an English-medium school or an Urdu-medium school.
As of 2009, Pakistan faces a net primary school attendance rate for both sexes of 66 percent: a figure below estimated world average of 90 percent.14
Pakistan’s poor performance in the education sector is mainly caused by the low level of public investment. Public expenditure on education has been 2.2 percent of GNP in recent years, a marginal increase from 2 percent before 1984-85. In addition, the allocation of government funds is skewed towards higher education, allowing the upper income class to reap majority of the benefits of public subsidy on education. Lower education institutes such as primary schools suffer under such conditions as the lower income classes are unable to enjoy subsidies and quality education. As a result, Pakistan has one of the lowest rates of literacy in the world and the lowest among countries of comparative resources and socio-economic situations.15
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
Secondary education in Pakistan begins from grade 9 and lasts for four years. After end of each of the school years, students are required to pass a national examination administered by a regional Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (or BISE).
Upon completion of grade 9, students are expected to take a standardised test in each of the first parts of their academic subjects. They again give these tests of the second parts of the same courses at the end of grade 10. Upon successful completion of these examinations, they are awarded a Secondary School Certificate (or SSC). This locally termed as 'matriculation certificate' or 'matric' for short. The curriculum usually includes a combination of eight courses including electives (such as Biology, Chemistry, Computing and Physics) as well as compulsory subjects (such as Mathematics, English, Urdu, Islamiat and Pakistani Studies).
Students then enter an intermediate college and complete grades 11 and 12. Upon completion of each of the two grades, they again take standardised tests in their academic subjects. Upon successful completion of these examinations, students are awarded the Higher Secondary (School) Certificate (or HSC). This level of education is also called the FSc/FA/ICS or 'intermediate'. There are many streams students can choose for their 11 and 12 grades, such as pre-medical, pre-engineering, humanities (or social sciences), computer science and commerce. Each stream consists of three electives and as well as three compulsory subjects of English, Urdu, Islamiat (grade 11 only) and Pakistani Studies (grade 12 only).
Alternative qualifications in Pakistan are available but are maintained by other examination boards instead BISE. Most common alternative is the General Certificate of Education (or GCE), where SSC and HSC are replaced by Ordinary Level (or O Level) and Advanced Level (or A Level) respectively. Other qualifications include IGCSE which replaces SSC. GCE O Level, IGCSE and GCE AS/A Level are managed by British examination boards of CIE of the Cambridge Assessment and/or Edexcel of the Pearson PLC. Generally, 8-10 courses are selected by students at GCE O Levels and 3-5 at GCE A Levels.
Advanced Placement (or AP) is an alternative option but much less common than GCE or IGCSE. This replaces the secondary school education as 'High School Education' instead. AP exams are monitored by a North American examination board, College Board, and can only be given under supervision of centers which are registered with the College Board, unlike GCE O/AS/A Level and IGCSE which can be given privately.
There is another type of rducation in Pakistan which called Technical Education. Three boards, Punjab Board of Technical Education, NWFP Board of Technical Education, and Sindh Board of Technical Education, provide facilities of technical education. PBTE (Punjab Board of Technical Education) offering Matric tac. and D.A.E. (Diploma of Associate Engineering) in technologies like Civil, Architecture, Mechanical, Electrical, Electronics, Computer Sciences and many more technologies. This is three years and combines Physics, Chemistry, Islamic study, Pakistan Study and other more than 25 books related to their Technology. After matric and then three years diploma is equal to 12th grade, and diploma holder iscalled Associate Engineer. Either they can join their respective field or can take admission in B-tech or BE in their related technology after D.A.E.
According to the UNESCO's 2009 Global Education Digest, 6.3% of Pakistanis (8.9% of males and 3.5% of females) were university graduates as of 2007.16 Pakistan plans to increase this figure to 10% by 2015 and subsequently to 15% by 2020.17 There is also a great deal of variety between age cohorts. Less than 6% of those in the age cohort 55-64 have a degree, compared to 8% in the 45-54 age cohort, 11% in the 35-44 age cohort and 16% in the age cohort 25-34.16
After earning their HSC, students may study in a professional college for Bachelor's degree courses such as engineering (B.Engg/BS Engg.), B.Tech Hons/BS Engg.Tech medicine (MBBS), dentistry (BDS), veterinary medicine (DVM), law (LLB), architecture (B.Arch), pharmacy (Pharm-D) and nursing (B.Nurs). These courses require four or five years of study. There are some councils and boards that will handle all the education matters in these cases; they are the PMDC, Pakistan pharmacy council and Pakistan nursing council. Students can also attend a university for Bachelor of Arts (BA), Bachelor of Science (BSc), Bachelor of Commerce (BCom) or Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) degree courses. These all are the courses that are done in Pakistan and are really common. These days doctor of pharmacy is also gaining much reputation. The pharmacy council of Pakistan is doing huge struggle to make the pharmacy education better.
There are two types of Bachelor courses in Pakistan: Pass or Honors. Pass degree requires two years of study and students normally read three optional subjects (such as Chemistry or Economics) in addition to almost equal number of compulsory subjects (such as English and Pakistan Studies). Honours degree requires three or four years of study, and students normally specialize in a chosen field of study, such as Biochemistry (BSc Hons. Biochemistry). It can be noted that Pass Bachelors is now slowly being phased out for Honours throughout the country.citation needed
Most of Master's degree programs require two years education. Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) is available in most of the subjects and can be undertaken after doing Masters. Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) education is available in selected areas and is usually pursued after earning a M.Phil degree. Students pursuing M.Phil or PhD degrees must choose a specific field and a university that is doing research work in that field. M.Phill and PhD education in Pakistan requires a minimum of two years of study.citation needed
In Pakistan, gender discrimination in education occurs amongst the poorest households but is non-existent amongst rich households.12 Only 18% of Pakistani women have received 10 years or more of schooling.12 Among other criticisms the Pakistani education system faces is the gender disparity in enrollment levels. However, in recent years some progress has been made in trying to fix this problem. In 1990-91, the female to male ratio (F/M ratio) of enrollment was 0.47 for primary level of education. It reached to 0.74 in 1999-2000, showing the F/M ratio has improved by 57.44% within the decade. For the middle level of education it was 0.42 in the start of decade and increased to 0.68 by the end of decade, so it has improved almost 62%. In both cases the gender disparity is decreased but relatively more rapidly at middle level.18
The gender disparity in enrollment at secondary level of education was 0.4 in 1990-91 and 0.67 in 1999-2000, showing that the disparity decreased by 67.5% in the decade. At the college level it was 0.50 in 1990-91 and reached 0.81 in 1999-2000, showing that the disparity decreased by 64%. The gender disparity has decreased comparatively rapidly at secondary school.18
The gender disparity is affected by the Taliban enforcement of a complete ban on female education in the Swat district, as reported in a January 21, 2009 issue of the Pakistan daily newspaper The News. Some 400 private schools enrolling 40,000 girls have been shut down. At least 10 girls' schools that tried to open after the January 15, 2009 deadline by the Taliban were blown up by the militants in the town of Mingora, the headquarters of the Swat district.19 "More than 170 schools have been bombed or torched, along with other government-owned buildings."19
There is great difference in the rates of enrollment of boys, as compared to girls in Pakistan. According to UNESCO figures, primary school enrolment for girls stand at 60 per cent as compared to 84 percent for boys. The secondary school enrolment rate stands at a lower rate of 32 percent for females and 46 per cent males. Regular school attendance for female students is estimated at 41 per cent while that for male students is 50 per cent.14
In Pakistan, the quality of education has a declining trend. Shortage of teachers and poorly equipped laboratories has resulted in the out-dated curriculum that has little relevance to present day needs.15
Causative factors include defective curricula, dual medium of instruction, poor quality of teachers, cheating in the examinations and overcrowded classrooms. However, efforts are on the way of moulding the curriculum to meet its national requirements.15
Abdus Salam was a Pakistani theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his work on the electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces. Salam, Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg shared the 1979 Nobel prize for this discovery. Salam holds the distinction of being the first Pakistani to receive the prize in the sciences. Salam heavily contributed to the rise of Pakistani physics to the Physics community in the world.2021
Public expenditure on education lies on the fringes of 2 percent of GDP. However, in 2009 the government approved the new national education policy, which stipulates that education expenditure will be increased to 7% of GDP,22 an idea that was first suggested by the Punjab government.23
The author of an article,citation needed which reviews the history of education spending in Pakistan since 1972, argues that this policy target raises a fundamental question: What extraordinary things are going to happen that would enable Pakistan to achieve within six years what it has been unable to lay a hand on in the past six decades? The policy document is blank on this question and does not discuss the assumptions that form the basis of this target. Calculations of the author show that during the past 37 years, the highest public expenditure on education was 2.80 percent of GDP in 1987-88. Public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP was actually reduced in 16 years and maintained in 5 years between 1972–73 and 2008-09. Thus, out of total 37 years since 1972, public expenditure on education as a percentage of GDP either decreased or remained stagnant for 21 years. The author argues if linear trend were maintained since 1972, Pakistan could have touched 4 percent of GDP well before 2015. However, it is unlikely to happen because the levels of spending have had remained significantly unpredictable and unsteady in the past. Given this disappointing trajectory, increasing public expenditure on education to 7 percent of GDP would be nothing less than a miracle but it is not going to be of godly nature. Instead, it is going to be the one of political nature because it has to be "invented" by those who are at the helm of affairs. The author suggests that little success can be made unless Pakistan adopts an "unconventional" approach to education. That is to say, education sector should be treated as a special sector by immunizing budgetary allocations for it from fiscal stresses and political and economic instabilities. Allocations for education should not be affected by squeezed fiscal space or surge in military expenditure or debts. At the same time, there is a need to debate others options about how Pakistan can "invent" the miracle of raising education expenditure to 7 percent of GDP by 2015.24
According to the Quality Standard World University Ranking 2010 there are two Pakistani universities among top 200 Technology Universities of the World. Eleven Pakistani other universities including University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Institute Of Space Technology (IST),Quaid-e-Azam University, National University of Science & Technology, University of Karachi, ranked among World Top 1000 Universities of world, according to World Ranking of Universities.
Education in Pakistan is carried out in two languages, Urdu and English. While Urdu is the national language, it was originally and initially developed in Uttar Pradesh in neighboring India. The language was chosen as the national language by the founder Muhammad Ali Jinnah and has no relation to the belief that it was brought to Pakistan during the Partition of India by migrants called Muhajir Urdu. Urdu quickly dominated the Pakistani political landscape and Urdu is mandatory in all schools and educational institutions as part of a strategy to undermine the indigenous languages and cultures of the region (some of them being Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Brahui). Education in Pakistan was severely affected by the language bias.25
According to a 2010 British Council report, this forced imposition of Urdu on non-Urdu speakers in Pakistani schools and universities has resulted in the systematic degradation and decline of many of Pakistan's indigenous cultures, is partly responsible for a rise in reactionary rebellions against this ethnocracy (such as Sindhi nationalism, Baloch insurgency etc.), and contributes to discontent and political instability in the country.26 The report also cites rising illiteracy rates in Pakistan among the indigenous and attributes it to the forced imposition of Urdu in schools, leading to non-Urdu speakers, feeling threatened by the neglect of their languages in Pakistani education, becoming increasingly reluctant to enroll in these schools.
Education in Pakistan is heavily influenced by religion. For instance, a study of Pakistani science teachers showed that many rejected evolution based on religious grounds.27 However, most Pakistani teachers (14 out of 18) either accepted or considered the possibility of the evolution of living organisms, although nearly all Pakistani science teachers rejected human evolution because they believed that ‘human beings did not evolve from monkeys.’ Although many teachers rejected the evolution of humans, "all agreed that there is ‘no contradiction between science and Islam’ in general".27 This contradiction may be a good example of cognitive dissonance experienced by many religious academics.
It needs to be highlighted that from census to census the definition of literacy has been undergoing a change, resultantly the literacy figure has vacillated irregularly during the last 5 census. An update of the five censuses is as under:28
|1951||19.2%30||12.2%30||16.4%||--||--||One who can read a clear
print in any language
|1961||26.9%30||8.2%30||16.3%||34.8%||10.6%||One who is able to read with
understanding a simple letter in any language
|Age 5 and above|
|1972||30.2%||11.6%||21.7%||41.5%||14.3%||One who is able to read and
write in some language with understanding
|Age 10 and Above|
|1981||35.1%||16.0%||26.2%||47.1%||17.3%||One who can read newspaper
and write a simple letter
|Age 10 and Above|
|1998||54.8%||32.0%||43.9%||63.08%||33.64%||One who can read a newspaper
and write a simple letter, in any language
|Age 10 and Above|
Table below shows the literacy rate of Pakistan by province.
Table below shows the literacy rate of Federally Administered Areas.
Literacy rate over time in selected districts
|Rank||District||Province||Literacy rate||Rank||District||Province||Literacy rate|
|4||Karachi||Sindh||77%||14||Toba Tek Singh||Punjab||62%|
|10||Haripur||Khyber Pakhtunkhwa||63%||20||Dera Ghazi Khan||Punjab||69%|
|Punjab||Rawalpindi (86%)||Muzaffargarh and Rajanpur (48%)|
|Sindh||Karachi (78%)||Jacobabad (44%)|
|Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa||Abbottabad (88%)||Upper Dir (42%)|
|Balochistan||Quetta (74%)||Jhal Magsi (28%)|
Comparison with other countries12
|Country||Adult Literacy Rate||Male||Female|
|Country||Youth Literacy Rate||Male||Female|
- Pakistan Studies curriculum
- Pakistani textbooks controversy
- Lists of educational institutions in Pakistan
- List of special education institutions in Pakistan
- Matriculation in Pakistan
- List of Pakistani Districts by Human Development Index
- Education in Pakistan
- PakTurk Educational System
- Online Education in Pakistan
- Education System in Pakistan
- Pakistan Education
- Pakistan Education News, Colleges, Universities
- "Ministry of Education, Pakistan".
- Peter Blood, ed. (1994). "Pakistan - EDUCATION". Pakistan: A Country Study. GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved 1 April 2010.
- http://www.unesco.org/education/GMR2006/full/chapt7_eng.pdf - Figure 7.7:
- Stuteville, Sarah (August 16, 2009). "seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2009670134_pakistanschool16.html". The Seattle Times.
- UNESCO Institute for Statistics. "Adjusted net enrolment ratio in primary education". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- Rasool Memon, Ghulam (2007). "Education in Pakistan: The Key Issues, Problems and The New Challenges". Journal of Management and Social Sciences 3 (1): 47–55. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
- Global Education Digest 2009. UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2009.
- Khan, Tasnim; Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali (2004). "Gender Disparity in Education - Extents, Trends and Factors" (pdf). Journal of Research (Faculty of Languages & Islamic Studies). Retrieved 2009-03-08.
- The News, Pakistan, January 21, 2009.
- Ishfaq Ahmad (1998-11-21). "CERN and Pakistan: a personal perspective". CERN Courier. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
- Riazuddin (1998-11-21). "Pakistan Physics Centre". ICTP. Retrieved 2011.
- Khawar Ghumman. "Education to be allocated seven pc of GDP".
- Mazhar Siraj (4 July 2010). "Increasing Education Expenditure to 7 percent of GDP in Pakistan: Eyes on the Miracle". Business Recorder (Islamabad)
- Max de Lotbinière (8 December 2010). "Pakistan facing language 'crisis' in schools". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Hywel Coleman (2010). TEACHING AND LEARNING IN PAKISTAN: THE ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN EDUCATION (Report). British Council, Pakistan. http://www.britishcouncil.org/pakistan-ette-role-of-language-in-education.htm. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
- Asghar, A. (2013) Canadian and Pakistani Muslim teachers’ perceptions of evolutionary science and evolution education.Evolution: Education and Outreach 2013, 6:10
- "unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001459/145959e.pdf" (PDF).
- "www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/statistics/pslm0405_district/education.pdf" (PDF).
- K.K. Aziz. (2004) The Murder of History : A Critique of History Textbooks used in Pakistan. Vanguard. ISBN 969-402-126-X
- Nayyar, A. H. & Salim, Ahmad. (2003) The Subtle Subversion: The State of Curricula and Text-books in Pakistan - Urdu, English, Social Studies and Civics. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. The Subtle Subversion
- Pervez Hoodbhoy and A. H. Nayyar. Rewriting the history of Pakistan, in Islam, Politics and the state: The Pakistan Experience, Ed. Mohammad Asghar Khan, Zed Books, London, 1985.
- Mubarak Ali. In the Shadow of history, Nigarshat, Lahore; History on Trial, Fiction House, Lahore, 1999; Tareekh Aur Nisabi Kutub, Fiction House, Lahore, 2003.
- Rubina Saigol. Knowledge and Identity - Articulation of Gender in Educational Discourse in Pakistan, ASR, Lahore 1995
- Tariq Rahman, Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study of Education, Inequality and Polarization in Pakistan Karachi, Oxford University Press, 2004. Reprint. 2006.
- Tariq Rahman, Language, Ideology and Power: Language learning among the Muslims of Pakistan and North India Karachi, Oxford UP, 2002.
- Tariq Rahman, Language and Politics in Pakistan Karachi: Oxford UP, 1996. Rept. several times. see 2006 edition.
- World Bank Case Study on Primary Education in Pakistan