El Paso, Texas
|El Paso, Texas|
|— City —|
|City of El Paso|
|Nickname(s): El Chuco1|
|El Paso County and the state of Texas|
|Metropolitan Area||El Paso–County|
|• Mayor||John Cook|
|• City Manager||Joyce Wilson|
|• City||256.3 sq mi (663.7 km2)|
|• Land||255.3 sq mi (661.1 km2)|
|• Water||1.0 sq mi (2.6 km2)|
|Elevation||3,740 ft (1,140 m)|
|Population (2011 est.2)|
|• City||665,568 (US: 19th)|
|• Metro||820,790 (US: 65th)
1,045,180 (El Paso-Las Cruces CSA)
|Time zone||MST (UTC-7)|
|• Summer (DST)||MDT (UTC-6)|
88500-88599 (PO Boxes)
|GNIS feature ID||13809463|
As of the 2010 census the city's population was 649,121.2 El Paso is the 19th most populous city in the United States and the sixth most populous city in the state of Texas. Its metropolitan area covers all of El Paso County, whose population in 2010 was 800,647.2
El Paso stands on the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte), across the border from Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The two cities form a combined international metropolitan area, sometimes called El Paso–Juárez, with Juárez being the significantly larger of the two in population. They have a combined population of 3 million, two-thirds of which reside in Juárez. In 2010 El Paso was awarded an All-America City Award, the oldest community-recognition program in the United States.
El Paso is home to the University of Texas at El Paso (founded in 1914 as The Texas State School of Mines and Metallurgy, and later, Texas Western College; its current name dates from 1967). El Paso is also home to the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center at El Paso. Fort Bliss, one of the largest military complexes of the United States Army, lies to the east and northeast of the city, with training areas extending north into New Mexico, up to the White Sands Missile Range and neighboring Holloman Air Force Base in Alamogordo. El Paso is the first large city in the world to have a spaceport in the vicinity. Spaceport America, which lies 90 miles from El Paso, has seen the completion of several successful manned, suborbital flights. The Franklin Mountains extend into El Paso from the north and nearly divide the city into two sections; the western half forms the beginnings of the Mesilla Valley, and the eastern slopes connect in the central business district at the south end of the mountain range.
The El Paso region has seen human settlement for thousands of years, as evidenced by Folsom points from hunter-gatherers found at Hueco Tanks.4 The earliest known cultures in the region were maize farmers. At the time of the arrival of the Spanish the Manso, Suma, and Jumano tribes populated the area and were subsequently incorporated into the Mestizo culture, along with immigrants from central Mexico, captives from Comanchería, and genízaros of various ethnic groups. The Mescalero Apache roamed the region as well.
Spanish explorer Don Juan de Oñate was born in 1550 in Zacatecas, Zacatecas, Mexico and was the first New Spain (Mexico) explorer known to have observed the Rio Grande near El Paso, in 1598,5 celebrating Thanksgiving Mass there on April 30, 1598 (several decades before the Pilgrims' Thanksgiving). However, it is thought that the four survivors of the Narváez expedition by the names: Juan Dirac, Francisco Chuvash, Maria Munoz and Terea Franco passed through the area in the mid-1530s.6 El Paso del Norte (the present day Juárez), was founded on the south bank of the Río Bravo del Norte, (Rio Grande) in 1659 by Spanish conquistadors. In 1680 the small village of El Paso became the base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico, remaining the largest settlement in New Mexico until its cession to the US in 1848, when Texas took it in 1850.
El Paso remained largely undeveloped during most of the period of Spanish control. Instead, Spanish settlement was centered on El Paso del Norte (the present day Ciudad Juárez). Although, the Spanish crown and the local authorities of El Paso del Norte had made several land concessions to bring agricultural production to the northern bank of the river in present day El Paso City, frequent Indian raids and warfare overwhelmed any attempts. The Apache Wars and subsequent Comanche Wars left northern Mexico, then including present day New Mexico, Texas, Coahuila, in a state of perpetual instability. Consequently, present day Juárez remained the northern-most villa with the Río Bravo del Norte, (Rio Grande) and Apache attacks dissuading settlement and development north. The water of the river, the sand dunes to the south (médanos) and the fortifications at Paso del Norte and El Real de San Lorenzo, provided a natural defense against further raids; however, in some decades several thousand strong Apache armies made raids deep into Mexico, slaughtering the male population and enslaving women and children. As a result, the Rio Grande proved a boundary line of actual Hispanic presence.
Nonetheless, in the early years of Spanish power, areas north of the Rio Grande were gradually colonized after several decades of attempts. The Hispanic civilian and military population, and the small community of Spanish friars and their Amerindian wards ranched the area, which was a grassland at the time, and developed small scale but successful agriculture consisting of vineyards and fruits. However, in 1680, after the successful Pueblo Revolt that decimated the Spanish colonies in northern New Mexico, Paso del Norte became the base for Spanish governance of the territory of New Mexico with the present-day El Paso remaining a neutral battle-ground.
From El Paso, the Spaniards led by Diego de Vargas, grouped to recolonize the Spanish territory centered on Santa Fe stretching from Socorro to Taos. The Bourbon reforms of the eighteenth century affected the Paso del Norte region, as New Spain's enlightened bureaucrats deemed the region—with a thriving population of over 10,000 by mid-century—capable of self-defense. Viceregal troops garrisoned in the Presidio of Paso del Norte were redeployed elsewhere on New Spain's frontier. New policies of Indian gifting helped to stabilize relations with the Apaches and Comanches, providing a respite to El Paso's agriculturalist population.
With the Mexican Constitution of 1824, part of present-day El Paso became the southernmost locality of the Territorio de Nuevo Mexico (modern New Mexico) and part of the newly-established state of Chihuahua. It communicated with Santa Fe and Mexico City by the Royal Road (Camino Real de Tierra Adentro).
The Texas Revolution (1836) was not felt in the region as the area was never considered part of Texas until 1848. As early as the mid-1840s, alongside long extant Hispanic settlements such as the Rancho de Juan María Ponce de León, Anglo settlers like Simeon Hart and Hugh Stephenson began to establish themselves. Stephenson, who had married into the local Hispanic aristocracy, established the Rancho de San José de la Concordia, which became the nucleus of Anglo and Hispanic settlement within the limits of modern-day El Paso, in 1844. Given the reclamations of the Texas Republic that wanted a chunk of the Santa Fe trade, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo effectively made the settlements on the north bank of the river a formal American settlement, separate from Old El Paso del Norte on the Mexican side.7 The present Texas–New Mexico boundary placing El Paso on the Texas side was drawn in the Compromise of 1850.
El Paso County was established in March 1850, with San Elizario as the first county seat. The United States Senate fixed a boundary between Texas and New Mexico at the 32nd parallel, thus largely ignoring history and topography. A military post called The Post opposite El Paso (meaning opposite El Paso del Norte, across the Rio Grande) was established in 1854. Further west, a settlement on Coons' Rancho called Franklin became the nucleus of the future El Paso, Texas. A year later pioneer Anson Mills completed his plan of the town, calling it El Paso.8
During the Civil War, there was a Confederate presence in the area until it was captured by the Union California Column in 1862. It was then headquarters for the 5th Regiment California Volunteer Infantry until December 1864.9
After the Civil War's conclusion, the town's population began to grow. El Paso was incorporated in 1873 and encompassed the small area communities that had developed along the river. With the arrival of the Southern Pacific, Texas and Pacific and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe railroads in 1881, the population boomed to 10,000 by the 1890 census attracting newcomers ranging from businessmen and priests, to gunfighters and prostitutes. El Paso became a violent and wild boomtown known as the "Six Shooter Capital" because of its lawlessness.8 Prostitution and gambling flourished until World War I, when the Department of the Army pressured El Paso authorities to crack down on vice (thus benefitting vice in neighboring Ciudad Juárez). The city developed into the premier manufacturing, transportation, and retail center of the U.S. Southwest.
The Mexican Revolution greatly impacted the city, bringing an influx of refugees—and capital—to the bustling boomtown. Spanish-language newspapers, theaters, movie houses, and schools were established, many supported by a thriving Mexican refugee middle class. Large numbers of clerics, intellectuals, and businessmen took refuge in the city, particularly between 1913 and 1915. The population exceeded 100,000. The Jesuit Order established a network of schools catering to the children of the Mexican community, and the large number of refugee floating population was attended by various philanthropic organizations, including the National Catholic Welfare Fund.10
Mining and other industries gradually developed in the area. The El Paso and Northeastern Railway was chartered in 1897, in order to help extract the natural resources of surrounding areas, especially in southeastern New Mexico Territory. The Arizona and Southeastern Railroad was slowly extended toward El Paso (owned by the Phelps Dodge company), in order to allow the construction of a second copper refinery in El Paso to refine ore produced in Arizona and southwestern New Mexico by Phelps Dodge. In 1901, the Arizona Southeastern Railroad was renamed the El Paso and Southwestern Railroad, and the tracks finally reached El Paso in 1902.
The 1920s and 1930s saw the emergence of major business development in the city, partially enabled by Prohibition era bootlegging,8 but as in the rest of the United States, the Depression era hit the city hard, and El Paso's population declined through the end of World War II. Following the war, military expansion in the area as well as oil discoveries in the Permian Basin (North America) helped to engender rapid economic expansion in the mid-1900s. Copper smelting, oil refining, and the proliferation of low-wage industries (particularly garment making) led the city's growth. Expansion slowed again in the 1960s, but the city continued to grow in large part because of its significant economic relationship with Mexico.
El Paso is located at 11 It lies at the intersection of three states (Texas, New Mexico, and Chihuahua) and two countries (the U.S. and Mexico). It is the only major Texas city on Mountain Time. Ciudad Juárez used to be on Central Time,12 but both cities are now on Mountain Time.(31.790208, −106.423242).
The city's elevation is 3,800 feet (1,200 m) above sea level. North Franklin Mountain is the highest peak in the city at 7,192 feet (2,192 m) above sea level. The peak can be seen from 60 miles (100 km) in all directions. Additionally, this mountain range is home to the famous natural red-clay formation, the Thunderbird, from which the local Coronado High School gets its mascot's name. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 256.3 square miles (663.7 km2).13
The 24,000-acre (9,700 ha) Franklin Mountains State Park is the largest urban park in the United States and resides entirely in El Paso, extending from the north and dividing the city into several sections along with Fort Bliss and El Paso International Airport.
The Rio Grande Rift, which passes around the southern end of the Franklin Mountains, is where the Rio Grande flows. The river defines the border between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez to the south and west until the river turns north of the border with Mexico, separating El Paso from Doña Ana County, New Mexico. Mt. Cristo Rey, a volcanic peak (an example of a pluton) rises within the Rio Grande Rift just to the west of El Paso on the New Mexico side of the Rio Grande. Other volcanic features include Kilbourne Hole and Hunt's Hole, which are Maar volcanic craters 30 miles (50 km) west of the Franklin Mountains.
Being in the westernmost tip of Texas, and due to the huge size of the state, El Paso is closer to four other state capitals (US and Mexican) than it is to its own capital of Austin, Texas (the other capitals being Phoenix, Arizona, Santa Fe, New Mexico, neighboring Mexican city Chihuahua (Chihuahua), and Hermosillo (Sonora)).14not in citation given15dead link
- Central El Paso
- East El Paso
- Far East El Paso-Montana Vista
- Mission Valley El Paso (Lower Valley and Ysleta, Texas)
- Northwest El Paso (Commonly known as West El Paso or Upper Valley)
- Northeast El Paso
- West Central El Paso
With the city limits are traditional suburban areas that are located on the far eastern and western edges.
- Homestead Meadows North
- Homestead Meadows South
- Horizon City
- Montana Vista
- San Elizario
Although Anthony, Sunland Park, and Chaparral lie adjacent to El Paso County, they are considered to be part of the Las Cruces, New Mexico metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau.16 Both metro areas do however, share a large commuter population and media market.
El Paso has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh) with very hot summers, usually with little or no humidity, and mild, dry winters. Rainfall averages 9.4 inches (240 mm) per year, much of which occurs during the summer from July through September and is predominantly caused by the monsoon. During this period, southerly and southeasterly winds carry moisture from the Pacific, the Gulf of California, and the Gulf of Mexico into the region. When this moisture moves into the El Paso area and places to the southwest, orographic lift from the mountains, combined with strong daytime heating, causes thunderstorms, some severe enough to produce flash flooding and hail, across the region.
The sun shines 302 days per year on average in El Paso, 83 percent of daylight hours, according to the El Paso Weather Bureau. It is from this that the city is nicknamed "The Sun City."17 Due to its dry climate, El Paso often experiences wind and dust storms during the spring, usually starting in March and lasting to early May. With an average wind speed of up to 30 miles per hour (50 km/h)citation needed with gusts that have been measured at over 75 miles per hour (120 km/h),citation needed these wind storms kick up large amounts of sand causing loss of visibility.
El Paso, at 3,800 feet (1,200 m) elevation, is also capable of receiving snow; weather systems have produced over a foot of snow on several occasions. In 1980, three major snowstorms produced over a foot of snow; one in February, another in April and the last one in December, producing a white Christmas for the city.citation needed A major snowstorm in December 1987 dumped over two feet (65 cm) of snow.18
One example of El Paso's varying climate at its most extreme was the winter storm of early February 2011, which caused closures of schools, businesses, and City Hall. The snow stopped after about a day, but it was during the ensuing cold episode that municipal utilities went into a crisis. The high temperature on February 2, 2011 was 15 °F (−9 °C), the lowest daily maximum on record. In addition, the low temperature on February 3 was 1 °F (−17 °C), surpassing the 5 °F (−15 °C) set during the cold wave of 1899.19 Loss of desert vegetation, such as Mexican/California palm trees, oleanders, and iceplant to the cold weather was one of the results. Electric wires were broken, causing area blackouts. Many water utility pipes froze, causing areas of the city to be without water for several days. When the pipes thawed, water was unsafe to drink due to filtration systems not working, forcing schools to close again.citation needed
Monthly means range from 44.8 °F (7.1 °C) in December to 82.8 °F (28.2 °C) in July, but highs typically peak in June. There are 52 nights of at or below freezing lows, 109 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs and 20 days of 100 °F (38 °C)+ highs annually; it is rare for temperatures to not rise above the freezing mark all day.18 The city's record high is 114 °F (46 °C), and its record low is −8 °F (−22 °C); the highest daily minimum was 85 °F (29 °C) on July 1 and 3, 1994, with weather records for the area maintained by the National Weather Service since 1879.
Although the average annual rainfall is only about 9 inches (225 mm), many parts of El Paso are subject to occasional flooding during intense summer monsoonal thunderstorms. In late July and early August 2006, over 15 inches (380 mm) of rain fell in a week, overflowing all the flood-control reservoirs and causing major flooding city-wide. The city staff has estimated damage to public infrastructure as $21 million, and to private property (residential and commercial) as $77 million.20 Much of the damage was associated with development in recent decades in arroyos protected by flood-control dams and reservoirs, and the absence of any storm drain utility in the city to handle the flow of rain water.
|Climate data for El Paso, Texas (El Paso Int'l), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||80
|Average high °F (°C)||57.7
|Average low °F (°C)||32.5
|Record low °F (°C)||−8
|Precipitation inches (mm)||.40
|Snowfall inches (cm)||0.8
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||3.8||3.4||2.4||1.9||2.7||3.9||8.3||8.7||6.3||4.7||3.0||3.9||53|
|Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.6||0.4||0.1||0.1||0||0||0||0||0||0.1||0.2||0.8||2.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||254.2||265.6||325.5||348.0||384.4||384.0||359.6||334.8||303.0||297.6||258.0||244.9||3,759.6|
|Source #1: NOAA (extremes 1879–present),19 The Weather Channel (extremes),21|
|Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1961–1990)22|
|1||Wells Fargo Plaza||296 feet (90 m)||21|
|2||Chase Tower||250 feet (76 m)||20|
|3||Plaza Hotel||239 feet (73 m)||19|
|4||Kayser Building||232 feet (71 m)||20|
|5||El Paso Natural Gas Company Building||208 feet (63 m)||18|
|6||Camino Real Hotel||205 feet (62 m)||17|
|7||Doubletree Hotel||202 feet (62 m)||17|
|8||O. T. Bassett Tower||196 feet (60 m)||15|
|9||El Paso County Courthouse||185 feet (56 m)||13|
|10||Anson Mills Building||145 feet (44 m)||12|
El Paso's tallest building, the Wells Fargo Plaza, was built in the early-1970s as State National Plaza. The black-windowed, 296-foot (90 m) building is famous for its 13 white horizonal lights (18 lights per row on the east and west sides of the building, and 7 bulbs per row on the north and south sides) that were lit at night. The tower did use a design of the United States flag during the July 4 holidays as well as the American hostage crisis of 1980, and was lit continuously following the September 11 attacks in 2001 until around 2006. During the Christmas holidays, a design of a Christmas tree was used, and at times, the letters "UTEP" was used to support University of Texas at El Paso athletics. The tower is now only lit during the holiday months, or when special events take place in the city.
Texas Almanac: 1850–200024
El Paso 1850 to 200626
TX State Historical Association27
El Paso has historically been predominantly Hispanic. In the 1870s, a population of 23 Non-Hispanic whites and 150 Hispanics was reported.28 In 1916, the Census Bureau reported El Paso's population as 53% Hispanic and 44% non-Hispanic white.29
According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the racial composition of El Paso was as follows:
- Whites: 80.84%
- Black or African American: 3.39%
- Native American: 0.73%
- Asian: 1.18%
- Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: 0.14%
- Two or more races: 3.34%
Ethnically, the city was:
As of the census of 2010, there were 649,121 people, 216,694 households, and 131,104 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,263.0 people per square mile (873.7/km²). There were 227,605 housing units at an average density of 777.5 per square mile (300.2/km²).
There are 182,063 households, out of which 42.4% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.6% were married couples living together, 18.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.5% were non-families. 19.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.54.
In the city the population was spread out with 31.0% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 29.1% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $32,124, and the median income for a family was $35,432. Males had a median income of $28,989 versus $21,540 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,388. About 19.0% of families and 22.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.8% of those under age 18 and 17.7% of those age 65 or over.
According to the 2006 United States Census Bureau population estimates, the El Paso metropolitan area had a population of 736,310.30 In 2010, and again in 2011, CQ Press ranked El Paso safest city in the U.S. with a population over 500,000.31
In 2010, many Mexicans fleeing drug violence in Ciudad Juarez settled in El Paso. Benjamin Sáenz, a novelist and a literature professor at the University of Texas at El Paso, said during that year that El Paso was "becoming a lot more Mexican and a lot less Chicano."32
The Tigua Indians have been at their present location since a successful Pueblo Revolt of 1680 that forced the Spaniards and New Spaniards (future Mexicans) to retreat south to present day Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua and El Paso.35 The tribe is led by a governor and a tribal council. Elections for tribal governor and tribal council are held once annually. In his second annual term as of 2012, the governor is Frank Paiz.36
The Ysleta Mission, located in the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo within the municipality of El Paso, Texas, is recognized as the oldest continuously operated parish in the State of Texas. The Ysleta community is also recognized as the oldest in Texas and claims to have the oldest continuously cultivated plot of land in the United States.37383940
The city government is officially non-partisan. Mayors and City Council members may not serve for more than ten years in their respective offices.41
The city operates under a council-manager form of government, which combines the strong political leadership of elected officials, in the form of eight council members, with the strong managerial experience of an appointed local government manager. All power is concentrated in the elected council, which hires a professionally trained manager to carry out its directives and oversee the delivery of public services.41 Joyce Wilson was selected by the city council in 2004 as El Paso's first City Manager.
The current members of the El Paso City Council, who are elected every four years to staggered terms, are Emma Acosta (District 3; East Central), Susie Byrd (District 2), Steve Ortega (District 7; Mid Valley), and Carl Robinson (District 4; Northeast), whose terms will end in 2013, and Eddie Holguin (District 6; East Valley), Cortney Niland (District 8), Ann Lilly (District 1; Westside), and Dr. Michiel Noe (District 5; Eastside), whose terms will end in 2015. Mayor Cook's term will end in 2013.
Lilly, Byrd, Ortega, and Holguin have been on the council since 2005. Acosta has been on the council since 2008, Robinson since 2009, and Niland and Noe since 2011. Due to the term limits clause of the City Charter, several council members will not be eligible to run again: Byrd, Holguin, Lilly, and Ortega, as well as Mayor Cook.4344
Two candidates, Oscar Leeser and Steve Ortega, are running in the run-off mayoral election in 2013. Acosta and Robinson are running for re-election; Acosta is unopposed. Robinson will face Sam Morgan in a run-off45, Larry Romero and Jim Tolbert will be in a run-off for Byrd's seat,46, and Tania Chozet and Lily Limon will be in a run-off for Ortega's seat.47
Municipal elections are currently held in May in odd-numbered years, but a voter-approved charter amendment will change this to November in even-numbered years, beginning in 2018.48
The El Paso County Judge is Democrat Veronica Escobar, and the County Commissioners are Democrats Carlos Leon (Precinct 1), Sergio Lewis (Precinct 2), Vince Perez (Precinct 3), and Republican Dan Haggerty (Precinct 4).5051 Haggerty was first elected to his position in 1994, and has been in office since 1995. Escobar and Lewis were first elected to their position in 2010, and have been in office since 2011. Leon and Perez were first elected to their positions in 2012, and have been in office since 2013.
The El Paso County Sheriff is Richard Wiles, Democrat, since 2009.
El Paso City and County vote overwhelmingly Democratic, like most of the Texas–Mexico border area and urban Texas.53 The El Paso metropolitan area is represented in the Texas State House by Democrats Marisa Marquez, Naomi Gonzalez, Joe Pickett, Mary Gonzalez, and Joe Moody, and in the State Senate by José R. Rodríguez (D-El Paso).44
The El Paso metropolitan area is represented by Beto O'Rourke (D-El Paso), and Democrat Pete Gallego (D-San Antonio) in the House of Representatives.54 The current U.S. Senators for Texas are Ted Cruz (R-Texas) and John Cornyn (R-Texas), however the El Paso area has heavily voted against them in Senatorial elections.
El Paso is an important entry point to the U.S. from Mexico. Once a major copper refining area, chief manufacturing industries in El Paso now include food production, clothing, construction materials, electronic and medical equipment, and plastics. Cotton, fruit, vegetables, livestock, and pecans are produced in the area. With El Paso's attractive climate and natural beauty, tourism has become a booming industry as well as trade with neighboring Ciudad Juárez.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2010)|
El Paso is the Operational Headquarters of Helen of Troy Limited, a NASDAQ listed company that manufactures personal health care products under many labels such as OXO, Dr. Scholl's, Vidal Sassoon, Sunbeam, among others. Also headquartered in El Paso is Western Refining, listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and Spira Footwear,citation needed and Fred Loya Insurance, an insurance company.55
Until 1996, El Paso was home to El Paso Natural Gas Company. It is now in Houston, Texas under the name El Paso Corporation. Farah Clothing Company was also headquartered in El Paso until 1998 when Farah along with other clothing manufacturing companies such as Levi's, moved their plants in search of cheaper labor. In the 1980s El Paso was known as the blue jeans capital of the world because it produced over 2 million pairs of jeans every week from different jean companies in El Paso. As of 2006, the only remaining companies in the clothing industry are Wrangler and a smaller company by the name of Border Apparel.citation needed
The military installation of Fort Bliss is a major contributor to El Paso's economy. Fort Bliss began as a Cavalry post in 1848. Today, Fort Bliss is the site of the United States Army's Air Defense Artillery Center and produces approximately $80 million in products and services annually, with about $60 million of those products and services purchased locally. Fort Bliss' total economic impact on the area has been estimated at more than $1 billion, with 12,000 soldiers currently stationed at the Fort. During the 2005 round of Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC), Fort Bliss came out an enormous winner. By 2013, BRAC growth is expected to add almost 28,000 new troops, 16,000 new spouses, and 21,000 new children to the El Paso community. The growth is expected to create a strong economic ripple throughout the El Paso area. With the growth in Fort Bliss, the economy is expected to profit $5 billion each year after 2012.
In addition to the military, the federal government has a strong presence in El Paso to manage its status and unique issues as a border region. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), Customs and Border Protection (CBP), and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) all have agency operations in El Paso to regulate traffic and goods through ports of entry from Mexico.
Many small businesses have arisen to meet the needs of the growth of Fort Bliss, including automotive, food and retail clothing companies. More specialized companies have emerged which are related directly to the military itself, including (but not limited to) flag and Guidons manufacturers and tailoring and uniform companies
Education is also a driving force in El Paso's economy. El Paso's three large school districts are among the largest employers in the area, employing more than 19,000 people among them. The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) has an annual budget of nearly $250 million and employs nearly 3,600 people. A 2002 study by the university's Institute for Policy and Economic Development stated that the University's impact on local businesses has resulted in $349 million.
Call center operations make up 7 of the top 10 business employers in El Paso. With no signs of growth slowing in this industry, in 2005 the 14 largest call centers in El Paso employed more than 10,000 people. The largest of these in terms of employees are EchoStar, MCI/GC Services, and West Telemarketing.
Items and goods produced: petroleum, metals, medical devices, plastics, machinery, automotive parts, food, defense-related goods, tourism, boots
According to El Paso's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,56 the top employers in the city are:
|#||Employer||# of Employees|
|2||El Paso Independent School District||10,000|
|3||Ysleta Independent School District||7,849|
|4||City of El Paso||6,272|
|5||Socorro Independent School District||6,122|
|7||University of Texas at El Paso||5,081|
|8||El Paso Community College||4,585|
|10||El Paso County||2,847|
El Paso does not have any major league sports teams at the moment. El Paso is the third most populated city without a major sports team (NBA basketball, MLB baseball, NFL football, NHL hockey, MLS soccer) in the United States.
El Paso also hosts the annual NCAA Hyundai Sun Bowl.
On September 18, 2012, the City Council voted to approve the demolition of the current City Hall to make way for a new Triple-A baseball stadium, to be the new home of the Tucson Padres (San Diego Padres affiliate) beginning the 2014 season. The team was recently purchased by Mountainstar Sports Group of El Paso.57
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2011)|
|El Paso Diablos||Baseball||American Association of Independent Professional Baseball (South Division)||Cohen Stadium|
|El Paso Patriots||Soccer||USL Premier Development League||Patriot Stadium|
|El Paso Rhinos||Ice Hockey||Western States Hockey League||El Paso County Coliseum|
|UTEP Miners||Division I||Conference USA||Don Haskins Center|
UTEP owns the two largest stadiums in El Paso:
- Sun Bowl Stadium has a capacity of 51,500 and is home to the UTEP Miners football team, coached by Sean Kugler. It is also home to the annual Sun Bowl, soccer games, and special events such as concerts.
- Don Haskins Center has a capacity of 12,000 and is used for UTEP's basketball teams and special events such as concerts and boxing matches. It is also where the graduation ceremony takes place for UTEP students.
Other arenas in El Paso include:
- 9,000 seat AAA Baseball stadium under construction downtown. Unnamed.
- Cohen Stadium has a capacity of 9,725 and is used primarily for the El Paso Diablos Independent baseball club. It also hosts concerts and boxing matches and is able to host soccer games as well.
- El Paso County Coliseum has a capacity of 5,250. It is currently used primarily for special events such as concerts, wrestling matches, and others. It can also be utilized for hockey and arena football.
- Memorial Gym is a 5,000 seat multi-purpose arena located on the UTEP campus. It was home to the Miners basketball teams until the Don Haskins Center, then known as the Special Events Center, opened in 1976.
- Patriot Stadium has a capacity of around 3,000 and is solely used for the Chivas El Paso Patriots soccer club.
- Sierra Providence Events Center at the El Paso County Coliseum Complex.
The city of El Paso is served by the following main school districts:
Nearby areas are served by:
Other private schools include the following:
El Paso Public Library operates public libraries in El Paso with the main library located at the corner of Oregon and Franklin in Downtown El Paso and branches located all around the city.
- Del Sol Medical Center59
- El Paso Children's Hospital
- Las Palmas – Del Sol Rehab. Hospital
- Las Palmas Medical Center60
- Horizon Specialty Hospital
- University Medical Center- The city's general hospital and the only Level I trauma center in the area (Formerly Thomason Hospital)
- Rio Vista Rehab. Hospital
- Sierra Medical Center
- Southwestern General Hospital
- William Beaumont Army Medical Center
- Providence Memorial Hospital
- Providence Memorial Children's Hospital
- Physicians Hospital
- Highlands Regional Rehabilitation Hospital
- Sierra Providence East Medical Center
- Fort Bliss Replacement Hospital expected opening date 2017.
- The Centennial Museum and Chihuahuan Desert Gardens is located on the grounds of UTEP, including a comprehensive collection of El Paso Brown, Native American pottery, as well as educational exhibits for students.
- The El Paso Museum of Archaeology is located on the eastern slope of North Franklin Mountain. Its grounds include native plants of the American Southwest as well samples of Native American shelters, in an unspoiled location. The museum includes dioramas for schoolchildren which illustrate the culture and geology of the American Southwest, such as Hueco Tanks in El Paso County. One diorama (see image to the right) is of the Cueva de la Olla61 (cave of the pot) which is located in the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua, an example of the Paquimé culture.62
- The El Paso Museum of Art is located next to the Plaza Theater next to San Jacinto Plaza, the public square downtown. It contains works of southwestern artists such as Tom Lea.
- El Paso Museum of History
- Fort Bliss Museums & Study Center
- Insights El Paso Science Museum
- The Magoffin Homestead, dating from 1875, is now a State Historic Site.
- The National Border Patrol Museum is located adjacent to the El Paso Museum of Archaeology.
- Railroad & Transportation Museum of El Paso
- War Eagles Air Museum, Santa Teresa, New Mexico
- Gene Roddenberry Planetarium
- El Paso Holocaust Museum and Study Center
- Lynx Exhibits
- The Abraham Chavez Theatre is located adjacent to the El Paso Convention & Performing Arts Center, welcomes patrons with a three-story-high glass-windowed entry and unique sombrero-shaped architecture making it a distinct feature on El Paso's southwestern landscape.
- The Plaza Theatre is a historic building located at 125 Pioneer Plaza in El Paso, Texas. The theater stands as one of the city's most well-known landmarks. It shows various Broadway productions, musical concerts, and individual performers. It has a seating capacity of 2,100.
- McKelligon Canyon is a 90-acre (360,000 m2) park, located in the Franklin Mountains, open to hikers and picnickers. In the canyon, McKelligon Canyon Amphitheatre is surrounded on three sides by dramatic canyon walls; the 1,500-seat amphitheatre is used for concerts and special events, such as Viva El Paso!
- El Paso Playhouse is a theater affiliated with Kids-N-Co, a theater for child actors.
- Chamizal National Memorial
- El Paso Zoo
- Fort Bliss
- Franklin Mountains State Park
- Cathedral of Saint Patrick
- El Paso High School
- Magoffin Home State Historic Site
- Plaza Hotel
- Plaza Theatre
- Union Depot
- University of Texas at El Paso
- Wyler Aerial Tramway
- Ysleta Mission
- Rio Bosque Wetland Park
El Paso is served by El Paso International Airport, Amtrak via the historic Union Depot, Interstate 10, U.S. Highway 54 (known locally as "54", the "North-South Freeway" or officially as the Patriot Freeway), Spur 601 (Liberty Expressway), U.S. Highway 180 and U.S. Highway 62 (Montana Avenue), U.S. Highway 85 (Paisano Drive), Loop 375, Loop 478 (Copia Street-Pershing Drive-Dyer Street), numerous Texas Farm to Market Roads (a class of state highway commonly abbreviated to FM) and the city's original thoroughfare, State Highway 20, the eastern portion of which is known locally as Alameda Avenue (formerly U.S. Highway 80). Texas 20 also includes portions of Texas Avenue in Central El Paso, Mesa Street from Downtown to the West Side, and Doniphan Drive on the West Side. Northeast El Paso is connected to West El Paso by Transmountain Road(Loop 375). The city also shares 4 international bridges and one railbridge with Ciudad Juárez, Mexico. In 2009, El Paso was home to number 52, number 98 and number 100 of the 100 most congested roads in Texas, which are, respectively: North Zaragoza Road between Sun Fire Boulevard and Interstate 10; Lee Trevino Drive between Montana Avenue and Interstate 10; and Interstate 10 between Patriot Freeway and Loop 375.63
- Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, serves El Paso at the historic Union Depot, operating its Sunset Limited three times weekly between New Orleans and Los Angeles.
- Interstate 10 The primary thoroughfare through the city, connecting the city with other major U.S. cities such as Los Angeles, Phoenix, Tucson, San Antonio, Houston, Baton Rouge, New Orleans, Gulfport & Mobile with the east end located in Jacksonville, Florida. I-10 is also a connector to Interstate 25, which connects with the cities of Albuquerque, Santa Fe Colorado Springs, Denver, Fort Collins, Cheyenne, Casper, and north to the junction with I-90, located in Buffalo, Wyoming.
- U.S. Highway 54 Officially called the Patriot Freeway; also known as the North-South Freeway. A business route runs along Dyer Street, the former US 54, from the freeway near Fort Bliss to the Texas–New Mexico border, where it again rejoins the expressway. The original U.S. 54 was a transcontinental route connecting El Paso with Chicago.
- U.S. Highway 62 Santa Fe Street south of Paisano Drive concurrently with US 85, Paisano Drive east of Santa Fe Street to Montana Avenue, then Montana Avenue concurrently with US 180.
- U.S. Highway 85 Santa Fe Street south of Paisano Drive concurrently with US 62 and Paisano Drive west of Santa Fe Street to I-10.
- U.S. Highway 180 Montana Avenue, which is a bypass route to the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex to the east, and Flagstaff, Arizona to the west.
- SH 20 Alameda Avenue (formerly US 80), Texas Avenue, Mesa Street and Doniphan Drive.
- SH 178 Artcraft Road in Northwest El Paso extends from Interstate 10 west to the New Mexico state line, at which point it becomes New Mexico Highway 136, the Pete V. Domenici International Highway.
- Loop 375 Texas Highway Loop 375 encircles the city of El Paso. Between Interstate 10 and Fort Bliss, including the stretch that crosses the Franklin Mountains via Smuggler's Pass, it is TransMountain Road. In the Ft. Bliss Military Reservation in between Northeast and East El Paso, it is officially the Purple Heart Memorial Highway. In East El Paso, the north- and south-bound section is known as Joe Battle Boulevard, or simply as "the Loop". South of I-10, in the east and westbound portion, it is known as the Cesar Chavez Border Highway, a four-lane expressway which is located along the U.S.-Mexico border between Downtown El Paso and the Ysleta area.
- Loop 478: Copia Street, Pershing Drive and Dyer Street.
- Spur 601. Once known as the Inner Loop, it was officially named the Liberty Expressway by the El Paso City Council in April 2010 at the request of then Fort Bliss commander Maj. Gen. Howard Bromberg.64 It was fully completed on April 27, 2011;65 it connects the Patriot Freeway (US 54) and Biggs Army Airfield to the Purple Heart Memorial Highway (Loop 375).
- North Loop Road, as well as Delta Drive between North Loop Road and Alameda Avenue (Texas Highway 20).
- Zaragoza Road, running more or less north from the Ysleta International Bridge to US 62–180 (Montana Avenue); it lies mostly in East El Paso.
- A portion of Clark Drive from Alameda Avenue (Texas Highway 20) north to Trowbridge Drive in South-Central El Paso.
- McRae Boulevard, running north from Interstate 10 to US 62–180 (Montana Avenue) in East El Paso.
- Texas Farm Road 2529 includes Stan Roberts Avenue and McCombs Street between Dyer Street and Stan Roberts Avenue in Northeast El Paso.
- Runs east from McCombs Street (Texas Farm Road 2529) in far Northeast El Paso; does not have a city street name.
- Texas Farm Road 3255 runs north from US 54 to the New Mexico state line in Northeast El Paso and bears the city street name Martin Luther King Boulevard.
El Paso County Transit makes trips with small capacity buses mainly in the Eastern El Paso area.
Historically, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez had a shared streetcar system with a peak electrified route mileage of 64 miles (103 km) in 1920. The first electrified line across the Rio Grande which opened on January 11, 1902 was preceded by a network that relied on animal labor. The system quickly spread into residential and industrial areas of El Paso. In 1913 a 12 miles (19 km) interurban line was built to Ysleta. At the close of 1943 the holding company of El Paso Electric sold its subsidiary the El Paso Electric Railway Company and its Mexican counterpart to one of National City Lines' subsidiaries. This resulted in the formation of El Paso City Lines whose domestic streetcar lines were replaced by buses in 1947.68 The international streetcar line which crossed the border via the Stanton Street Bridge continued to operate until 1973. In 1977 El Paso City Lines and two other bus companies were bought by the municipality and merged to form Sun City Area Transit (SCAT). In 1987 SCAT restyled itself Sun Metro.69
In 2011, Sun Metro has been named the most Outstanding Public Transit System of the Year in all of North America for a mid-size transit system by the American Public Transportation Association.
The first bridge to cross the Rio Grande at El Paso del Norte was built in the time of Nueva España, over 250 years ago, from wood hauled in from Santa Fe.71 Today, this bridge is honored by the modern Santa Fe Street Bridge, and Santa Fe Street in downtown El Paso.
The main newspapers are the English language daily El Paso Times, founded in 1881; the Spanish language daily El Diario de El Paso, and the Spanish language online publication La Polaka. The now defunct El Paso Herald Post was also founded in 1881 as the El Paso Herald, which then merged with the El Paso Post in 1931. The paper was shut down in 1997.
El Paso was the largest city in the United States without a PBS television station within the city limits until 1978. El Paso viewers had to watch channel 22, KRWG from Las Cruces until 1978. In fact, the city had only three English-speaking channels and two Spanish-language channels (channel 2 and channel 5) from Juarez, and cable TV subscribers in the 1970s and 1980s could receive four Los Angeles independent channels: KTLA, KHJ, KTTV and KCOP. Over time, as more television stations signed on and more cable channels were added (and the internet expanded), the L.A. stations would disappear from the lineup. The last to be removed was KTLA in the Fall of 2006, when KVIA-TV opened its own CW station.
El Paso's current television stations are as shown in the table below:
KTSM TV reports72 that cellular phone users in El Paso are subject to International Calling fees (unless they disable roaming with their cellular phone providers).
- "El Paso" by Marty Robbins was a popular Country ballad released in 1959. Robbins followed it up with a sequel, "El Paso City," in 1976.
- Fleetwood Mac held their first concert that featured Stevie Nicks and Lindsey Buckingham in El Paso in 1975. Stevie Nicks attended Loretto Academy and Bassett Junior High in El Paso as a teenager.
- "Take The Money and Run" – a hit song by the Steve Miller Band – tells the story of two bandits who "go down to old El Paso" and "ran into a great big hassle."
- The current Blue Beetle comic book series takes place in El Paso.
- El Paso has become a favored destination for musicians of all stripes. See Vanity Fair's March 2009 article.
- In Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter 2, the penultimate mission is set in El Paso.
- The Chinga Chavin song "Asshole From El Paso" (most famously recorded by Kinky Friedman), a parody of Merle Haggard's "Okie from Muskogee", mentions El Paso in both the lyrics and the title.
- American artist Tori Amos references El Paso in her song, "Mother Revolution," featured on 2005's The Beekeeper.
- In the film For a Few Dollars More, a bank in El Paso is robbed.
- In the second season of Breaking Bad, DEA Agent Hank Schrader is transferred from his office in Albuquerque to the headquarters in El Paso.
- In the films Kill Bill and Kill Bill: Vol. 2 the Two Pines Wedding Chapel massacre is in El Paso, Texas.
- In the film Django Unchained Dr. King Schultz kills the El Paso Sheriff who in reality is an outlaw.
- In the film No Country for Old Men Llewelyn Moss is killed in an El Paso motel as he tried to rendezvous with his wife and get her out of harms way.
- In the film Due Date Peter and Ethan accidentally cross into Mexico from El Paso when Ethan mistakes the 'Mexico' sign at the border crossing for a 'Texaco' gas station.
- I'm Not Fat...I'm Fluffy (2009), starring Gabriel Iglesias, was shot at the Plaza Theater.
- The Burning Plain (2009) starring Charlize Theron. One scene was shot on 2nd floor at Southwest General Hospital.
- Stephen Fry in America (2008) documentary
- The Last Conquistador (2008), a PBS POV documentary about the Oñate statue controversy
- Glory Road (2006) starring Josh Lucas is set in El Paso.
- Man on Fire (2004) starring Denzel Washington and Dakota Fanning.
- The Day After Tomorrow (2004) starring Dennis Quaid and Sela Ward.
- Saving Jessica Lynch (2003) starring Laura Regan.
- Kingpin (NBC pilot) (2003) starring Yancey Arias and Brian Benben.
- The Original Latin Kings of Comedy (2002) featuring George Lopez, Cheech Marin, Joey Medina, Alex Reymundo and Paul Rodriguez was shot at the Abraham Chavez Theater.
- Traffic (2000) starring Benicio del Toro, Michael Douglas, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Dennis Quaid and Don Cheadle.
- Committed (2000) starring Heather Graham.
- On the Border (1998) starring Casper Van Dien, Bryan Brown, Daniel Baldwin.
- Lolita (1997) starring Jeremy Irons and Melanie Griffith.
- Last Man Standing (1996) starring Bruce Willis, Bruce Dern, Christopher Walken, Karina Lombard.
- Blue Sky (1994) starring Jessica Lange and Tommy Lee Jones.
- Wild at Heart (1990) starring Nicolas Cage and Laura Dern.
- Extreme Prejudice (1987) starring Nick Nolte and Powers Boothe.
- Lost in America (1985) starring Albert Brooks and Julie Hagerty.
- Paris, Texas (1984) starring Harry Dean Stanton and Dean Stockwell.
- Lone Wolf McQuade (1983) starring Chuck Norris and David Carradine.
- Wrong is Right (1982) starring Sean Connery.
- The Border (1982) starring Jack Nicholson and Harvey Keitel. All the border scenes, Nicholson's character's house, the refugee camp scene, and the U.S. Embassy scene were shot in and around El Paso.
- Resurrection (1980) starring Ellen Burstyn.
- When You Comin' Back, Red Ryder? (1979) starring Hal Linden and Lee Grant.
- Big Wednesday (1978) starring Jan Michael Vincent and Gary Busey.
- The Bad News Bears in Breaking Training (1977) starring William Devane.
- The Getaway (1972) starring Steve McQueen and Ali MacGraw.
- Manos: The Hands of Fate (1966), which is reputed to be one of the worst films ever made, was shot in and around El Paso. It premiered in 1966 at the downtown Capri Theater.
- Take the High Ground! (1953), starring Richard Widmark and Karl Malden.
El Paso, Texas has the following sister cities:
- – Chihuahua, México73
- – Jerez de la Frontera, Spain74
- – Mérida, Spain74
- – Juárez, México74
- – Torreón, México74
- – Zacatecas, México74
- El Paso Holocaust Museum and Study Center
- List of museums in West Texas
- National Register of Historic Places listings in El Paso County, Texas
- "Brides and Sinners in El Chuco". Uapress.arizona.edu. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "American FactFinder". Factfinder2.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
- The evidence suggests 10,000 to 12,000 years of human habitation.
- Leon C. Metz (1993). El Paso Chronicles: A Record of Historical Events in El Paso, Texas. El Paso: Mangan Press. ISBN 0-930208-32-3.
- Mark Sumner (January 30, 2011). "America, the artifact".
- El Paso, A Borderlands History, by W.H. Timmons, pp. 74, 75
- El Paso, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
- '''Records of California men in the war of the rebellion 1861 to 1867''', By California. Adjutant General's Office, SACRAMENTO: State Office, J. D. Young, Supt. State Printing. 1890. p.672. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- Víctor M. Macías-González (1995). Mexicans "of the better class": The elite culture and ideology of Porfirian Chihuahua and its influence on the Mexican American generation, 1876–1936. El Paso: UTEP.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
- "Time changes in Chihuahua". Timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): El Paso city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved January 10, 2013.
- "El Paso Facts Figures – Visitors Information, Population History Culture of El Paso, Texas". Guestlife.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
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- Carlos A. Rincón (2002). "Solving Transboundary Air Quality Problems in the Paso Del Norte Region". In Linda Fernandez and Richard Carson. Both Sides of the Border. Springer. ISBN 1-4020-7126-4.
- "Climatography of the United States No. 20: El Paso Intl AP, TX 1971–2000" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2010-04-27.
- "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "City of El Paso". www.elpasotexas.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "Monthly Averages for El Paso International Airport". The Weather Channel. Retrieved 2011-10-04.
- "Climatological Normals of El Paso". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2010-05-13.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". Census.gov. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- "Texas Almanac: City Population History from 1850–2000" (PDF). Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "Table 3. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places in Texas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2011" (CSV). Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "El Paso–Juarez Regional Historic Population Summary – Development Services Department, Planning Division". PDF. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "Texas State Historical Association". Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "elpasonext – Downtown El Paso History". Elpasotexas.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- Special census of the population of El Paso, Tex: January 15, 1916. Govt. print. off. January 15, 1916. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
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- "El Paso named safest US city". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Corchado, Alfredo. "Families, businesses flee Juárez for U.S. pastures." The Dallas Morning News. Sunday March 7, 2010. Retrieved on March 10, 2010.
- "Ysleta del Sur Pueblo official site". Ysletadelsurpueblo.org. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Texas – American Indian Area". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- Pueblo Revolt Brought Tiguas South
- Flores, Aileen B. "Tiguas select new chief, re-elect governor". Elpasotimes.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Texas Historical Commission-Mission in Texas, Site of First Ysleta Marker No. 4786" Retrieved 27 March 2010
- "Texas Historical Commission-Oldest Mission in Texas-Historical Marker No. 3843" Retrieved 27 March 2010
- Martin, William (April 1982). "A Flourishing Bride of Christ". Texas Monthly (Mediatext Communications Corporation). pp. 190–194. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- Haskin, Frederic (May 7, 1940). "Answers to Questions". The Southeast Missourian (Rust Communications). p. 4. Retrieved 5 April 2010.
- "It's John Cook in a landslide: El Pasoans 'proud of the work' city has done". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "City of El Paso". www.elpasotexas.gov. February 7, 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "Election Summary Report". epcounty.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- By ABC-7 Reporter Maria Garcia (March 5, 2012). "El Paso County Judge Escobar Names Lawyer To Replace Gandara". KVIA El Paso. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Parole Division Region V." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
- William Earl Maxwell, Ernest Crain, Edwin S. Davis (2005). Texas Politics Today. Thomson Wadsworth. ISBN 0-534-60211-8.
- Hamilton, Reeve (December 8, 2010). "Cook: CD-17 Not Competitive in 2012 — U.S. Congress". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Contact Us." (Archive) Fred Loya Insurance. Retrieved on August 9, 2010. "Corporate Headquarters 1800 Lee Trevino El Paso, Texas 79936."
- City of El Paso CAFR
web|url=http://www.dallasfed.org/research/swe/2008/swe0804d.cfm%7Ctitle= Southwest Economy – Spotlight: El Paso Medical School New Facility Kindles Hopes for Well-Paying Jobs}}dead link
- "Del Sol :: About Us :: Las Palmas Del Sol HealthCare". Delsolmedicalcenter.com. Retrieved 2012-05-21.
- "Las Palmas Medical Center – Home Page". Laspalmashealth.com. August 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- John Noble, Mexico p. 365
- Cultura Paquime: Sitios Arqueologicos – Paquime Culture Documental Documentary see minute 0:32 of 4:18 total
- "Texas' Most Congested Roads". www.texastribune.org. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
- "Fort Bliss welcomes change from Spur 601". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "El Paso's Spur 601 Expressway Now Fully Operational". KVIA.com. April 27, 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
- "Sun Metro Homepage". www.elpasotexas.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- "History and Facts". NMDOT. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
- Myrick, David F. (1970). New Mexico's Railroads: An Historical Survey. Golden: Colorado Railroad Museum. pp. 189–190.
- "El Paso Mass Transit History". City of El Paso. Retrieved November 22, 2009.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- Paul Horgan, Great River: The Rio Grande in North American History. Volume 1, Indians and Spain. Vol. 2, Mexico and the United States. 2 Vols. in 1, 1038 pages – Wesleyan University Press 1991, 4th Reprint, ISBN 0-8195-6251-3
- KTSM TV (Channel 9) news broadcast, El Paso, Texas, Friday July 30, 2010
- "City Council Meetings – Voting Items". City of El Paso. November 18, 2008. Retrieved December 27, 2008. "ADDN1A. MAYOR AND COUNCIL: Discussion and action to authorize the Mayor to sign a Sister City agreement with the City of Chihuahua, México reaffirming the commitment made in 2002. ACTION TAKEN: AUTHORIZED"
- Andrade, Robert (March 2007). "Sister Cities". ¿Qué Pasa? A biweekly electronic newsletter from Mayor Cook. City of El Paso. Retrieved December 27, 2008. "Currently on record, there are four Sister Cities, three in México (Ciudad Juárez, Zacatecas and Torreón) and one in Spain (Jerez)."
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- City of El Paso Website
- Chamber of Commerce Website
- Forty years at El Paso, 1858–1898; recollections of war, politics, adventure, events, narratives, sketches, etc., by W. W. Mills, hosted by the Portal to Texas History
- El Paso Metropolitan Planning Organization
- El Paso, Texas from the Handbook of Texas Online
- El Paso – The Best Little Music City in Texas, from Vanity Fair, March 2009.