An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market but is not a developed market. This includes countries that may be developed markets in the future or were in the past.1 It may be a nation with social or business activity in the process of rapid growth and industrialization. The economies of China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau, as both are developed) and India are considered to be the largest.2 According to The Economist, many people find the term outdated, but no new term has gained traction.3 Emerging market hedge fund capital reached a record new level in the first quarter of 2011 of $121 billion.4 The four largest emerging and developing economies by either nominal or inflation-adjusted GDP are the BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China). The next four largest markets are MIKT (Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea and Turkey), although South Korea is not considered as an emerging market by some sources. Iran is also considered as an emerging market.5
- 1 Terminology
- 2 International Monetary Fund list
- 3 Columbia University EMGP List
- 4 FTSE list
- 5 MSCI list
- 6 S&P list
- 7 Dow Jones list
- 8 Frontier Strategy Group (F10) list
- 9 BBVA Research
- 10 Emerging Markets Index
- 11 Summary list
- 12 Global Growth Generators
- 13 Six major emerging economies
- 14 Neo emerging economies
- 15 See also
- 16 References
- 17 Sources
- 18 External links
In the 1970s, "less developed countries" (LDCs) was the common term for markets that were less "developed" (by objective or subjective measures) than the developed countries such as the United States, Western Europe, and Japan. These markets were supposed to provide greater potential for profit, but also more risk from various factors. This term was thought by some to be politically incorrect so the emerging market label was created. The term is misleading in that there is no guarantee that a country will move from "less developed" to "more developed"; although that is the general trend in the world, countries can also move from "more developed" to "less developed".
Originally brought into fashion in the 1980s by then World Bank economist Antoine Van Agtmael,7 the term is sometimes loosely used as a replacement for emerging economies, but really signifies a business phenomenon that is not fully described by or constrained to geography or economic strength; such countries are considered to be in a transitional phase between developing and developed status. Examples of emerging markets include Indonesia, Iran, some countries of Latin America, some countries in Southeast Asia, South Korea, most countries in Eastern Europe, Russia, some countries in the Middle East, and parts of Africa. Emphasizing the fluid nature of the category, political scientist Ian Bremmer defines an emerging market as "a country where politics matters at least as much as economics to the markets".8
The research on emerging markets is diffused within management literature. While researchers including, George Haley, Vladimir Kvint, Hernando de Soto, Usha Haley, and several professors from Harvard Business School and Yale School of Management have described activity in countries such as India and China, how a market emerges is little understood.
In 1999, Dr. Kvint published this definition: "Emerging market country is a society transitioning from a dictatorship to a free-market-oriented-economy, with increasing economic freedom, gradual integration with the Global Marketplace and with other members of the GEM (Global Emerging Market), an expanding middle class, improving standards of living, social stability and tolerance, as well as an increase in cooperation with multilateral institutions"9 In 2008 Emerging Economy Report,10 the Center for Knowledge Societies defines Emerging Economies as those "regions of the world that are experiencing rapid informationalization under conditions of limited or partial industrialization." It appears that emerging markets lie at the intersection of non-traditional user behavior, the rise of new user groups and community adoption of products and services, and innovations in product technologies and platforms.
More critical scholars have also studied key emerging markets like Mexico and Turkey. Thomas Marois (2012, 2) argues that financial imperatives have become much more significant and has developed the idea of 'emerging finance capitalism' - an era wherein the collective interests of financial capital principally shape the logical options and choices of government and state elites over and above those of labor and popular classes.11
Julien Vercueil12 recently proposed an pragmatic definition of the "emerging economies", as distinguished from "emerging markets" coined by an approach heavily influenced by financial criteria. According to his definition, an emerging economy displays the following characteristics :
1. Intermediate income : its PPP per capita income is comprised between 10% and 75% of the average EU per capita income.
2. Catching-up growth : during at least the last decade, it has experienced a brisk economic growth that has narrowed the income gap with advanced economies.
3. Institutional transformations and economic opening : during the same period, it has undertaken profound institutional transformations which contributed to integrate it more deeply into the world economy. Hence, emerging economies appears to be a by-product of the current globalization.
At the beginning of the 2010s, more than 50 countries, representing 60% of the world's population and 45% of its GDP, matched these criteria.13 Among them, the BRICS.
In recent years, new terms have emerged to describe the largest developing countries such as BRIC that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, and China,14 along with BRICET (BRIC + Eastern Europe and Turkey), BRICS (BRIC + South Africa), BRICM (BRIC + Mexico), BRICK (BRIC + South Korea), Next Eleven (Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, South Korea, Turkey, and Vietnam) and CIVETS (Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa).15 These countries do not share any common agenda, but some experts believe that they are enjoying an increasing role in the world economy and on political platforms.
It is difficult to make an exact list of emerging (or developed) markets; the best guides tend to be investment information sources like ISI Emerging Markets and The Economist or market index makers (such as Morgan Stanley Capital International). These sources are well-informed, but the nature of investment information sources leads to two potential problems. One is an element of historicity; markets may be maintained in an index for continuity, even if the countries have since developed past the emerging market phase. Possible examples of this are South Korea16 and Taiwan. A second is the simplification inherent in making an index; small countries, or countries with limited market liquidity are often not considered, with their larger neighbours considered an appropriate stand-in.
In an Opalesque.TV video, hedge fund manager Jonathan Binder discusses the current and future relevance of the term "emerging markets" in the financial world. Binder says that in the future investors will not necessarily think of the traditional classifications of "G10" (or G7) versus "emerging markets". Instead, people should look at the world as countries that are fiscally responsible and countries that are not. Whether that country is in Europe or in South America should make no difference, making the traditional "blocs" of categorization irrelevant.
Newly industrialized countries are emerging markets whose economies have not yet reached first world status but have, in a macroeconomic sense, outpaced their developing counterparts.
Individual investors can invest in emerging markets by buying into emerging markets or global funds. If they want to pick single stocks or make their own bets they can do it either through ADRs (American depositor Receipts - stocks of foreign companies that trade on US stock exchanges) or through exchange traded funds (exchange traded funds or ETFs hold basket of stocks). The exchange traded funds can be focused on a particular country (e.g., China, India) or region (e.g., Asia-Pacific, Latin America).
1 Also included in the group of "advanced economies" by the IMF.
The EMGP project, a collaborative effort led by the Vale Columbia Center (VCC), brings together researchers on FDI from leading institutions in emerging markets to produce annual reports identifying the top multinationals from each of a number of emerging markets. Each report is posted on this website as well as on the website of the partner institution in the relevant country. The information in the reports, including the rankings by foreign assets, will be of interest to researchers, bankers, investors, and the media, as well as to multinational firms in many countries.
The FTSE Group distinguishes between Advanced and Secondary Emerging markets on the basis of their national income and the development of their market infrastructure. The Advanced Emerging markets are classified as such because they are upper or lower middle income GNI countries with advanced market infrastructures or high income GNI countries with lesser developed market infrastructures.2021
The Advanced Emerging markets are:
The Secondary Emerging markets include some low income, lower middle, upper middle and high income GNI countries with reasonable market infrastructures and significant size and some upper middle income GNI countries with lesser developed market infrastructures. The secondary emerging markets are:
The list tracked by The Economist is the same, except with Hong Kong, Singapore and Saudi Arabia included (MSCI classifies the first two as developed markets and the third one is unclassified due to foreign ownership restrictions).
The United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Jordan are currently under review for being upgraded to the status of emerging market by S&P.28 Greece is under review for being demoted to becoming an emerging market effective on September 2014.29
The following country is currently under Dow Jones' watchlist for a reclassification to Emerging market:31
In July 2011, Frontier Strategy Group released the F-10, a list of the top 10 emerging markets Western multinational senior executives at Fortune 500 companies are tracking globally.32
The F-10 emerging market list is as follows:
EAGLEs (Emerging and Growth-Leading Economies): Expected Incremental GDP in the next 10 years to be larger than the average of the G7 economies, excluding the US.
NEST: Expected Incremental GDP in the next decade to be lower than the average of the G6 economies(G7 excluding the US) but higher than Italy’s.
Other Emerging Markets34
The Emerging Markets Index is a list of the top 65 cities in emerging markets. The following countries had cities featured on the list (as of 2008):
If we organize the lists above into the following table, a few countries appear in every list (BRICS + Next Eleven, FTSE, MSCI, The Economist, S&P, Dow Jones, Columbia University EMGP). Indonesia and Turkey are categorized with Mexico and Korea as part of the MIKT economies. Egypt, since January 25, 2011, has been affected by protests and is now in a transitional period. Several countries also only appear on one list. These are Iran (Next 11); Israel (Columbia University EMGP); Hong Kong, Singapore, and Saudi Arabia (The Economist); and Sudan, Tunisia, Ukraine, and Venezuela (BBVA).
|Country||IMF||BRICS + Next Eleven||FTSE||MSCI||The Economist||S&P||Dow Jones||BBVA||Columbia University EMGP|
"Global Growth Generators", or 3G (countries), is an alternative classification determined by Citigroup analysts as being countries with the most promising growth prospects for 2010-2050. These consist of Indonesia, Egypt, seven other emerging countries, and two countries not previously listed before, specifically Iraq and Mongolia. There has been disagreement about the reclassification of these countries, among others, for the purpose of acronym creation as was seen with the BRICS.
In early 2014, Coface a French credit body said that BRICS is slowdown and 10 neo emerging economies growth at least 4 percent a year, a diversified economy without undue dependence on the sale of raw materials, and some capacity to absorb economic shocks and have to be matched by a financial system capable of supporting investment, but without raising risks of overheating.
The 10 neo emerging economies broke into 2 groups:
- PPICS comprises Peru, Philippines, Indonesia, Colombia and Sri Lanka with sound business environment
- The second comprises Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Bangladesh and Ethiopia with unsound business environment as same condition with BRIC at 2001
Compare to BRIC(S) in 2001 and current 10 neo emerging economies, the latest are better with 2.8 percent lower of BRIC-2001 inflation rate and only 40 percent of publc debt ratio for the neo-10 and 54 percent for the BRICS at 2001.36
- Next Eleven
- Emerging market debt
- Pre-emerging markets
- Developed market
- Frontier markets
- North-South divide
- Emerging Markets Index
- Tehran Stock Exchange
- Emerging and Growth-Leading Economies
- Vladimir Kvint
- HKUST Institute for Emerging Market Studies
- "Greece First Developed Market Cut to Emerging at MSCI - Bloomberg".
- "Emerging Economies and the Transformation of International Business" By Subhash Chandra Jain. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2006 p.384
- "Acronyms BRIC out all over". The Economist (The Economist). September 18, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- "Iran-US Rapprochement: Historic Opportunities Beckon". -Business Monitor International. January 10, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014.
- "China-ASEAN FTA prompts growing trade among border cities". channelnewsasia.com (Singapore: MediaCorp). January 5, 2010. Retrieved April 14, 2011.
- FT.com / Columnists / John Authers - The Long View: How adventurous are emerging markets?
- Kvint, Vladimir (2009). The Global Emerging Market: Strategic Management and Economics. New York, London: Routledge.
- Emerging Economy Report
- Marois, Thomas (2012). States, Banks and Crisis: Emerging Finance Capitalism in Mexico and Turkey. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, UK: Edward Elgar.
- Vercueil, Julien : "Les pays émergents. Brésil - Russie - Inde - Chine... Mutations économiques et nouveaux défis " (Emerging Countries. Brazil - Russia - India - China.. Economic change and new challenges", in french). Paris : Bréal, 3rd Edition, 2012, 232 p.
- Ibid., p. 10
- Five Years of China’s WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives on China’s Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism, Legal Issues of Economic Integration, Kluwer Law International, Volume 33, Number 3, pp. 263-304, 2006. by Paolo Farah
- "After BRICs, look to CIVETS for growth - HSBC CEO"
- Classified by FTSE as a developed market.
- Yale University Library: Emerging Markets - The Big Ten Countries
- excluding Taiwan.
- See FTSE Country Classification, September 2010
- Possible promotion to Developed.
- MSCI Emerging markets.
- The S&P Global Broad Market Index, 31 December 2010; p. 2.
- "Colombia for emerging mkt status". S&P. July 12, 2011.
- "S&P reviewing UAE, Qatar, Jordan for emerging mkt status". Reuters. July 12, 2011.
- S&P downgrades Greece to emerging market status. Financial Times. October 31, 2013.
-  EAGLEs_Outlook_Annual_Report_2012 (20 February 2012), page 9
- "As Brics Economies Grow Up, 10 Upstarts Emerge: Report". March 26, 2014.
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (February 2013)|
- Goldman Sachs Paper No.134 BRIMC (English)
- CIVETS countries - Colombia Official Investment Portal (English)
- Michael Pettis, The Volatility Machine: Emerging Economies and the Threat of Financial Collapse (2001) ISBN 0-19-514330-2
- Julien Vercueil, Les pays émergents. Brésil Russie Inde Chine... mutations économiques et nouveaux défis ('Emerging Countries. Brazil Russia India China... : economic transformations and new challenges', in French). Paris : Bréal, 2010, 207 p. ISBN 978-2-7495-0957-0
- Emerging Markets Review Emerging Markets: A Review of Business and Legal Issues
- Emerging markets: leading the way to recovery Grant Thornton International Business Report
- Winning in Emerging Markets: Five Key Supply Chain Capabilities by Edgar E. Blanco. MIT Center for Transportation & Logistics.
- Investment Issues in Emerging Markets - Research Foundation of CFA Institute