|Emperor of Japan|
|Born||August 14, 1297|
|Died||December 2, 1348 (aged 51)|
|Buried||Jirakūu-in no ue no Misasagi (Kyoto)|
Emperor Hanazono (花園天皇 Hanazono-tennō) (August 14, 1297 – December 2, 1348) was the 95th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. His reign spanned the years from 1308 through 1318.1
He was the fourth son of the 92nd Emperor, Fushimi. He belonged to the Jimyōin-tō branch of the Imperial Family.
- Tokuji 3, in the 8th month (1308): In the 8th year of Go-Nijo-tennō's reign (後二条天皇8年), the emperor died at the young age of 24; and the succession (senso) was received by his cousin. Shortly thereafter, Emperor Hanazono is said to have acceded to the throne (sokui).3
- Tokuji 3, in the 10th month (1308): The nengō was changed to Enkyō to mark the accession of Emperor Hanazono.4
In these years, negotiations between the Bakufu and the two imperial lines resulted in an agreement to alternate the throne between the two lines every 10 years (the Bumpō Agreement). This agreement was not long-lasting. The negotiated provisions would soon broken by Hanazono's successor.
In 1318, he abdicated to his second cousin, the Daikakuji-tō Emperor Go-Daigo, who was the brother of Go-Nijō.
In 1335, he became a Buddhist monk of the Zen sect, and under his sponsorship, his palace became the temple of Myōshin-ji, now the largest network in Rinzai Buddhism. Many places and institutions in the area are named for him, including Hanazono University (the Rinzai university) and Hanazono Station.
He excelled at waka composition, and was an important member of the Kyōgoku School. He also left behind a diary, called Hanazono-in-Minki (Imperial Chronicles of the Flower Garden Temple or Hanazono-in) (花園院宸記). He was a very religious and literate person, never failing to miss his prayers to the Amitabha Buddha.
Kugyō (公卿?) is a collective term for the very few most powerful men attached to the court of the Emperor of Japan in pre-Meiji eras. Even during those years in which the court's actual influence outside the palace walls was minimal, the hierarchic organization persisted.
In general, this elite group included only three to four men at a time. These were hereditary courtiers whose experience and background would have brought them to the pinnacle of a life's career. During Hanazono's reign, this apex of the Daijō-kan included:
- Sesshō, Kujō Moronori, 1308
- Sesshō, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1308–1311
- Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1311–1313
- Kampaku, Konoe Iehira, 1313–1315
- Kampaku, Takatsukasa Fuyuhira, 1315–1316
- Kampaku, Nijō Michihira, 1316–1318
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du Japon, pp. 278–281; Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki. pp. 239–241.
- Titsingh, p. 278; Varley, p. 240.
- Titsingh, p. 278; Varley, p. 44; n.b., a distinct act of senso is unrecognized prior to Emperor Tenji; and all sovereigns except Jitō, Yōzei, Go-Toba, and Fushimi have senso and sokui in the same year until the reign of Emperor Go-Murakami.
- Varley, p. 240.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan, p. 422.
- Titsingh, p. 278.
- Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon. (1959). The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887
- Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Odai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691
- Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods and Sovereigns. New York: Columbia University Press. 10-ISBN 0-231-04940-4; 13-ISBN 978-0-231-04940-5; OCLC 59145842
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