Exploratorium

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The Exploratorium
Main Entrance to the Exploratorium at Pier 15.jpg
Main Entrance to the Exploratorium at Pier 15
Established 1969 (1969)
Location San Francisco, California, USA
Coordinates Coordinates: 37°48′05″N 122°23′51″W / 37.801434°N 122.397561°W / 37.801434; -122.397561
Type Science, art, and human perception
Visitors 570,000 visits annually
Director Dennis Bartels
Website http://www.exploratorium.edu/
A medley of videos recorded at the Exploratorium's Microscope Imaging Station.1

The Exploratorium is a museum in San Francisco whose stated mission is to change the way the world learns. It has been described by the New York Times as the most important science museum to have opened since the mid-20th century, an achievement attributed to "the nature of its exhibits, its wide-ranging influence and its sophisticated teacher training program."2 Characterized as "a mad scientist's penny arcade, a scientific funhouse, and an experimental laboratory all rolled into one,"3 the participatory nature of its exhibits and its self-identification as a center for informal learning has led to it being cited as the prototype for participatory museums around the world.4

The Exploratorium was founded by physicist and educator Frank Oppenheimer and opened in 1969 at the Palace of Fine Arts, its home until January 2, 2013. On April 17, 2013, the Exploratorium reopened at Piers 15 and 17 on San Francisco's Embarcadero. The historic interior and exterior of Pier 15 was renovated extensively prior to the move, and is divided into several galleries mainly separated by content, including the physics of seeing and listening (Light and Sound), Human Behavior, Living Systems, Tinkering (including electricity and magnetism), the Outdoor Gallery, and the Bay Observatory Gallery, which focuses on local environment, weather, and landscape.

Since the museum's founding, over 1,000 participatory exhibits have been created, approximately 600 of which are on the floor at any given time. The exhibit-building workshop space is contained within the museum and is open to view. In addition to the public exhibition space, the Exploratorium has been engaged in the professional development of teachers, science education reform, and the promotion of museums as informal education centers since its founding. Since Oppenheimer's death in 1985, the Exploratorium has expanded into other domains, including its 50,000-page website and two iPad apps on sound and color, and has inspired an international network of participatory museums working to engage the public with general science education.5 The new Exploratorium building is also working to showcase environmental sustainability efforts as part of its goal to become the largest net-zero museum in the country.6

The Exploratorium offers visitors a variety of ways—including exhibits, webcasts, websites and events—to explore and understand the world around them. In 2011, the Exploratorium received the National Science Board 2011 Public Service Science Award for its contributions to public understanding of science and engineering.7

History

The Exploratorium's museum floor, in its original Palace of Fine Arts location (2009)

Early history

The Exploratorium is the brainchild of Frank Oppenheimer, an experimental physicist and university professor. Oppenheimer, who worked on the Manhattan Project with his brother J. Robert Oppenheimer, was diverted from an academic career when he was forced to resign from his position at the University of Minnesota in 1949 as a result of an inquiry by the House Un-American Activities Committee. He was blacklisted from academic positions across the country, and withdrew with his family to a Colorado ranch, where he began lending a hand with science projects of local high school students. He eventually assumed the post of science teacher at the high school in Pagosa Springs, Colorado, where he taught for ten years. The field trips and experiments he did with his high school students would become a blueprint for the hands-on methods of teaching and learning he would later bring to the Exploratorium.

When Oppenheimer was invited to join the University of Colorado's physics department in 1959, he found himself less interested in traditional laboratory research and much more interested in exploring methods of provoking curiosity and inquiry. He received a grant from the National Science Foundation, which he used to build models of nearly a hundred science experiments. This "Library of Experiments" would become the core of the Exploratorium exhibit collection, and was the forerunner of the Exploratorium Cookbook, a manual explaining how to build these basic science exhibits.8

Convinced of the need for public museums to supplement science curricula at all levels, he toured Europe and studied museums on a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1965. Three European museums, encountered during that year, served as important influences on the founding of the Exploratorium: the Palais de la Découverte, which displayed models to teach scientific concepts and employed students as demonstrators, a practice that directly inspired the Exploratorium's much-lauded High School Explainer Program; the South Kensington Museum of Science and Art, which Oppenheimer and his wife visited frequently; and the Deutsches Museum in Munich, the world's largest science museum, which had a number of interactive displays that impressed the Oppenheimers.

Back in the United States, Oppenheimer was invited to do the initial planning for a new branch of the Smithsonian, but he turned it down to work on what he called his "San Francisco project". In 1967, the Oppenheimers came to San Francisco with a view towards opening an independent museum of their own. Oppenheimer sought funding and support for the endeavor using a grassroots approach, bringing a written proposal and some handmade exhibits with him as he visited scientists, businesses, city and school officials, relatives, and friends. Many prominent scientists and cultural figures endorsed the project, and the offers of support in conjunction with a $50,000 grant from the San Francisco Foundation made the museum realizable. In 1969, the Exploratorium opened at the Palace of Fine Arts. Although the building needed vast improvements, Oppenheimer couldn't afford to make the changes, and decided to allow the public to come and watch exhibits being built and changes being made as part of the participatory ethos of the institution.910:128–152

Oppenheimer served as the museum’s director until his death in 1985. Dr. Robert L. White served as Director from 1987 to 1990. Dr. Goéry Delacôte served as Executive Director from 1991 until 2005.11 Dr. Dennis Bartels has been serving as Executive Director of the Exploratorium since 2006. The museum has expanded greatly since the 1980s, increasing outreach, expanding programs for educators, creating an expanded Web presence, and forming museum partnerships around the world.5

Move to Piers 15 and 17

The Exploratorium relocated from the Palace of Fine Arts to Piers 15 and 17, located between the San Francisco Ferry Building and Pier 39 along the San Francisco Embarcadero, in April 2013. The Piers location was identified by Goéry Delacôte and then-board chairman Van Kasper as a potential space for relocation in 2004.12:11 In 2005, the San Francisco Board of Supervisors passed a resolution exempting the museum’s 66-year lease of the piers from San Francisco’s competitive bidding process due to its unique nature as a cultural and educational institution.13 Groundbreaking for the project, which required substantial construction and renovation, occurred on October 19, 2010. The Exploratorium holds a 66-year lease on the piers with the Port of San Francisco. Exhibits are currently only viewable at the Pier 15 campus; Pier 17 houses some staff, with the option for future expansion.14

Piers 15 and 17 are historic piers, built in 1931 and 1912 respectively.15:21 In 1954, the area between the piers was infilled and paved over. This infill was removed as part of the construction phase, restoring the space between the piers to public plazas, a pedestrian bridge, and open water.

Architecture and design

Renovation of Piers 15 and 17

The Exploratorium campus comprises 330,000 sq ft (31,000 m2) of indoor and outdoor exhibit space, and includes 1.5 acres of freely accessible public space. The exhibits are housed in and around Pier 15, which extends over 800 ft (240 m) over the Bay.16

The Exploratorium at Pier 15 was designed by architecture firm EHDD.17 The piers had been neglected for decades leading up to the Exploratorium’s move, and extensive renovation and repair was required.12:11 Nearly two thirds of the pilings under Pier 15 were repaired, including almost every piling needed to provide structural integrity, and new pilings were sunk.12:24 The removal of the parking lot between the piers was done slowly over the two years of construction, and the debris from the removal was captured and recycled.12:67 Several pilings were left in the water between the piers, both for aesthetic reasons and to support future exhibits.12:47

An effort was made in the construction of the new location to preserve the historic elements of Pier 15. The Bay Observatory was the only new structure added to the site. The east end of the pier was cleaned of lead paint, revealing historic lettering underneath; designers chose to preserve the lettering rather than paint it over.12:67 As a result, the traces of the shipping lines that originally frequented the pier can still be seen. Some of the preservation efforts presented challenges in design, however; historic windows created energy losses that had be offset elsewhere, and the historic interior trusswork was mainly restored rather than removed, meaning that the upper-level staff offices had to be built around them.18:30

Other challenges to the design of the facilities were presented by the museum’s sustainability initiatives. The use of natural light whenever possible challenged exhibit designers relying on carefully controlled light levels; this was solved by using curtains and glare-reducing paint colors.18:32 Other conflicts between construction and energy use included the glass in the Observatory, which would have presented a problem in cooling the building on warm days. This was overcome by adding fritted glass to the windows in thin horizontal lines through the panes to decrease the transparency without affecting the views.18:85 The fritting also makes the reflective surfaces of the Bay Observatory safe for birds.19

Pier 15 incorporated two seismic joints as part of its seismic retrofit, one separating the Bay Observatory from the Pier 15 shed and the other separating the entire pier from the land. This second joint ensures that the entire pier will move independently from the land mass in the event of an earthquake, significantly reducing the potential torsion.12:83 The café at the west end of the Exploratorium is named the Seismic Joint in honor of the joint, which cuts through the area of the building where the café is situated.12:80

The aesthetic of the project was defined as "industrial naval chic" in keeping with the pier’s history.12:63

Restaurant

The design scheme for the Exploratorium's Seaglass Restaurant was inspired by the exhibit Color of Water.

The design aesthetic for both the Seismic Joint and Seaglass Restaurant was created by designer Olle Lundberg and based on the exhibit Color of Water. The bar at Seaglass features a specially designed version of Exploratorium artist Shawn Lani’s exhibit Icy Bodies.2021

Sustainability

The Exploratorium at Pier 15 has a net-zero energy goal as part of its overall sustainability efforts. If it succeeds, it will be the largest net-zero museum in the country, and possibly the world. The museum highlights its sustainability efforts in visible ways throughout the museum as part of a stated intention to lead by example.18:2222

The photovoltaic array on the roof of Pier 15 is the second largest in San Francisco. There are 5,874 modules on the roof, with a projected year 1 yield of 1.3 megawatts.18:44 In addition to solar power, the museum makes use of an HVAC system that takes advantage of the relatively constant, moderate temperature of water under the piers, which is 50 to 65 °F (10 to 18 °C), to heat and cool the building. There are 27 miles of plastic tubing in the radiant heating system in the floor.12:5518:36–82

Two large cisterns under the structural beams connecting the southeast pilings capture up to 338,000 gallons of rainwater and fog runoff for reuse in the facility.18:17 The plumbing is designed for water conservation, with waterless urinals and dual-flush toilets projected to save an annual million gallons of water.18:79 Other strategies in place as part of the net-zero goal include managing plug loads. Ten exhibits account for 30% of the energy used by all exhibits, which collectively account for 35% of the plug load itself.18:53–57

The Exploratorium has applied for LEED rating, and is awaiting its certification. It is on track to receive Gold or higher.22 According to the New York Times, "After a two-year post-opening shakedown period of monitoring and adjusting the systems, the Exploratorium hopes to become the largest net-zero-energy-use museum in the United States and possibly the world."23

Layout

The new site contains over 600 exhibits, 25% of which were developed specifically for the Pier 15 site. With the exception of some art installations, all exhibits are developed and made onsite.24 The indoor and outdoor spaces are divided into six galleries, each highlighting a specific content group. Many exhibits are mobile, however, and move among different galleries; similarly, not all exhibits fall into distinct categories.

Exhibits cover a range of subject areas, including human perception (such as vision, hearing, learning and cognition), the life sciences, physical phenomena (such as light, motion, electricity, waves and resonance, and magnetism), local environment (water, wind, fog, rain, sun, and other elements, as well as cityscape, landscape, and the flora and fauna of the Bay) and human behavior (such as cooperation, competition, and sharing).25

Osher West Gallery: Human Behavior

Visitors collaborate to make a smoke ring at the Exploratorium's previous location at the Palace of Fine Arts

The West Gallery focuses on human behavior. Its signage and exhibits encourage visitors to play with perception; investigate memory, emotion, and judgment; and experiment with how people cooperate, compete, and share. It holds exhibits such as Poker Face (partners try to assess when someone is bluffing), Trust Fountain (an experimental exhibit from the museum’s National Science Foundation-funded Science of Sharing project, this two-person drinking fountain is based on the Prisoner’s dilemma, a classic scenario centering on negotiation and trust),26 and the Tactile Dome (re-opening summer 2013), a pitch-black environment visitors explore by touch, originally designed by August Coppola.27 The West Gallery also includes the temporary exhibition The Changing Face of What is Normal: Mental Health, which showcases the personal artifacts of patients from the now-decommissioned Willard Psychiatric Center,2 on view through April 2014.

The West Gallery also houses the Kanbar Forum, a cabaret-style theater that will host music events, science lectures, and other programs when it opens in summer 2013.28

South Gallery: Tinkering

The South Gallery is a workshop area where visitors can engage in learning through making, located directly across from the Exploratorium exhibit workshop, which is open to view. Oppenheimer wanted visitors to be able to “smell the oil” and insisted that the exhibit-building space be on display.29 Exhibits in the South Gallery highlight a DIY aesthetic and include Animation Stations where visitors can make their own stop-motion films, the Tinkerer’s Clock (a 22-foot-high clock constructed by artist Tim Hunkin, with figurines in his noted cartoon style that can be manipulated by visitors and unfold into a clockface on the hour), and Rolling Through The Bay (a sculpture made by artist Scott Weaver over the course of 37 years, utilizing over 100,000 toothpicks and depicting many of the Bay Area’s iconic landmarks, through which a ping-pong ball can roll on one of several different "tours").30

Bechtel Central Gallery: Seeing and Listening

A visitor investigates the reflective properties of the Giant Mirror in the Central Gallery of the Exploratorium at Pier 15.

The Bechtel Central gallery houses many of the "classic" Exploratorium exhibits, including many of those that have been on display since the very earliest years of the museum.3 It includes a mix of new and old exhibits that investigate physics and the perception of light, color, and sound, such as Sound Bite (a demonstration of hearing with the jawbone instead of the ears) and Bright Black (a trick of perception convinces viewers that an object is white when it is almost entirely black).

East Gallery: Living Systems

The East Gallery houses a much-expanded selection of life sciences exhibits. Many exhibits relate directly to the immediate local environment, such as the Glass Settling Plate (barnacles and other creatures are grown on a plate in the Bay, then put live under a mobile microscope to be observed from both above and below) and the Algae Chandelier (visitors can pump air to nourish overhead tanks of colorful phytoplankton). Other exhibits explore different biological systems and processes, such as the imaging station with mouse stem cells, the live cow’s eye dissections, and the Live Chicken Embryo (one of the oldest of the Living Systems exhibits, showing live chicken embryos at different stages of development).31

Fisher Bay Observatory Gallery

The Bay Observatory building is the only new building constructed on the Exploratorium’s campus. It holds the Seaglass restaurant on its lower level and exhibits on the upper level relating to the waterfront and the cityscape. The gallery focuses on what visitors can see in real time, including the movement of clouds and tides, the changing waterfront, the movement of ships, and interpretation of oceanographic data. The Observatory has glass walls on all four sides to facilitate observation. Many of the exhibits were developed specifically for the location, such as Oculus (a circular opening in the ceiling that allows the entire gallery to be used as a timepiece, tracking seasons, solstices, and the sun’s movement), Visualizing the Bay (a 3-D topographic map of the Bay Area that allows visitors to see real data mapped over the landscape, such as the movement of fog and the salinity of the Bay over the course of days or years), and the Map Table (an assortment of historic and contemporary maps and atlases displaying different views and perspectives on the landscape).32

The Bay Observatory also houses the Wired Pier project, which consists of more than a dozen sensors on and around the Bay Observatory that stream real-time data about the surrounding environment, such as quality of air and bay water, weather, tides and pollution, and compile it into interactive visualizations.33

Outdoor Gallery

Mist from Fujiko Nakaya’s Fog Bridge drifts over the water between Piers 15 and 17 at the Exploratorium.

The Outdoor Gallery comprises the north, south, and east aprons of Pier 15, and extends through both ticketed and unticketed space. Focus is on direct interaction with the Bay environment, which can be seen in exhibits such as Color of Water (an installation of 32 distinct color swatches suspended below the rail surrounding the pier so that visitors can investigate the changing colors of the Bay’s water). Another notable exhibit is “Remote Rains,” which allows visitors to choose a past rainstorm as profiled by the Hydrometeorology Testbed, which is then recreated by a rain machine that duplicates the frequency, size, and velocity of the raindrops, giving a tangible experience of NOAA research data on storms.3334 Along the publicly accessible bridge connecting Piers 15 and 17, artist Fujiko Nakaya created an installation called Fog Bridge #72494 that creates bursts of fog for six minutes every half hour as the first in a series of large-scale temporary installations called Over the Water.35 The Fog Bridge is 150 feet long and makes use of 800 nozzles to create the fog, which Nakaya hopes will inspire visitors to pay attention to the nature of one of San Francisco’s best-known weather patterns. It is on view through September 16, 2013.36

Public space

The Exploratorium campus includes 1.5 acres of publicly accessible open space. This includes the plaza facing on the Embarcadero, the connector bridge between Piers 15 and 17 where Fog Bridge # 72494 is installed, the south apron of Pier 17, and the east and south aprons of Pier 15. This public space overlaps with the Outdoor Gallery, and includes some notable exhibits, such as the Aeolian Harp (an expanded version of the original installation by Doug Hollis on the roof of the Exploratorium at the Palace of Fine Arts, first created in collaboration with Frank Oppenheimer in 1976)37 and the Bay Windows (visitors spin disks filled with samples of Bay mud, sand, and gravel gathered from five distinct regions of the Bay itself).38

Restaurant

The lower level of the Bay Observatory Building houses the Seaglass Restaurant, which, like the Seismic Joint Cafe, is open to unticketed members of the public. Both the Seismic Joint and Seaglass are run by Loretta Keller, chef-owner at Coco500, in partnership with Bon Appetit Management Company.

Educational programs

The Exploratorium seeks to bring hands-on inquiry to education, including training teachers in the teaching of science.39 Between 1995 and 2012, an estimated 6,400 educators from 48 states and 11 countries directly participated in Exploratorium workshops.40

Teacher Institute

Teachers from the Exploratorium's Teacher Institute examine the "String Thing" they built

The Teacher Institute, founded in 1984, is an Exploratorium-based professional development program geared towards middle and high school science teachers. In addition to providing workshops at the museum that teach hands-on and inquiry-based teaching methods, it provides coaches and support for novice teachers. Studies have shown that while 30 to 50 percent of new teachers leave the profession within five years, the retention rate for teachers who go through the Teacher Institute is 85 to 90 percent.41

The Teacher Institute is also home to the Iron Science Teacher, a national competition that celebrates innovation and creativity in science teaching, which originated at the Exploratorium in San Francisco. Parodying the cult Japanese TV program, Iron Chef, this competition showcases science teachers as they devise classroom activities using a particular ingredient — an everyday item such as a plastic bag, milk carton, or nail. Contestants are currently or formerly part of the Exploratorium's Teacher Institute and compete before a live audience for the title of "Iron Science Teacher". Shows are also archived on the Exploratorium's website.42

Two of three teachers applying were being turned away due to space limitations by the time the Exploratorium closed at its former location; following the move to the Piers, the Exploratorium is expanding its professional development for teachers through the Teacher Institute.41 Two MOOC courses are also being made available through MOOC provider Coursera. One integrates engineering into middle and high school STEM classrooms, and the other integrates making and tinkering activities into elementary and middle school classrooms.43

Informal learning programs

The Exploratorium operates several programs centering on informal learning. The Institute for Inquiry (IFI) is a professional development program of the Exploratorium geared towards educators, scientists, administrators, and policymakers. The Institute is a recipient of National Science Foundation funding and designs programs, materials and tools to help leaders in the science education community further the role of inquiry in elementary science education and strengthen reform efforts. It consists of workshops and an online library of resources available to participants in the Institute.44

The Institute for Inquiry partnered with the Sonoma Valley Unified School District on a program combining science education with English Language Development (ELD). Data from the two-year pilot study showed that a professional development program designed to help teachers integrate ELD strategies into science lessons had a significant, measurable impact on the achievement of students in both ELD and in science.45

The Center for Informal Learning and Schools (CILS) is a collaboration between the Exploratorium, the University of California Santa Cruz, and King's College London. CILS studies the intersection between museums and schools as centers of informal learning with the intention of understanding how informal science learning occurs and how informal educational centers such as the Exploratorium can contribute to science education reform.46

The Tinkering Studio began in 2008 as an in-house program geared towards maker culture and a “think with your hands” approach. It is housed within the museum in a dedicated space in the South Gallery, where it runs free do-it-yourself activities for museum visitors; it also shares its work with a larger audience of educators in afterschool programs, schools, museums and other learning environments. It is being cited as a prototype for similar programs across the globe,47 including South Korea, Canada, India, and Saudi Arabia.48 The Exploratorium also operates as afterschool tinkering program in partnership with San Francisco chapters of the Boys and Girls Club. In 2012 the Exploratorium was awarded a grant to create the California Tinkering Network, in collaboration with the Community Science Workshops, Techbridge, the Discovery Science Center, the California Afterschool Network, and the California STEM Learning Network. These organizations partner with over 20 local afterschool or summer programs to provide STEM-enriched activities for children in underserved communities. The initiative was designed to test an adaptable model for providing tinkering activities to promote learning and development in an afterschool setting.49

The Exploratorium also houses a number of other educational resources. These include the Learning Commons, a library and media resource center that houses a collection of print and digital science teaching resources for use by regional educators; a webcast studio, located in the Central Gallery, which produces 75 educational Webcasts from the museum and locations around the world annually, including a live webcast of the Mars Curiosity Rover launch and landing; and Lifelong Learning, which creates educational programming for children, teens, family groups, and adults. Lifelong Learning programs further the Exploratorium’s stated dedication to informal learning and the museum as teaching tool, and include day camps, workshops for families, the Homeschool Science series (in-house classes geared specifically towards homeschooled students), the Girl’s Science Institute (multi-day workshops geared towards girls 9-11), and excursions for adults. The Exploratorium has also published a number of books, and many of the 50,000 pages on its website are hands-on activity ideas or science experiments in the museums’ signature open-ended style.

Educational outreach

The Exploratorium operates several educational outreach programs. The Community Outreach Program works with community organizations to provide exhibit-based educational activities for underserved children and families in the local community.50 The Exploratorium is also home to XTech, a science education program for underserved middle school students. Begun in 2006, XTech was primarily funded by a National Science Foundation grant and provided afterschool activities in science, engineering, and technology in partnership with two community-based organizations in the Bay Area. XTech serves over 100 students a year in addition to 10-15 youth facilitators.51

Explainers

The Exploratorium Explainer program, which has been operating since the museum opened, hires and trains high school students and young educators each year. The program tripled its capacity, hiring 300 Explainers, following the relocation to Pier 15 in 2013.52 The Explainers function essentially as docents. There are two types of Explainers: High School Explainers, who are teenagers, and Field Trip Explainers, who are college students and young educators. The program was conceived by Frank Oppenheimer in the early days of the museum. He wanted to provide a visitor experience that was a learning experience in a museum context53 and allowed for guesswork and the absence of "correct" answers. He felt young people would be more capable than adults at conveying the open-ended experience he was looking for. His plan with the Explainers was to "loosen up the whole feeling of learning." Oppenheimer also intended the program to allow students to experience learning outside the framework of their school systems. The Explainers come from a highly diverse array of socioeconomic backgrounds, and he hoped they would bring families and friends who would not otherwise be likely to visit a museum.10:169–174 Both the High School and Field Trip Explainers are paid positions.

The Explainer Program was inspired by the staff demonstrations Frank observed at the Palais de la Decouverte, although the facilitators at the Palais when Oppenheimer visited were either graduate students or practicing scientists. The success of the Exploratorium’s Explainer program led the Palais to eventually hire teenage explainers of their own.54 Former Explainers often cite their experiences at the Exploratorium as defining elements of their success,55 including several notable tech CEOs.5657

Arts

Walter Kitundu - Artist in Residence and MacArthur Fellow

Despite being generally thought of as a science museum, the Exploratorium has always incorporated both science and art. As early as 1966, Frank Oppenheimer presented a paper discussing the connections between art and science, and the role of a museum in appealing to both casual visitors and serious students of all ages.10:142

The formal artist in residence program was started in 1974,58 but artworks such as Bob Miller’s “Sun Painting” were commissioned shortly after the museum was opened in 1969.59 Since the founding of the artist in residence program, over 250 artworks in various disciplines have been created.

Each year, the museum invites ten to twenty artists to participate in residencies ranging from two weeks to two years. Artists-in-residence work with staff and the visiting public to create original installations, exhibits, or performances. Artists are given a stipend, housing, travel expenses, and technical support, and they have at their disposal the Exploratorium's full array of metal and woodworking shops and materials. Two artists-in-residence who went on to become staff members have been awarded MacArthur Fellowship "genius" grants: Walter Kitundu and Ned Kahn.

The new Embarcadero campus opened with a number of pieces by prominent artists, including Douglas Hollis, Golan Levin, Lucky Dragons, Amy Balkin, and Fujiko Nakaya. The Center for Art and Inquiry, a new project at the new location, is an initiative to catalyze and orchestrate art across the museum.60 61

The Exploratorium has an equally long history with musical, film and other performances. Participating artists and performers included Laurie Anderson, John Cage, Philip Glass, Steve Reich, Brian Eno, Ali Akbar Khan, Trimpin, and The Mermen.62

In addition to the artists in residence, the museum’s Osher Fellows Program hosts 4-8 resident scholars, scientists, educators, and artists every year. Notable Osher Fellows have included Walter Murch, James Crutchfield, Christian de Duve, Arthur Ganson, Tim Hunkin, Lewis Hyde, Evelyn Fox Keller, Guillermo Gomez-Pena, Rosamond Wolff Purcell, Oliver Sacks, Mierle Laderman Ukeles, and Juan Felipe Herrera.63

Influence

Impact

In 2007, the Exploratorium was highlighted in the book Forces For Good as one of the 12 most effective non-profits in the United States, and was the only West Coast institution and only museum to make the list.64 In 2003, The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science noted that about four hundred science centers in forty-three countries were established after the example of the Exploratorium.65

Audiences

As of 2012, 570,000 people visited the Exploratorium annually. Of these, 55% were adults and 45% were children. 52% were from the Bay Area, 24% from the rest of California, 14% from other states, and 10% outside U.S. 36% received free or discounted admission, and 44,000 attended on free admission days. Prior to the relocation, 97,000 students and chaperons visited the museum each year; of these, 67,000 participated in the Field Trip program. 180 million people visit Exploratorium exhibits at science centers and other locations worldwide.40 Annual attendance at the Pier 15 location is anticipated to exceed one million.66

Website

Solar Eclipse webcast at the old Exploratorium.

Online since 1993, the Exploratorium was one of the first museums to build a site on the World Wide Web.67 The site serves 13 million visitors each year. It has received six Webby Awards since 1997, including four for Best Science Website and one for Best Education website, and has been an honoree an additional ten times.68

The Exploratorium's website is an extension of the experiences on the museum's floor and provides a large number of hands-on activities and exhibits for online-only visitors. The Exploratorium also broadcasts live video and/or audio directly from the museum floor (or from satellite feeds in the field, at such locations as Antarctica or the Belize rainforest) onto the Internet from its Webcast Studio. Webcasts provide access to special events, scientists, and other museum resources for audiences on the Web. Visitors to the website can hear or view interviews with scientists, "meet" interesting people, or tour unique locations from factories to particle accelerators.69

The Exploratorium has additionally released two free iPad apps, Sound Uncovered (2013) and Color Uncovered (2011), which assist in making its unique educational model as accessible as possible. Color Uncovered has been downloaded more than a million times.70

Partnerships

The Exploratorium has a number of partnerships with other organizations. One notable current partnership is with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). NOAA research vessels periodically berth at the end of Pier 15 and use the working biological labs featured in the museum to bring their research and data to the public. A number of exhibits at the Exploratorium, such as "Remote Rains," are based on NOAA data. NOAA scientists additionally provided training for the Explainer program to assist Explainers in explaining science to visitors based on the NOAA’s areas of research.33

Global Studios

The Exploratorium Global Studios initiative is an entrepreneurial endeavor that shares resources, exhibits, and research with foreign governments, universities, partner museums, libraries, hospitals, and other public and private entities around the world. One area of significant current activity for the Global Studios initiative is the Middle East, where it hopes to assist countries that are making long-term investments in education and transitioning to more information-based economies.71 For example, the Tinkering Studio visited a science festival in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia in the summer of 2012, where they trained a group of teachers to help thousands of festival participants to experience the hands-on learning style favored by the Exploratorium.72

Visiting the museum

Hours and access

The Exploratorium is open Tuesday through Sunday from 10am-5pm, with longer hours until 10pm on Wednesdays and special evening hours from 6pm-10pm for 18+ only on Thursdays. The entire museum is wheelchair-accessible.

The Exploratorium is accessible by multiple modes of public transit, including BART, Muni, taxi, and pedicab. It is located 0.6 miles from the Embarcadero BART and MUNI stations and has its own F-line stop. The Exploratorium does not own or operate any parking lots, but is located near several publicly accessible lots and on-street parking, including a Port-operated lot directly across the street. The museum is located on the Embarcadero between Fisherman’s Wharf and the Ferry Building.

Related points of interest

The Exploratorium maintains exhibits in public Bay Area spaces. The Outdoor Exploratorium consists of 14 different exhibits relating to the local environment, all placed outside in the Fort Mason area and accessible to the general public.73

The Wave Organ is another notable public work of the Exploratorium. The creation of former staff artist Peter Richards, this acoustic sculpture is situated on a point of land jutting into the San Francisco Bay not far from the Exploratorium’s original Palace of Fine Arts location.

Notes

  1. ^ Carlson, C. (2005). "Accessing the Microscopic World". PLoS Biology 3 (1): e12. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030012. PMC 544541. PMID 15660153. 
  2. ^ a b Rothstein, Edward. "An Emphasis on Newton’s Laws (and a Little Lawlessness)". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  3. ^ a b McCarthy, Allison. "A First Look at the New Exploratorium". 7x7 Magazine. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  4. ^ Rothstein, Edward (March 13, 2010). "The Thrill of Science, Tamed by Agendas". The New York Times. 
  5. ^ a b Chang, Kenneth (August 13, 2012). "San Francisco Exploratorium to Show New Face in a New Place". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
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