FC Bayern Munich

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Bayern München
crest
Full name Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V.
Nickname(s) Der FCB (The FCB)
Die Bayern (The Bavarians)
Stern des Südens (Star of the South)
Die Roten (The Reds)
FC Hollywood1
Founded 27 February 1900; 114 years ago (1900-02-27)
Ground Allianz Arena
Ground Capacity 71,137
President Karl Hopfner
Manager Pep Guardiola
League Bundesliga
2013–14 1st
Website Club home page
Current season

Fußball-Club Bayern München e.V., commonly known as FC Bayern München (German pronunciation: [ʔɛf ˈt͡seː ˈbaɪ̯ɐn ˈmʏnçən]), Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, and is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 24 national titles and 17 national cups.2

FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by eleven football players led by Franz John.3 Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932,4 the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963.5 The club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row (1974–76). Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most recently winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has also won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally. Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football with 23 titles and has won 6 of the last 10 titles. They have traditional local rivalries with TSV 1860 München and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as a contemporary rivalry with Borussia Dortmund.

Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena. Previously the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, and the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria.6 In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth biggest football club in the world, generating €368.4 million in 2012.7 With 223,985 members Bayern is the second-biggest sports club of the world in terms of membership, only just short of the world’s first on this measure, Portuguese club Benfica.8 There are also 3,576 officially-registered fan clubs with 262,077 members.9 The club has other departments for chess, handball, basketball, gymnastics, bowling, table tennis, referees, and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.10

After the 2012–13 season, FC Bayern was ranked second in UEFA's club coefficient rankings11 and first in IFFHS's IFFHS Club World Ranking.12

History

Early years (1900–65)

The first game of FC Bayern Munich against Nürnberg in 1901

FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club (MTV 1879). When a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association (DFB), eleven members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals and reached the semifinals of the 1900–01 South German championship.3 In the following years the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league. They won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany.413

In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions, before winning their first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later.414 Their first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final.4

The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. The president and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were also purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club" and as a semi-professional club Bayern was also affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.15

After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, which was split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled, hiring and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. In 1955 they were relegated, but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final.1617 The club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club.18 In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted. Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, TSV 1860 München, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga.5 They gained promotion two years later, fielding a team with young talents like Franz Beckenbauer, Gerd Müller, and Sepp Maier — who would later be collectively referred to as the axis.17

Golden years (1965–79)

Sepp Maier, Franz Beckenbauer, and Gerd Müller helped Bayern Munich win the European Cup three times in a row in 1974, 1975, and 1976 and many other trophies.

In their first Bundesliga season, Bayern finished third and also won the DFB-Pokal. This qualified them for the following year's European Cup Winners' Cup, which they won in a dramatic final against Scottish club Rangers, when Franz Roth scored the decider in a 1–0 extra time victory.17 In 1967, Bayern retained the DFB-Pokal, but slow overall progress saw Branko Zebec take over as coach. He replaced Bayern's offensive style of play with a more disciplined approach, and in doing so achieved the first league and cup double in Bundesliga history in 1969. Bayern Munich are one of four German clubs to win the Bundesliga and DFB-Pokal in the same season along with Borussia Dortmund, 1. FC Köln, and SV Werder Bremen. Zebec used only 13 players throughout the season.19

Udo Lattek took charge in 1970. After winning the DFB-Pokal in his first season, Lattek led Bayern to their third German championship. The deciding match in the 1971–72 season against Schalke 04 was the first match in the new Olympiastadion, and was also the first live televised match in Bundesliga history. Bayern beat Schalke 5–1 and thus claimed the title, also setting several records, including points gained and goals scored.20 Bayern also won the next two championships, but the zenith was their triumph in the 1974 European Cup Final against Atlético Madrid, which Bayern won 4–0 after a replay.21 This title – after winning the Cup Winners' trophy 1967 and two semi-finals (1968 and 1972) in that competition – marked the club's breakthrough as a force on the international stage. During the following years, the team was unsuccessful domestically but defended their European title by defeating Leeds United in the 1975 European Cup Final when Roth and Müller secured victory with late goals. "We came back into the game and scored two lucky goals, so in the end we were the winners but we were very, very lucky", stated Franz Beckenbauer. Billy Bremner believed the French referee was "very suspicious." Leeds fans then rioted in Paris and were banned from European Football for three years.22 A year later in Glasgow, AS Saint-Étienne were defeated by another Roth goal and Bayern became the third club to win the trophy in three consecutive years. The final trophy won by Bayern in this era was the Intercontinental Cup, in which they defeated Brazilian club Cruzeiro over two legs.23 The rest of the decade was a time of change and saw no further titles for Bayern. In 1977, Franz Beckenbauer left for New York Cosmos and, in 1979, Sepp Maier and Uli Hoeneß retired while Gerd Müller joined the Fort Lauderdale Strikers.24 Bayerndusel was coined during this period as an expression of either contempt or envy about the sometimes narrow and last-minute wins against other teams.

From FC Breitnigge to FC Hollywood (1979–98)

Executive board chairman Karl-Heinz Rummenigge is the second highest goal scorer in Bayern Munich history and won multiple trophies in the 1980s.

The 1980s were a period of off-field turmoil for Bayern, with many changes in personnel and financial problems. On the field, Paul Breitner and Karl-Heinz Rummenigge, termed FC Breitnigge, led the team to Bundesliga titles in 1980 and 1981. Apart from a DFB-Pokal win in 1982, two relatively unsuccessful seasons followed, after which Breitner retired and former coach Udo Lattek returned. Bayern won the DFB-Pokal in 1984 and went on to win five Bundesliga championships in six seasons, including a double in 1986. However, European success was elusive during the decade; Bayern managed to claim the runners-up spot in the European Cup in 1982 and 1987.25

Jupp Heynckes was hired as coach in 1987, but after two consecutive championships in 1988–89 and 1989–90 Bayern's form dipped. After a second place in 1990–91 the club finished just five points above the relegation places in 1991–92. In the season of 1993–94, Bayern lost out in the UEFA Cup second round to the Premier League team Norwich City, who remain the only English football club to beat them at the Olympiastadion. Success returned when Franz Beckenbauer took over for the second half of the 1993–94 season, winning the championship again after a four-year gap. Beckenbauer was then appointed club president.26

His successors as coach, Giovanni Trapattoni and Otto Rehhagel, both finished trophyless after a season, not meeting the club's high expectations.27 During this time Bayern's players frequently appeared in the gossip pages of the press rather than the sports pages, resulting in the nickname FC Hollywood.28 Franz Beckenbauer briefly returned at the end of the 1995–96 season as caretaker coach and led his team to victory in the UEFA Cup, beating Bordeaux in the final. For the 1996–97 season, Trapattoni returned to win the championship. In the following season, Bayern lost the title to newly promoted Kaiserslautern and Trapattoni had to take his leave for the second time.29

Renewed international success (1998–present)

Opened in 2005: the Allianz Arena, one of the world's most modern football stadiums.

After his success at Borussia Dortmund, Bayern were coached by Ottmar Hitzfeld from 1998 to 2004. In Hitzfeld's first season, Bayern won the Bundesliga and came close to winning the Champions League, losing 2–1 to Manchester United in injury time after leading for most of the match. The following year, in the club's centenary season, Bayern won the third league and cup double in its history. A third consecutive Bundesliga title followed in 2001, won with a stoppage time goal on the final day of the league season.3031 Days later, Bayern won the Champions League for the fourth time after a 25-year gap, defeating Valencia CF on penalties. The 2001–02 season began with a win in the Intercontinental Cup, but ended trophyless otherwise. In 2002–03, Bayern won their fourth double, leading the league by a record margin of 16 points.32 Hitzfeld's reign ended in 2004, with Bayern underperforming, including defeat by second division Alemannia Aachen in the DFB-Pokal.

Felix Magath took over and led Bayern to two consecutive doubles. Prior to the start of the 2005–06 season, Bayern moved from the Olympiastadion to the new Allianz Arena, which the club shares with TSV 1860 München. On the field their performance in 2006–07 was erratic. Trailing in the league and having lost to Alemannia Aachen in the cup yet again, coach Magath was sacked shortly after the winter break.33

Hitzfeld returned as trainer in January 2007, but Bayern finished the 2006–07 season fourth, thus failing to qualify for the Champions League for the first time in more than a decade. Additional losses in the DFB-Pokal and the DFB-Ligapokal left the club with no honours for the season.

For the 2007–08 season, Bayern made drastic squad changes to help rebuild. They signed a total of eight new players and sold, released or loaned out nine of their players.34 Among new signings were 2006 World Cup stars such as Franck Ribéry, Miroslav Klose and Luca Toni. Bayern went on to win the Bundesliga, being on top of the standings on every single week of play, and the DFB-Pokal against Borussia Dortmund.35

On 11 January 2008 Jürgen Klinsmann was named as Hitzfeld's successor, taking charge on 1 July 2008. He signed a two-year contract.36 Bayern Munich lost the DFL-Supercup 1–2 against Borussia Dortmund in 2008. Bayer Leverkusen eliminated Bayern in quarter-finals of the DFB-Pokal. In the Champions League Bayern also reached the quarter-finals after winning Group F and defeating Sporting Clube de Portugal in the first knockout round, achieving a Champions League record aggregate of 12–1. On 27 April, two days after a home defeat against Schalke which saw Bayern drop to the third place in the table, Klinsmann was fired. Former trainer Jupp Heynckes was named as caretaker until the end of the season.37 Bayern eventually finished second, thus qualifying directly for the Champions League in 2009–10.

Bayern Munich playing against Bayer Leverkusen in the Bundesliga in September 2011

Bayern then signed Dutch manager Louis van Gaal for the 2009–10 season. Multi-million signings of Arjen Robben and Mario Gómez also followed in a bid to return Bayern to the top of the European scene. On 8 May 2010, Bayern Munich won the 2009–10 Bundesliga after a 3–1 win at Hertha BSC.38 Bayern then won the DFB-Pokal on 15 May 2010 to secure the domestic double.39 Bayern also reached the 2010 UEFA Champions League Final but were beaten 2–0 by Internazionale, failing to become the first German club to complete the treble.40

In the 2010–11 season, Bayern were eliminated in the first round of the Champions League knockout phase by Internazionale on the away goals rule and finished third in the Bundesliga.41 Van Gaal was fired by Bayern in April 2011.

In the 2011–12 season, Heynckes returned to coach Bayern for a second permanent spell but the team was to end the season without a trophy for the second season running. Domestically they finished second in the Bundesliga and lost the DFB-Pokal final 2–5, both times finishing runner-up to Borussia Dortmund. They also reached the final of the Champions League in their home stadium, but lost to Chelsea on penalties (3–4), in what was only their second defeat to an English team in Munich, and their first at the Allianz Arena.4243

In the 2012–13 season, Bayern won the 2012 DFL-Supercup 2–1 against rivals Borussia Dortmund.44 FC Bayern became the first team in history to win their first eight matches in the Bundesliga after their 5–0 away win to Fortuna Düsseldorf.4546 On 6 April 2013, Bayern won the 2012–13 Bundesliga after a 1–0 win at Eintracht Frankfurt with six games left, setting a new record for being the earliest ever Bundesliga winners.47 Other Bundesliga records set by Bayern in the 2012–13 season include most points in a season (91), highest league winning points margin (25), most wins in a season (29) and fewest goals conceded in a season (18). Bayern also equaled the record for fewest defeats in a season, losing once to Bayer 04 Leverkusen. Bayern also reached the Champions League final for the third time in four seasons, winning the club's fifth European Cup with a 2–1 defeat of domestic rivals Borussia Dortmund at Wembley Stadium.48 On 1 June 2013, Bayern beat VfB Stuttgart 3–2 in the 2013 DFB-Pokal Final to become the first German club in men's football to complete the treble; Bayern had missed out on trebles in 1999 and 2010.49

On 1 July 2013, Pep Guardiola took over as manager ahead of the 2013–14 season.50 Bayern also completed the signing of Mario Götze from Borussia Dortmund for 37m, who became the most expensive German player in history (this was later surpassed by Mesut Özil's transfer from Real Madrid to Arsenal for 50m).51 On 24 July 2013, it was reported that Bayern had become the first German club with over 200,000 members.5253 On 27 July 2013, Bayern Munich lost against rivals Borussia Dortmund 2–4 in the 2013 DFL-Supercup at Signal Iduna Park.54 On 30 August 2013, Bayern won the UEFA Super Cup against Chelsea.55 On 9 November 2013, Bayern set a new record for most successive Bundesliga matches without defeat, breaking Hamburger SV's thirty-year-old record of 36 matches.56 This record was eventually extended to 53 matches, before Bayern lost 1–0 to FC Augsburg in April 2014.57 On 27 November 2013, Bayern became the first team to win ten consecutive Champions League matches with a 3–1 away victory over CSKA Moscow.58 On 21 December 2013, Bayern beat Raja Casablanca 2–0 at the Stade de Marrakech to win the 2013 FIFA Club World Cup.59

On 25 March 2014, Bayern won their 23rd Bundesliga title by beating Hertha BSC 3–1 at the Olympiastadion in Berlin. With seven matches remaining in the season, it was the earliest the championship had been won in Bundesliga history, breaking the record Bayern had set in the previous season.60 On 17 May 2014, Bayern beat Borussia Dortmund 2–0 in the 2014 DFB-Pokal Final to give the club the tenth league and cup double in its history.61

Colours

In the original club constitution, Bayern's colours were named as white and blue, but the club played in white shirts with black shorts until 1905, when Bayern joined MSC. MSC decreed that the footballers would have to play in red shorts. Also the younger players were called red-shorts, which was meant as an insult.3 For most of the club's early history, Bayern had primarily worn white and maroon home kits. In 1968–69 season, Bayern changed to red and blue striped shirts, with blue shorts and socks. Between 1969 and 1973, the team wore a home strip of red and white striped shirts with either red or white shorts and red socks. In the 1973–74 season, the team switched to an all white kit featuring single vertical red and blue stripes on the shirt. From 1974 onwards, Bayern have mostly worn an all red home kit, with white trim. Bayern revived the red and blue striped colour scheme between 1995 and 1997. In 1997, blue was the dominant colour for the first time when Adidas released an all navy blue home kit with a red chest band. In 1999, Bayern returned to a predominantly red kit, which featured blue sleeves, and in 2000 the club released a traditional all red kit with white trim to be worn for Champions League matches.6 Bayern also wore a Rotwein coloured home kits in Bundesliga matches between 2001 and 2003, and during the 2006–07 Champions League campaign, in reference to their first choice colours prior to the late 1960s.62

The club's away kit has had a wide range of colours over the years, including white, black, blue, and gold-green. Bayern also features a distinct international kit. During the 2013–14 season, Bayern have used an all red home kit with a Bavarian flag diamond watermark pattern, a Lederhosen inspired white and black Oktoberfest away kit, and an all navy blue international kit.63

In the 1980s and 1990s, Bayern used a special away kit when playing at 1. FC Kaiserslautern, representing the Brazilian colours blue and yellow, a superstition borne from the fact that the club found it hard to win there.64

Historical kits

Crest

Bayern's crest has changed several times. Originally it consisted of the stylised letters F, C, B, M, which were woven into one symbol. The original crest was blue. The colours of Bavaria were included for the first time in 1954.6

The modern version of the crest has evolved from the 1954 version in several steps.6 While the crest consisted of a single colour only for most of the time, namely blue or red, the current (2008) crest is blue, red, and white. It has the colours of Bavaria in its centre and FC Bayern München is written in white on a red ring enclosing the Bavarian colours.

Stadiums

Model of Bayern's first stadium, their home from 1906 to 1924

Bayern played its first training games at the Schyrenplatz in the centre of Munich. The first official games were held on the Theresienwiese. In 1901, Bayern moved to a field of its own, located in Schwabing at the Clemensstraße. After joining the Münchner Sport-Club (MSC) in 1906, Bayern moved in May 1907 to MSC's ground at the Leopoldstraße.65 As the crowds gathering for Bayern's home games increased at the beginning of the 1920s, Bayern had to switch to various other premises in Munich.66

From 1925, Bayern shared the Grünwalder Stadion with 1860 Munich.67 Until World War II, the stadium was owned by 1860 Munich, and is still colloquially known as Sechz'ger ("Sixties") Stadium. It was destroyed during the war, and efforts to rebuild it resulted in a patchwork. Bayern's record crowd at the Grünwalder Stadion is reported as more than 50,000 in the home game against 1. FC Nürnberg in the 1961–62 season.68 In the Bundesliga era the stadium had a maximum capacity of 44,000 which was reached on several occasions, but the capacity has since been reduced to 21,272. As was the case at most of this period's stadiums, the vast majority of the stadium was given over to terracing. Today the second teams of both clubs play in the stadium.6970

The Olympiastadion, home of Bayern Munich from 1972 to 2005

For the 1972 Summer Olympics the city of Munich built the Olympiastadion. The stadium, renowned for its architecture,71 was inaugurated in the last Bundesliga match of the 1971–72 season. The match drew a capacity crowd of 79,000, a total which was reached again on numerous occasions. The stadium was, in its early days, considered to be one of the foremost stadia in the world and played host to numerous major finals, such as that of 1974 FIFA World Cup.72 In the following years the stadium underwent several modifications, such as an increase in seating space from approximately 50% to ca. 66%clarification needed. Eventually the stadium had a capacity of 63,000 for national matches, and 59,000 for international occasions such as European Cup competitions. Many people, however, began to feel that the stadium was too cold in winter, with half the audience exposed to the weather due to lack of cover. A further complaint was the distance between the spectators and the pitch, the stadium betraying its track and field heritage. Modification of the stadium proved impossible as the architect Günther Behnisch vetoed major modifications of the stadium.73

For Bayern home games, the Allianz Arena is lit in red.

After much discussion, the city of Munich, the state of Bavaria, FC Bayern, and TSV 1860 jointly decided at the end of 2000 to build a new stadium. While Bayern had wanted a purpose-built football stadium for several years, the awarding of the 2006 FIFA World Cup to Germany stimulated the discussion as the Olympiastadion no longer met the FIFA criteria to host a World Cup game. Located on the northern outskirts of Munich, the Allianz Arena has been in use since the beginning of the 2005–06 season.73 Its initial capacity of 66,000 fully covered seats has since been increased for matches on national level to 69,901 by transforming 3,000 seats to terracing in a 2:1 ratio.74 Since August 2012, 2,000 more seats were added in the last row of the top tier increasing the capacity to 71,00075

The most prominent feature of the stadium is the translucent outer layer, which can be illuminated in different colours for impressive effects. Usually, red lighting is used for Bayern home games, blue for 1860 home games and white for German national team home games.76

In May 2012, Bayern opened a museum about its history, FC Bayern Erlebniswelt, inside the Allianz Arena.77

Supporters

The Fan shop at Bräuhausstraße in Munich.

Bayern considers itself a national club.78 The club has more than 187,000 members and 3,202 fanclubs, making it the club with the largest number of organised supporters in Germany.79 Owing partly to the club having supporters all over the country,80 all of Bayern's away games have been sold out in recent years.81 Their following is mainly recruited from the aspiring middle class and regional Bavaria.citation needed Despite a large proportion of their supporters having to travel more than 200 km (ca. 120 miles) regularly,82 the club's home matches in the Allianz Arena have almost always been sold out.8183 According to a study by Sport+Markt Bayern is the fifth-most popular football club in Europe with 20.7 million supporters, and the most popular football club in Germany with 10 million supporters.84

Bayern Munich is also renowned for its well-organised ultra scene. The most prominent groups are the Schickeria München, the Inferno Bavaria, the Red Munichs '89, the Südkurve '73, the Munichmaniacs 1996, the Red Angels, and the Red Sharks. Stern des Südens is the song which fans sing at FCB home games. In the 1990s they also used to sing FC Bayern, Forever Number One.85

The club also has quite a number of high profile supporters, among them Pope Benedict XVI,86 Boris Becker, retired German tennis player, Wladimir Klitschko, Ukrainian boxer, Horst Seehofer and Edmund Stoiber, current and former Minister-President of Bavaria, to name just a few.87

Rivalries

Bayern Munich won 2–1 against rivals Borussia Dortmund to win the 2013 UEFA Champions League on 25 May 2013

Bayern Munich has a rivalry with Borussia Dortmund.88 Bayern and Dortmund have competed against each other for many Bundesliga titles. Bayern and Dortmund have played against each other in the DFB-Pokal final in 2008, 2012, and 2014. The 2–5 loss against Dortmund in the 2012 DFB-Pokal final was Bayern's worst ever loss in a final. Bayern and Dortmund have also played against each other in the DFL-Supercup in 1989, 2008, 2012, and 2013. The height of the rivalry was when Bayern defeated Dortmund, 2–1 in the final of the 2013 UEFA Champions League.

Bayern is one of three professional football clubs in Munich. Bayern's main local rival is TSV 1860 München, who were the more successful club in the 1960s, winning a cup and a championship. In the 1970s and 1980s, TSV 1860 moved between the first and the third division, but lately have settled in the second division. The Munich derby is still a much anticipated event, getting a lot of extra attention from supporters of both clubs.89 1860 is considered more working-class, and therefore suffers from a diminishing fan base in a city where the manufacturing sector is declining.citation needed Bayern is considered the establishment club,90 which is reflected by many board members being business leadersdubious and including the former Bavarian minister president, Edmund Stoiber. Despite the rivalry, Bayern has repeatedly supported 1860 in times of financial disarray.90

Since the 1920s, 1. FC Nürnberg has been Bayern's main and traditional91 rival in Bavaria. Philipp Lahm said that playing Nürnberg is "always special" and is a "heated atmosphere".91 Both clubs played in the same league in the mid-1920s, but in the 1920s and 1930s, Nürnberg was far more successful, winning five championships in the 1920s, making the club Germany's record champion. Bayern took over the title more than sixty years later, when they won their tenth championship in 1987, thereby surpassing the number of championships won by Nürnberg.9192 The duel between Bayern and Nürnberg is often referred to as the Bavarian Derby.

Bayern also enjoys a strong rivalry with the 1. FC Kaiserslautern, originating in parts from a game in 1973, when Bayern lost 7–4 after leading 4–1,9394 but also from the two clubs competing for German championship honours at various times in the Bundesliga as well as the city of Kaiserslautern together with the surrounding Palatinate having been part of Bavaria until a plebiscite after the end of the Second World War.

Since the 1970s, Bayern's main rivals have been the clubs who put up the strongest fight against its national dominance. In the 1970s this was Borussia Mönchengladbach,21 in the 1980s the category expanded to include Hamburger SV. In the 1990s, Borussia Dortmund, Werder Bremen, and Bayer Leverkusen9596 emerged as the most ardent opponents. Recently Borussia Dortmund, Schalke,97 and Werder Bremen have been the main challengers in the Bundesliga.

Amongst Bayern's chief European rivals are Real Madrid,98 A.C. Milan,99 and Manchester United due to many classic wins, draws and losses.95 Real Madrid versus Bayern is the match that has historically been played most often in the Champions League with 14 matches and the European Cup with 19 matches. Real's biggest loss at home in the Champions League came at the hands of Bayern on 29 February 2000 (2–4).100 Due to Bayern being traditionally hard to beat for Madrid, Madrid supporters often refer to Bayern as the "Bestia negra" ("Black Beast"). Despite the number of duels, Bayern and Real have never met in the final of a Champions League or European Cup. The two teams met in the 2011–12 Champions League semi-finals which resulted in 3–3 on aggregate, forcing extra time and penalties. Bayern won 3–1 on penalties to reach their first ever home Champions League final. They then again met in 2013–14 UEFA Champions League semi-finals, a rematch of the 2012 semi-final, with Real Madrid winning 5–0 on aggregate.

Organization and finance

Bayern's former president from 1994 to 2009 and former player Franz Beckenbauer
The Bayern Munich team bus provided by their sponsor MAN

Bayern is led mostly by former club players. The club presidency is currently vacant after the resignation of Uli Hoeneß who had been President from 1979 to 2014; Hoeneß resigned after being convicted of tax fraud.101 Karl-Heinz Rummenigge is the chairman of the executive board of the AG.102 The supervisory board of nine consists mostly of managers of big German corporations. They are Herbert Hainer (CEO adidas), Uli Hoeneß, Timotheus Höttges, Helmut Markwort, Dieter Rampl, Fritz Scherer, Rupert Stadler, Edmund Stoiber, and Martin Winterkorn.103104

Professional football at Bayern is run by the spin-off organization FC Bayern München AG. AG is short for Aktiengesellschaft, and Bayern is run like a joint stock company, a company whose stock are not listed on the public stock exchange, but is privately owned. 81.8% of FC Bayern München AG is owned by the club, the FC Bayern München e. V. (e. V. is short for Eingetragener Verein, which translates into "Registered Club") and 9.1% by sports goods manufacturer Adidas and 9.1% by automobile company Audi.105 Adidas acquired its shares in 2002 for €77m. The money was designated to help finance the Allianz Arena.106 In 2009 Audi paid €90m for their share. The capital will be used to repay the loan for the Allianz Arena quicker than originally planned.107 Bayern's other sports departments are run by the club.

Bayern's main advertising partner and current holder of the jersey rights is Deutsche Telekom.108 The main supplier of the club is Adidas.108 The premium partners include Audi, HypoVereinsbank, Imtech, Lufthansa, MAN, Paulaner Brewery, Samsung and Yingli Solar. Classic sponsors include Coca-Cola, Siemens, Hublot, Henkel, Flyeralarm, Nestle Schoeller, Adelholzener,109 Fitness First, Schaeffler Group, s.Oliver, Viagogo, Trentino, Thomas Sabo and Starwood Hotels and Resorts. Food sponsors include Albi, BiFi, Ehrmann and MF.108 In previous years the jersey rights were held by Adidas110 (1974–78), Magirus Deutz and Iveco111 (trucks / 1978–84), Commodore112 (computers / 1984–89) and Opel113 (cars / 1989–2002).

Bayern is an exception in professional, international football, having generated profits in nine of the last ten seasons. Other clubs often report losses, realizing transfers via loans, whereas Bayern always uses current assets. Also Bayern differs from other European top clubs in their income composition. While other clubs derive more than 35% of their revenues from broadcasting right, Bayern earn only 22% of their revenues that way.114 This is often accounted for by Bayern not marketing their broadcasting right themselves.citation needed Instead the Deutsche Fußball Liga negotiates broadcasting rights for the whole Bundesliga.

In 2011–12, Bayern reported revenues of €373.4 million, marking the eighth consecutive time that Bayern has topped their previous record earnings.115 According to the 2013 edition of Deloitte's annual Football Money League, Bayern was the fourth richest club in the world in 2012, generating revenues of €368.4 million.116

While other European clubs have mainly marketed to international audiences, Bayern has focused on Germany.117 Forbes ranks Bayern as the world's fifth most valuable football club in their annual list, estimating the club's at value $1.235 billion.118 As a result of Bayern's finals appearance in the 2012 UEFA Champions League, the club's brand value has reached $786 million USD which is up 59 percent from the previous year. Among European teams this is ahead of Real Madrid's $600 million USD and behind first place Manchester United whose brand is valued at $853 million USD. In 2013, Bayern overtook Manchester United to take first place in brand valuation.119

Charity

Bayern has been involved with charitable ventures for a long time, helping other football clubs in financial disarray as well as ordinary people in misery. In the wake of the 2004 Tsunami the "FC Bayern – Hilfe e.V." was founded, a foundation that aims to concentrate the social engagements of the club.120 At its inception this venture was funded with €600,000, raised by officials and players of the club.121 The money was amongst other things used to build a school in Marathenkerny, Sri Lanka121 and to rebuild the area of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka. In April 2007 it was decided that the focus of the foundation would shift towards supporting people in need locally.120

The club has also time and again shown to have a soft spot for clubs in financial disarray. Repeatedly the club has supported its local rival 1860 Munich with gratuitous friendlies, transfers at favourable rates, and direct money transfers.122 Also when St. Pauli threatened to lose its license for professional football due to financial problems, Bayern met the club for a friendly game free of any charge, giving all revenues to St. Pauli.123 More recently when Mark van Bommel's home club Fortuna Sittard was in financial distress Bayern came to a charity game at the Dutch club.124 Another well known example was the transfer of Alexander Zickler in 1993 from Dynamo Dresden. When Bayern picked up Zickler for 2.3 Million DM many considered the sum to be a subvention for the financially threatened Dresdeners.125 In 2003, Bayern provided a 2 Million Euro loan without collateral to the nearly bankrupt Borussia Dortmund which has since been repaid.126127128

On 14 July 2013, Bayern played a charity game against financially threatened third division Hansa Rostock. The game raised about €1 million, securing Hansa's licence.129

Training facility

Entrance of Bayern Munich Headquarters

FC Bayern Munich training facilities, for both the professional and the Junior Team, are located at the Bayern Munich Headquarters.130131 There are four grass pitches, one of which has undersoil heating, one artificial grass field and a multi-functional sports hall.132 After the closure of Munich American High School, FC Bayern purchased the DoDDS adjacent sporting fields that previously held MAHS's football pitch and baseball field. A new grass pitch was placed over the existing football pitch while an artificial turf field was placed over the baseball diamond.citation needed

FC Bayern Football pitch (training only)

The players' quarters opened in 1990 and were reconstructed after the 2007–08 season on suggestions by the new coach, Jürgen Klinsmann, who took inspiration from various major sports clubs. The quarters are now called the performance centre and feature a weights and fitness area, a massage unit, dressing rooms, the coaches' office, and a conference room with screening facilities for video analysis. A café, a library, an e-Learning room, and a family room are also included.130

Located at the headquarters is also the Youth academy, which houses up to 13 young talents from outside the city. While being part of Bayern's Junior Team they can work there on their development as footballers. Former residents of the Youth House include Owen Hargreaves, Michael Rensing, and Bastian Schweinsteiger.131

FC Bayern Munich in Europe

As of 12 March 2014:

Competition Record Source
G W D L Win %
Champions League 283 160 63 60 56.54 133
Europa League 68 39 13 16 57.35
Cup Winners' Cup 39 19 14 6 48.72
Super Cup 6 1 1 4 16.67
Total 396 219 91 86 55.30

Honours

Bayern is historically the most successful team in German football, as they have won the most championships and the most cups. They are also Germany's most successful team in international competitions, having won eleven trophies. Bayern is one of only four clubs to have won all three major European competitions and also the last club to have won the European Cup three times in a row, entitling them to wear a multiple-winner badge during Champions League matches.

The three consecutive champions league trophies won by FC Bayern Munich 1974–76. The one on the far right is the real CL trophy, given to Bayern permanently. The ones on the left are slightly smaller replicas.

Domestic

European

The first German Quadruple which FC Bayern Munich won in the single season of 2012–13: the 2012 DFL-Supercup, the 2012–13 UEFA Champions League, the 2012–13 Bundesliga and the 2013 DFB-Pokal.

Worldwide

Regional

  • Ostkreis-Liga (I) champions: 1910, 1911; runners-up: 1912, 1913, 1917, 1918 (record)
  • Bezirksliga Südbayern (I) champions: 1927–28, 1928–29, 1929–30, 1930–31, 1931–32, 1932–33 (record)

Players

Current squad

As of 1 July 2014134

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Germany GK Manuel Neuer
4 Brazil DF Dante
6 Spain MF Thiago Alcântara
7 France MF Franck Ribéry
8 Spain MF Javi Martínez
9 Poland FW Robert Lewandowski
10 Netherlands MF Arjen Robben
11 Switzerland MF Xherdan Shaqiri
13 Brazil DF Rafinha
14 Peru FW Claudio Pizarro
17 Germany DF Jérôme Boateng
18 Spain DF Juan Bernat
19 Germany MF Mario Götze
No. Position Player
20 Germany MF Sebastian Rode
21 Germany DF Philipp Lahm (captain)
22 Germany GK Tom Starke
23 Germany MF Mitchell Weiser
25 Germany FW Thomas Müller
26 Germany DF Diego Contento
27 Austria DF David Alaba
28 Germany DF Holger Badstuber
31 Germany MF Bastian Schweinsteiger (vice-captain)
34 Denmark MF Pierre Højbjerg
37 United States MF Julian Green
38 Austria DF Ylli Sallahi
39 Germany MF Toni Kroos

Players out on loan

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
15 Germany DF Jan Kirchhoff (to Schalke 04 until 30 June 2015)
 
For recent transfers, see List of German football transfers winter 2013–14 and List of German football transfers summer 2014.
See also: Bayern Munich II, Bayern Munich Junior Team

Notable past players

The "Greatest Ever" squad chosen by more than 79,901 fans, in 2005. The coach chosen was Ottmar Hitzfeld.135

At his farewell game, Oliver Kahn was declared honorary captain of Bayern Munich.136 The players below are part of the FC Bayern Munich Hall of Fame.137

1930s

1970s:

1980s:

1990s:

2000s:

Captains

Philipp Lahm has been the captain since 2011. Bastian Schweinsteiger is the vice-captain.

Years Captain
1965–70 Germany Werner Olk (DF)
1970–77 Germany Franz Beckenbauer (DF)
1977–79 Germany Sepp Maier (GK)
1979 Germany Gerd Müller (FW)
1979–80 Germany Georg Schwarzenbeck (DF)
1980–83 Germany Paul Breitner (MF)
1983–84 Germany Karl-Heinz Rummenigge (FW)
1984–91 Germany Klaus Augenthaler (DF)
1991–94 Germany Raimond Aumann (GK)
1994–96 Germany Lothar Matthäus (DF)
1997–99 Germany Thomas Helmer (DF)
1999–02 Germany Stefan Effenberg (MF)
2002–08 Germany Oliver Kahn (GK)
2008–11 Netherlands Mark van Bommel (MF)
2011– Germany Philipp Lahm (DF)

Retired numbers

12Club Supporters (the 12th Man)

Coaches

See also: Category:FC Bayern Munich managers and List of FC Bayern Munich records and statistics#Coaches

Manager Pep Guardiola

Current staff

As of 26 June 2013138139

Spain Pep Guardiola Head coach
Spain Manel Estiarte Personal assistant
Germany Hermann Gerland Assistant coach
Spain Domènec Torrent Assistant coach
Croatia Toni Tapalović Goalkeeping coach
Spain Lorenzo Buenaventura Fitness coach
Germany Andreas Kornmayer Fitness coach
Germany Thomas Wilhelmi Fitness coach
Germany Matthias Sammer Sport director
Spain Carles Planchart Match analyst
Germany Lars Kornetka Video analyst
Germany Michael Niemeyer Video analyst
Germany Paul Breitner Chief scout
Germany Egon Coordes Scout
Germany Wolfgang Grobe Scout
Germany Hans-Wilhelm Müller-Wohlfahrt Chief medic
Germany Lutz Hänsel Team doctor
Germany Peter Ueblacker Team doctor
Germany Roland Schmidt Cardiologist
Germany Fredi Binder Physiotherapist
Italy Gianni Bianchi Physiotherapist
Germany Gerry Hoffmann Physiotherapist
Germany Stephan Weickert Physiotherapist
Germany Helmut Erhard Physiotherapist

Coaches since 1963

Bayern had 17 coaches since its promotion to the Bundesliga in 1965. Udo Lattek, Giovanni Trapattoni, Ottmar Hitzfeld and Jupp Heynckes served two terms as head coach. Franz Beckenbauer served one term as head coach and one as caretaker.140 Lattek was the club's most successful coach, having won six Bundeslige titles, two DFB Cups and the European Cup; following closely is Ottmar Hitzfeld, who won five Bundeslige titles, two DFB cups and the Champions League. The club's least successful coach was Søren Lerby, who won less than a third of his matches in charge and presided over the club's near-relegation in the 1991–92 campaign.

The present manager, since July 2013, is Josep Guardiola, Barcelona's former coach.

No. Coach from until days Major Titles
1 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Zlatko Čajkovski 1 Jul 1963 30 Jun 1968 1096 3 two Cups, one European Cup Winners' Cup
2 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Branko Zebec 1 Jul 1968 13 Mar 1970 621 2 one Championship, one Cup
3 Germany Udo Lattek 14 Mar 1970 2 Jan 1975 1756 5 three Championships, one Cup, one European Cup
4 Germany Dettmar Cramer 16 Jan 1975 1 Dec 1977 1051 3 two European Cups, one Intercontinental Cup
5 Hungary Gyula Lóránt 2 Dec 1977 28 Feb 1979 454 0
6 Hungary Pál Csernai 1 Mar 1979 16 May 1983 1538 3 two Championships, one Cup
7 Germany Reinhard Saftig* 17 May 1983 30 Jun 1983 45 0
8 Germany Udo Lattek 1 Jul 1983 30 Jun 1987 1461 5 three Championships, two Cups
9 Germany Jupp Heynckes 1 Jul 1987 8 Oct 1991 1561 4 two Championships, two SuperCups
10 Denmark Søren Lerby 9 Oct 1991 11 Mar 1992 155 0
11 Germany Erich Ribbeck 12 Mar 1992 27 Dec 1993 656 0
12 Germany Franz Beckenbauer 7 Jan 1994 30 Jun 1994 175 1 one Championship
13 Italy Giovanni Trapattoni 1 Jul 1994 30 Jun 1995 365 0
14 Germany Otto Rehhagel 1 Jul 1995 27 Apr 1996 302 0
15 Germany Franz Beckenbauer* 29 Apr 1996 30 Jun 1996 63 1 one UEFA Cup
16 Italy Giovanni Trapattoni 1 Jul 1996 30 Jun 1998 730 3 one Championship, one Cup, one League Cup
17 Germany Ottmar Hitzfeld 1 Jul 1998 30 Jun 2004 2192 11 four Championships, two Cups, three League Cups, one Champions League, one Intercontinental Cup
18 Germany Felix Magath 1 Jul 2004 31 Jan 2007 945 5 two Championships, two Cups, one League Cup
19 Germany Ottmar Hitzfeld 1 Feb 2007 30 Jun 2008 516 3 one Championship, one Cup, one League Cup
20 Germany Jürgen Klinsmann 1 Jul 2008 27 Apr 2009 302 0
21 Germany Jupp Heynckes* 27 Apr 2009 31 May 2009 35 0
22 Netherlands Louis van Gaal 1 Jul 2009 10 Apr 2011 648 3 one Championship, one Cup, one SuperCup
23 Netherlands Andries Jonker* 10 Apr 2011 26 Jun 2011 61 0
24 Germany Jupp Heynckes 1 Jul 2011 25 Jun 2013 725 4 one SuperCup, one Championship, one Champions League, one Cup
25 Spain Pep Guardiola141142 26 Jun 2013 383 4 one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup, one Championship, one Cup

* Served as caretaker coach.

Current board

Former President Uli Hoeneß
Supervisory board
Members Notes Source
Karl Hopfner President Bayern Munich e.V. 104
Herbert Hainer Chairman of the board and Adidas AG chairman 104
Rupert Stadler Vice-Chairman of the board and Audi AG chairman 104
Helmut Markwort Publisher of FOCUS Magazine 104
Dieter Rampl UniCredit Group advisory board chairman 104
Dr. Edmund Stoiber Former Minister-President of Bavaria, Bayern Munich e.V. advisory board chairman 104
Timotheus Höttges Telekom AG chairman 104
Prof. Dr. Martin Winterkorn Volkswagen AG chairman 104
Executive board
Members Position Source
Karl-Heinz Rummenigge Chairman 102
Jan-Christian Dreesen Executive board member (Finance) 102
Matthias Sammer Executive board member (Sport) 102
Andreas Jung Executive board member (Marketing) 102
Jörg Wacker Executive board member (Strategy) 102

For a list of former presidents see List of FC Bayern Munich records and statistics#Presidents

Statistics

Recent seasons

The recent season-by-season performance of the club:143144

Season Rank P W D L F A GD Pts Cup EL CL
2002–03 1 34 23 6 5 70 25 45 75 Won 1GS
2003–04 2 34 20 8 6 70 39 31 68 QF R16
2004–05 1 34 24 5 5 75 33 42 77 Won QF
2005–06 1 34 22 9 3 67 32 35 75 Won R16
2006–07 4 34 18 6 10 55 40 15 60 3R QF
2007–08 1 34 22 10 2 68 21 47 76 Won SF
2008–09 2 34 20 7 7 71 42 29 67 QF QF
2009–10 1 34 20 10 4 72 31 41 70 Won Runner-up
2010–11 3 34 19 8 7 81 40 41 65 SF R16
2011–12 2 34 23 4 7 77 22 55 73 Runner-up Runner-up
2012–13 1 34 29 4 1 98 18 80 91 Won Won
2013–14 1 34 29 3 2 94 23 71 90 Won SF

As of 10 April 2014.145 Rank = Rank in the Bundesliga; P = Played; W = Win; D = Draw; L = Loss; F = Goals for; A = Goals against; GD = Goal difference; Pts = Points; Cup = DFB-Pokal; EL = UEFA Europa League; CL = UEFA Champions League.
in = Still in competition; — = Not attended; 1R = 1st round; 2R = 2nd round; 3R = 3rd round; R16 = Round of sixteen; QF = Quarterfinals; SF = Semifinals.

Other departments

FC Bayern II

Main article: FC Bayern Munich II

The reserve team serves mainly as the final stepping stone for promising young players before being promoted to the main team. Bayern II is coached by Erik ten Hag, assisted by Gerd Müller and Rainer Ulrich.146 Since the inception of the Regionalliga in 1994, the team played in the Regionalliga Süd, after playing in the Oberliga since 1978. In the 2007–08 season they qualified for the newly founded 3rd Liga, where they lasted until 2011, when they were relegated to the Regionalliga. This ended 33 consecutive years of playing in the highest league that the German Football Association permits the second team of a professional football team to play.35

Junior football

The Bayern Munich Junior Team has produced some of Europe's top football players, including Owen Hargreaves, Thomas Hitzlsperger, Philipp Lahm, Thomas Müller and Bastian Schweinsteiger. The division was founded in 1902 and is run by Werner Kern and Björn Andersson. It consists of eleven teams with more than 170 players, the youngest being under ten.147

Women's football

The women's football team which is led by head coach Thomas Wörle features several members of the German national youth team. In the 2008–09 season the team finished second in the women's Bundesliga. The division was founded in 1970 and consists of four teams with 90 players. Their greatest success was winning the championship in 1976.148

Other sports

Bayern has other departments10 for:

Basketball

since 1946 with 280 players in 19 teams.
German Champion 1954,1955 and 2014, German Cup 1968

Bowling

since 1984 with 46 players in 4 teams

Chess

since 1908 with 97 players in 8 teams149

European Club Cup 1992

German champion 1983, 1985, 1986, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993 and 1995

German Fast chess champion 1984, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 (record)

Gymnastics

since 1974 with 35 gymnasts in 1 team

German champion 1983, 1986, 1987 and 1988

Handball

since 1945 with 3000 players in 10 teams

Table tennis

since 1946 with 160 players in 12 teams

Referees

since 1919 with 115 referees

Senior football

since 2001 with 135 players in 5 teams

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External links

Awards
Preceded by
European Union European Ryder Cup Team
Laureus World Team of the Year
2013
Succeeded by
Incumbent

Coordinates: 48°6′6.64″N 11°34′22.00″E / 48.1018444°N 11.5727778°E / 48.1018444; 11.5727778








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