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Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social latitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklace, because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, must at times anticipate changing consumer tastes.
Fashion designers attempt to design clothes which are functional as well as aesthetically pleasing. They must consider who is likely to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn. They have a wide range and combinations of materials to work with and a wide range of colors, patterns and styles to choose from. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are usually sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses.
- 1 Structure
- 2 Designing a garment
- 3 History
- 4 Types of fashion
- 5 Income
- 6 Fashion education
- 7 Areas of Fashion Design
- 8 World fashion industry
- 9 Fashion design terms
- 10 See also
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 References
Fashion designers can work in a number of many ways. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion as 'in-house designers'1 which owns the designs. They may work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves,2 selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers. The garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels, under which their designs are marketed. Some fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men’s, women’s, and children’s fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a 'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are likely to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a designer director. • Exploring the intricacies of the Indian fashion industry, the evolution of different Indian fabrics, and their suitability for making fusion Western wear. • Understanding the concept of fusion clothing, and how Indian fabrics can be used to make western wear. • Finding out the customer attitudes regarding fusion clothing and identifying their tastes and preferences. • Differentiating the tastes and preferences of Indian consumers compared to the consumers in other parts of the world. • Explore the theories and models related to the study and analyse whether they are relevant in the Indian context. • Conduct primary research to understand the dynamics of innovative design in fashion, and gauge the excitement of an urban consumer in purchasing such apparel. • Come out with a detailed set of recommendations which shall help the designers in optimally utilizing the fabrics to suit the tastes and preferences of the global consumer.
Fashion designers work in different ways. Some sketch their ideas on paper, while others drape fabric on a dress form. When a designer is completely satisfied with the fit of the toile (or muslin), he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who then makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. The pattern maker's job is very precise and painstaking. The fit of the finished garment depends on their accuracy. Finally, a sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit.
Fashion design is generally considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. The term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 are considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, which was much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy.
The garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories
Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis (French for high-sewing), with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, and is usually made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.34 Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity.5
Ready-to-wear clothes are a cross between haute couture and mass market. They are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive.67 Ready-to-wear collections are usually presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week. This takes place on a city-wide basis and occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include, spring/summer, fall/winter, resort, swim, and bridal.
Currently the fashion industry relies more on mass market sales. The mass market caters for a wide range of customers, producing ready-to-wear garments using trends set by the famous names in fashion. They often wait around a season to make sure a style is going to catch on before producing their own versions of the original look. In order to save money and time, they use cheaper fabrics and simpler production techniques which can easily be done by machine. The end product can therefore be sold much more cheaply.8910
There is a type of design called "kutch" design originated from the German word "kitschig" meaning "ugly" or "not aesthetically pleasing." Kitsch can also refer to "wearing or displaying something that is therefore no longer in fashion."11 Often, high-waisted trousers, associated with the 1980s, are considered a "kitsch" fashion statement.12
||The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (December 2010)|
Median annual wages for salaried fashion designers were $61,160 in May 2008. The middle 50 percent earned between $42,150 and $87,120.13 The lowest 10 percent earned less than $32,150, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $124,780. Median annual earnings were $52,860 (£28,340) in apparel, piece goods, and notions - the industry employing the largest numbers of fashion designers.14
There are a number of well known specialized art schools and design schools worldwide that offer degrees in fashion design and fashion design technology.15 Some colleges also offer Masters of Fashion courses. Though it is not a requirement to have a Masters level degree, it is recommended by those already working in the industry to study at this level.
The most notable design schools in the world include:
- Great Britain
- Academy of Art University in San Francisco, California
- Kent State University in Kent, Ohio
- Columbia College Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
- Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City, New York
- Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising in Los Angeles, California
- O'More College of Design in Franklin, Tennessee
- Otis College of Art & Design in Los Angeles, California
- Parsons The New School for Design in New York City, New York
- Philadelphia University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- Pratt Institute in New York City, New York
- Savannah College of Art and Design in Savannah, Georgia
- School of the Art Institute of Chicago in Chicago, Illinois
- Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond, Virginia
- Woodbury University in Burbank, California
Elsewhere in the world, the National Institute of Fashion Technology in India, Shih Chien University in Taiwan, RMIT University in Melbourne, Fu Jen Catholic University in Taiwan and the Asian University chain, Raffles College of Design and Commerce, all have reputable fashion design courses.
There are many universities that offer fashion design throughout the United States, usually within the context of a general liberal arts degree. The major concentration incorporating fashion design may have alternative names like Apparel and Textiles or Apparel and Textile Design, and may be housed in departments such as Art and Art History, or Family and Consumer Studies. Some schools, such as Parsons, offer a major in Fashion Management, combining fashion education with business courses.
The only Ivy League University having a Fashion Design undergraduate program is Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, a program offered by the department of Fiber Science & Apparel Design. Cornell also offers a PhD program in apparel design.16
An updated list of fashion design masters and PhD programs can be found at ITAA.org.17 The programs are intended to address the needs of academia, industry, and research by considering apparel design as an applied science that embraces design, technology, physical sciences, the humanities, and social sciences in order to meet the human needs for clothing.
|Women's Day wear||Practical, comfortable, fashionable||Haute couture, ready-to wear, mass market|
|Women's Evening wear||Glamorous, sophisticated, suited for the occasion||Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Women's Lingerie||Glamorous, comfortable, washable||Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Men's Day wear||Casual, practical, comfortable||Tailoring, ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Men's Evening wear||Smart, elegant, formal, apt for the occasion||Tailoring, ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Kids' wear||Trendy or classy, practical, washable, functional||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Girls' Wear||Pretty, colorful, practical, washable, inexpensive||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Teenager Girl Wear||Colorful, comfortable, glamorous, pretty||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Jeans wear||Unisex, democratic, comfortable, practical, functional||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Swimwear||Trendy, stylish, practical, functional, colorful||Haute couture, ready to-wear, mass market|
|Sports wear||Comfortable, practical, well-ventilated, washable, functional||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Knitwear||Right weight and color for the season||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Outerwear||Stylish, warm, right weight and color for the season||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Bridal wear||Sumptuous, glamorous, classic||Haute couture, ready-to-wear, mass market|
|Accessories||Striking, fashionable||Haute couture, ready to-wear, mass market|
|Performance wear||Sporty, dependent on the sport||Ready-to-wear, mass market|
Fashion today is a global industry, and most major countries have a fashion industry. China and Bangladesh are the biggest manufacturers of fashion industry. Other notable manufacturing countries are Germany, Indonesia, Malaysia, India, Philippines, South Korea, Spain, and Brazil.
Fashion is something that many men and women all over the world share the love for. Along with this love, comes a lot of controversy. In recent years, the public has questioned how the models of the fashion week are treated. Many of the models suffer from illnesses such as Anorexia, and Bulimia to fit into the sample sizes that the designers create. A number of petitions have been created to protect runway models.
A number of fashion shows are held every year in different places of the world as styles vary. New York and Paris Fashion Weeks are highly anticipated events especially amongst celebrities. Other areas of the world have also started holding annual fashion shows, Toronto, a city which is making a name for itself in the fashion industry, have a number of talented designers. Toronto also holds annual fashion shows to showcase what its fashion designers have to offer.
Some notable Toronto designers that have been ranked in the “top 10 Canadian fashion designers” by Elle Canada, (A. Bacarri, 2014) are names such as: Jeremy Laing- Canadian Born, Jeremy was raised on an army base in Germany. He learned to sew from his mother at the age of 13. A self-taught designer, Jeremy studied in Toronto, and went on to do an apprenticeship with Alexander McQueen while on exchange at the Westminster University in London. Jeremy’s strengths lie in innovative pattern making, garment construction, and using textiles to create form. Jeremy continues to work in Toronto, Canada. (Anonymous,2014)
Kirk Pickersgill and Stephen Wong- Both Kirk and Stephen met and become friends in Toronto. They started their line in 2006 and named it “Greta Constantine.” The name “Greta Constantine” comes from Stephens mother Greta, and Kirks, grandfather, Constantine. Since then they created a clientele of celebrities and socialites. The pair work in a studio in Toronto, and design clothing for women. (Anonymous,2013)
Kimberly Newport-Mimran- Born in Niagara Falls, found her love in fashion while working in a retail store in her hometown. She moved to Toronto, and studied apparel manufacturing at Gorge Brown College. Upon graduation, she joined the buying team at the Hudson’s Bay Company. After three years she worked in the product development and merchandising offices at Club Monaco. She then became the senior director for Caban, which was part of Club Monaco. Kimberly went on the marry and start a family with the now former CEO of Club Monaco Joseph Mimran who is the Joe of Joe Fresh the apparel line. 2002 was the year Pink Tartan was launched, a woman’s line that focused on daily, and eveningwear. 2006 her first flagship store was opened in the affluent Yorkville neighborhood in Toronto. Her line Pink Tartan can be found at; The Bay, Holt Renfrew, Saks fifth Avenue, Bloomingdales, and Neiman Marcus. The line also retails internationally in Dubai, Korea, Japan, Greece and England. On March 30 her collection will be available for purchase on the Canadian Shopping Channel. (Cheung,2013)
Dennis Gagnon- Born in Lac-Saint Jean, Quebec. He attended College La Salle where he discovered his passion for the arts. After graduation in 1993, Denis moved to Casablanca, Morocco to accept a job as a molding teacher. In 1995 he returned and began making costumes for theater groups. In 2000, he finally launched his solo career. He started off creating designs and provided Holt Renfrew with two collections ever year. On Denis’s 10th year as a designer he was honored during Montreal Fashion Week, and he created a limited edition collection for BEDO. On October 10, 2010 Denis became the first designer from Quebec to present his collection at the Montreal Fine Arts Museum. The show lasted from October 19, 2010 to February 13, 2011. (Anonymous,2014)
The majority of American fashion houses are based in New York City, with a high concentration centered in the Garment District neighborhood. There are also a significant number in Los Angeles, where a substantial percentage of high fashion clothing manufactured in the United States is actually made. Burgeoning industries in Miami, Chicago, Dallas, and especially San Francisco have developed as well. A semi-annual event held every February and September, New York Fashion Week is one of four major fashion weeks held throughout the world.
American fashion design is dominated by a clean-cut, urban, casual style; reflecting the athletic, health-conscious lifestyles of urban city-dwellers. A designer who helped to set the trend in the United States for sport-influenced day wear throughout the 1940s and 50s was Claire McCardell. Many of her designs have been revived in recent decades. Famous American brands and designers include Vera Wang, Calvin Klein, Bob Mackie, Ralph Lauren, Carolina Herrera, Michael Kors, Marc Jacobs, Tom Ford, Tommy Hilfiger, Oleg Cassini, Perry Ellis, Kenneth Cole, Donna Karan, Liz Claiborne, and Nolan Miller.
In the late 80s and early 90s, Belgian fashion designers brought a new fashion image that mixed East and West, and brought a highly individualised, personal vision on fashion. Well known Belgian Designers are Maison Martin Margiela, Ann Demeulemeester, Dries Van Noten, Dirk Bikkembergs, Dirk Van Saene, Walter Van Beirendonck, Raf Simons, Tim Van Steenbergen, Peter Piloto, A.F. Vandevorst, Bruno Pieters, Angelo Figus, Christian Wijnants, and Bernhard Wilhelm.
London has long been the capital of the United Kingdom fashion industry and has a wide range of foreign designs which have integrated with modern British styles. Typical, British design is smart but innovative yet recently has become more and more unconventional, fusing traditional styles with modern techniques. Vintage styles play an important role in the British fashion and styling industry. Stylists regularly 'mix and match' the old with the new, which gives British style that unique, bohemian aesthetic that many of the other fashion capitals try to imitate. Irish fashion (both design and styling) is also heavily influenced by fashion trends from Britain. Famous British brands and designers include Burberry, Alexander McQueen, Mulberry, Stella McCartney, Thomas Pink, Jimmy Choo, Alfred Dunhill, Fred Perry, and Vivienne Westwood.18
Most French fashion houses are in Paris, which is the capital of French fashion. Traditionally, French fashion is chic and stylish, defined by its sophistication, cut, and smart accessories. French fashion is internationally acclaimed.
Berlin is the center of young and creative fashion in Germany (prominently displayed at Berlin Fashion Week), while Düsseldorf helds Europe's largest fashion trade fairs with Igedo. Other important centers of the scene are Munich, Hamburg, and Cologne. German fashion is famed for its elegant lines as well as unconventional young designs and the great variety of styles.
Globally renowned fashion designers from Germany are Karl Lagerfeld, Hugo Boss, Wolfgang Joop, Jil Sander, Michael Michalsky, Etienne Aigner, Rudolph Moshammer, Torsten Amft, Willy Bogner, Rudolf, and Adi Dassler.
Famous fashion brands include BOSS, adidas, PUMA, Escada, JOOP!, MCM, Bruno Banani, Sander, Triumph, Talbot Runhof, Kaviar Gauche, Schiesser, Closed, Reusch, Valisere, Jack Wolfskin, Ulla Popken, Buffalo, Rohde, Zalando, Dr. Martens, P&C, Marc O'Polo, Tom Tailor, s.Oliver, Esprit, and Wunderkind.
There also is a range of fashion models from Germany that made it to international fame, such as Claudia Schiffer, Heidi Klum, Diane Kruger, Eva Padberg, Toni Garrn, Julia Stegner, Kirsten Dunst, Tatjana Patitz, Manon von Gerkan, Nico, Uschi Obermaier, Lena Gercke, Sara Nuru, Barbara Meier, Nadja Auermann, Claudia Ciesla, Aslı Bayram, Shermine Shahrivar, Evelyn Sharma, and Nico Schwanz.
Milan is Italy's fashion capital. Most of the older Italian couturiers are in Rome. However, Milan and Florence are the Italian fashion capitals, and it is the exhibition venue for their collections. Italian fashion features casual elegance.
Most Japanese fashion houses are in Tokyo. The Japanese look is loose and unstructured (often resulting from complicated cutting), colours tend to the sombre and subtle, and richly textured fabrics. Famous Japanese designers are Yohji Yamamoto, Kenzo, Issey Miyake (masterful drape and cut), and Comme des Garçons's Rei Kawakubo, who developed a new way of cutting (comparable to Madeleine Vionnet's innovation in the 1930s).
Fashion in the Soviet Union largely followed general trends of the Western world. However, the state’s socialist ideology consistently moderated and influenced these trends. In addition, shortages of consumer goods meant that the general public did not have ready access to pre-made fashion.
Most of the Swiss fashion houses are in Zürich.19 The Swiss look is casual elegant and luxurious with a slight touch of quirkiness. Additionally, it has been greatly influenced by the dance club scene.
- A fashion designer conceives garment combinations of line, proportion, color, and texture. While sewing and pattern-making skills are beneficial, they are not a pre-requisite of successful fashion design. Most fashion designers are formally trained or apprenticed.
- A technical designer works with the design team and the factories overseas to ensure correct garment construction, appropriate fabric choices and a good fit. The technical designer fits the garment samples on a fit model, and decides which fit and construction changes to make before mass-producing the garment.
- A pattern maker (or pattern cutter) drafts the shapes and sizes of a garment's pieces. This may be done manually with paper and measuring tools or by using a CAD computer software program. Another method is to drape fabric directly onto a dress form. The resulting pattern pieces can be constructed to produce the intended design of the garment and required size. Formal training is usually required for working as a pattern marker.
- A tailor makes custom designed garments made to the client's measure; especially suits (coat and trousers, jacket and skirt, et cetera). Tailors usually undergo an apprenticeship or other formal training.
- A textile designer designs fabric weaves and prints for clothes and furnishings. Most textile designers are formally trained as apprentices and in school.
- A stylist co-ordinates the clothes, jewelry, and accessories used in fashion photography and catwalk presentations. A stylist may also work with an individual client to design a coordinated wardrobe of garments. Many stylists are trained in fashion design, the history of fashion, and historical costume, and have a high level of expertise in the current fashion market and future market trends. However, some simply have a strong aesthetic sense for pulling great looks together.
- A fashion buyer selects and buys the mix of clothing available in retail shops, department stores, and chain stores. Most fashion buyers are trained in business and/or fashion studies.
- A seamstress sews ready-to-wear or mass-produced clothing by hand or with a sewing machine, either in a garment shop or as a sewing machine operator in a factory. She (or he) may not have the skills to make (design and cut) the garments, or to fit them on a model.
- A teacher of fashion design teaches the art and craft of fashion design in art or fashion school.
- A custom clothier makes custom-made garments to order, for a given customer.
- A dressmaker specializes in custom-made women's clothes: day, cocktail, and evening dresses, business clothes and suits, trousseaus, sports clothes, and lingerie.
- An illustrator draws and paints clothing designs for commercial use.
- A fashion forecaster predicts what colours, styles and shapes will be popular ("on-trend") before the garments are on sale in stores.
- A model wears and displays clothes at fashion shows and in photographs.
- A fit model aids the fashion designer by wearing and commenting on the fit of clothes during their design and pre-manufacture. Fit models need to be a particular size for this purpose.
- A fashion journalist writes fashion articles describing the garments presented or fashion trends, for magazines or newspapers.
- An alterations specialist (alterationist) adjusts the fit of completed garments, usually ready-to-wear, and sometimes re-styles them. NOTE: despite tailors altering garments to fit the client, not all alterationists are tailors.
- An Image Consultant, wardrobe consultant or fashion advisor recommends styles and colors that are flattering to the client.
- Breward, Christopher, The culture of fashion: a new history of fashionable dress, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-7190-4125-9
- Hollander, Anne, Seeing through clothes, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, ISBN 978-0-520-08231-1
- Hollander, Anne, Sex and suits: the evolution of modern dress, New York: Knopf, 1994, ISBN 978-0-679-43096-4
- Hollander, Anne, Feeding the eye: essays, New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1999, ISBN 978-0-374-28201-1
- Hollander, Anne, Fabric of vision: dress and drapery in painting, London: National Gallery, 2002, ISBN 978-0-300-09419-0
- Kawamura, Yuniya, Fashion-ology: an introduction to Fashion Studies, Oxford and New York: Berg, 2005, ISBN 1-85973-814-1
- Lipovetsky, Gilles (translated by Catherine Porter), The empire of fashion: dressing modern democracy, Woodstock: Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-691-10262-7
- McDermott, Kathleen, Style for all: why fashion, invented by kings, now belongs to all of us (An illustrated history), 2010, ISBN 978-0-557-51917-0 — Many hand-drawn color illustrations, extensive annotated bibliography and reading guide
- Perrot, Philippe (translated by Richard Bienvenu), Fashioning the bourgeoisie: a history of clothing in the nineteenth century, Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-691-00081-7
- Steele, Valerie, Paris fashion: a cultural history, (2. ed., rev. and updated), Oxford: Berg, 1998, ISBN 978-1-85973-973-0
- Steele, Valerie, Fifty years of fashion: new look to now, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000, ISBN 978-0-300-08738-3
- Steele, Valerie, Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion, Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005
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