reflects its varied climatic zones, which range from arid and semi-arid to temperate and tropical. For further details of habitats, see Pakistan's native flora Ecoregions of Pakistan, Forestry in Pakistan and Wildlife of Pakistan.
Northern highlands and valleys
conifer forests in most of the northern and north-western highlands. These occur from 1,000 to 4,000 m altitudes. Swat, Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Malakand, Mansehra and Abbottabad districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (formerly North-West Frontier Province) are the main areas covered with coniferous forests. Silver fir ( ) and spruce ( Abies alba ) occupy the highest altitudes, deodar ( Picea smithiana ) and blue pine ( Cedrus deodara ), the intermediate heights, and chir pine ( Pinus wallichiana ), occupy the lower areas. Pinus roxburghii
Western highlands, plains and deserts
In north of
Balochistan, conifer forests of juniper ( ) are found, such as in Juniperous macropoda Quetta and Ziarat. Near Sulaiman Mountains, chilghoza pine ( ) forests are also present. In the Pinus gerardiana xeric regions of Balochistan (such as in Kharan desert), date palms and ephedra are common flora varieties.
Eastern plains and deserts
In most of
Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains have many fluvial landforms that support various natural biomes including tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forestry as well as tropical and xeric shrublands (deserts of Thal in Punjab, Tharparkar in Sindh) and kair ( ) which provide firewood. The Capparis aphylla riparain woodlands grow in narrow belts along the banks of River Indus and its tributaries. Main tree varieties are of sheesham and babul and main shrub varieties are reed beds and tamarisk ( ) bushes. Tamarax dioica
Wetlands and coastal regions
In the south of Sindh are
Indus River Delta in west and Great Rann of Kutch in east. The largest saltwater wetland in Pakistan is the Indus River Delta. Unlike many other river deltas, it consists of clay soil and is very swampy. The Great Rann of Kutch below the Thar Desert is not as swampy and exhibits shrubland vegetation of rather dry thorny shrubs as well as marsh grasses of and Apluda . Other saltwater wetlands are located on the coast of Balochistan such as at Cenchrus Sonmiani and Jiwani. These and Indus River Delta support mangrove forestry, mainly of species . Avicennia marina