Ford Cortina

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Ford Cortina
Ford Cortina KTO959E.jpg
Overview
Manufacturer Ford Motor Company
Hyundai Motor Company
Also called Ford Consul Cortina
Production 1962–1982
Body and chassis
Class Large family car
Layout FR layout
Related Ford Capri
Chronology
Predecessor Ford Consul Classic
Successor Ford Sierra
Ford Orion
Hyundai Stellar

The Ford Cortina is a car built by Ford of Britain in various guises from 1962 to 1982, and was the United Kingdom's best-selling car of the 1970s.

The Cortina was produced in five generations (Mark I through to Mark V, although officially the last one was called the Cortina 80) from 1962 until 1982. From 1970 onward, it was almost identical to the German-market Ford Taunus (being built on the same platform) which was originally a different car model. This was part of a Ford attempt to unify its European operations. By 1976, when the revised Taunus was launched, the Cortina was identical. The new Taunus/Cortina used the doors and some panels from the 1970 Taunus. It was replaced in 1982 by the Ford Sierra. In Asia and Australasia, it was replaced by the Mazda 626-based Ford Telstar, though Ford New Zealand did import British-made CKD kits of the Ford Sierra estate for local assembly from 1984.

The name was inspired by the name of the Italian ski resort Cortina d'Ampezzo, site of the 1956 Winter Olympics. As a publicity stunt, several Cortinas were driven down the bobsled run at the resort which was called Cortina Auto-Bobbing.1

Mark I (1962–1966)

Cortina Mark I
Cortina.mk1.white.750pix.jpg
Overview
Production 1962–1966
933,143 units
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant (Dagenham, Essex, England)
Ford Lio Ho (Chungli City, Taoyuan, Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands 1962–1975
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
Related Lotus Cortina
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1198 cc Kent OHV I4
  • 1498 cc Kent OHV I4
Transmission 3-speed manual
4-speed manual all-symchromesh2 Automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 98 in (2,489 mm)3
Length 168.25 in (4,274 mm) (saloon)
168.5 in (4,280 mm) (estate)
Width 62.5 in (1,588 mm)
Height 56.5 in (1,435 mm) (saloon)
57.75 in (1,467 mm) (estate)
Curb weight 1,736 lb (787 kg) (De Luxe)
2,072 lb (940 kg) (Estate)

Using the project name of "Archbishop", management at Ford of Britain in Dagenham created a family-sized car which they could sell in large numbers. The chief designer was Roy Brown Jr., the designer of the Edsel, who had been banished to Dagenham following the failure of that car.4 The Cortina, aimed at buyers of the Morris Oxford and Vauxhall Victor, was launched on 20 September 1962.5 The car was designed to be economical, cheap to run and easy and inexpensive to produce in Britain. The front-wheel drive configuration used by Ford of Germany for the new Ford Taunus P4, a similarly sized model, was rejected in favour of traditional rear-wheel drive layout. Originally to be called Ford Consul 225, the car was launched as the Consul Cortina until a modest facelift in 1964, after which it was sold simply as the Cortina.6

The Cortina was available with 1200  and 1500 four-cylinder engines with all synchromesh gearbox, in two-door and four-door saloon, as well as a four-door estate forms. Standard, Deluxe, Super, and GT trims were offered but not across all body styles. Early Standard models featured a simple body coloured front grille, earning it the nickname 'Ironbar'. Since this version cost almost the same as the better equipped Deluxe it sold poorly and is very rare today. Options included heater and bench seat with column gearchange. Super versions of the estates offered the option of simulated wood side and tailgate trim. In an early example of product placement many examples of the brand new Cortina featured as "Glamcabs" in the comedy film Carry On Cabby.

There were two main variations of the Mark 1. The Mark 1a possessed elliptical front side-lights, whereas the Mark 1b had a re-designed front grille incorporating the more rectangular side-light and indicator units. A notable variant was the Lotus Cortina.

The Cortina was launched a few weeks before the London Motor Show of October 1962 with a 1198 cc 3-bearing engine, which was an enlarged version of the 997 cc engine then fitted in the Ford Anglia.2 A few months later, in January 1963, the Cortina Super was announced with a 5-bearing 1498 cc engine.2 Versions of the larger engine found their way into subsequent variations, including the Cortina GT which appeared in Spring 1963 with lowered suspension and engine tuned to give a claimed output of 78 bhp (58 kW; 79 PS) ahead of the 60 bhp (45 kW; 61 PS) claimed for the Cortina 1500 Super. The engines used across the Mark I range were of identical design, differing only in capacity and setup. The formula used was a four-cylinder pushrod (Over Head Valve) design that came to be known as the "pre-crossflow" version as both inlet and exhaust ports were located on the same side of the head. The most powerful version of this engine (used in the GT Cortina) was 1498 cc (1500) and produced 78 bhp (58 kW). This engine contained a different camshaft profile, a different cast of head featuring larger ports, tubular exhaust headers and a Weber double barrel carburettor.

Advertising of the revised version, which appeared at the London Motor Show in October 1964, made much of the newly introduced "Aeroflow" through-flow ventilation, evidenced by the extractor vents on the rear pillars. A subsequent test on a warm day involving the four different Cortina models manufactured between 1964 and 1979 determined that the air delivery from the simple eyeball outlets on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was actually greater than that on the Mark II, the Mark III or the Mark IV.7 The dashboard, instruments and controls were revised, for a the second time, having already been reworked in October 1963 when round instruments replaced the strip speedometer with which the car had been launched:2 twelve years later, however, the painted steel dashboard, its "knobs scattered all over the place and its heater controls stuck underneath as a very obvious afterthought" on the 1964 Mark I Cortina was felt to have aged much less well than the car's ventilation system.7 It was also in 1964 that front disc brakes became standard across the range.2

Lotus Cortina models were solely offered as two-door saloons all in white with a contrasting green side flash down each flank. Lotus Cortinas had a unique 1557 cc twin-cam engine by Lotus, but based on the Cortina's Kent OHV engine. Aluminium was used for some body panels. For a certain time, it also had a unique A-frame rear suspension, but this proved fragile and the model soon reverted to the standard Cortina semi-elliptic rear end.


Mark II (1966–1970)

Cortina Mark II
Cortina.mk2.red.750pix.jpg
Overview
Production 1966–1970
1,159,389 units (UK)
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant (Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Chungli City, Taoyuan, Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands 1962–1975
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Designer Roy Haynes
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
Powertrain
Engine 1.2 L OHV "Kent" I4
1.3 L OHV "Kent" I4
1.5 L OHV "Kent" I4
1.6 L OHV "Kent" I4
Transmission 3-speed manual
4-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 98 in (2,489 mm)3
Length 168 in (4,267 mm) (saloon)
Width 64.9 in (1,648 mm)
Height 55.7 in (1,415 mm)
Curb weight 1,890 lb (857 kg) (De Luxe)
2,032 lb (922 kg) (1600E)

The second incarnation of the Cortina was designed by Roy Haynes, and launched on 18 October 1966,8 four years after the original Cortina. Although the launch was accompanied by the slogan "New Cortina is more Cortina", the car, at 168 inches (430 cm) long, was fractionally shorter than before.9 Its 2 12 inches (6.4 cm) of extra width and curved side panels provided more interior space.9 Other improvements included a smaller turning circle, softer suspension, self-adjusting brakes and clutch together with the availability on the smaller-engined models, for the UK and some other markets, of a new five bearing 1300 cc engine.10

A stripped-out 1200 cc version running the engine of the Ford Anglia Super was also available for certain markets where the 1300 cc engine attracted a higher rate of tax. The 1500 cc engines were at first carried over, but were discontinued in July 1967 as a new engine was on its way.11 A month later, in August, the 1300 received a new crossflow cylinder head design, making it more efficient, while a crossflow 1600 replaced the 1500. The new models carried additional "1300" or "1600" designations at the rear.11 The Lotus Cortina continued with its own unique engine, although for this generation it was built in-house by Ford themselves.

The Cortina was Britain's most popular new car in 1967,12 achieving the goal that Ford had been trying to achieve since it set out to create the original Cortina back in 1960.

Again, two-door and four-door saloons were offered with base, Deluxe, Super, GT and, later, 1600E trims available, but again, not across all body styles and engine options. A few months after the introduction of the saloon versions, a four-door estate was launched, released on the UK market on 15 February 1967:13 much was made at the time of its class topping load capacity.

Ford Cortina 1600E

The four-door Cortina 1600E, a higher trim version, was introduced at the Paris Motor Show in October 1967,14 a year after the arrival of the Cortina Mark II. It combined the lowered Lotus Cortina's suspension with the high-tune GT 1600 Kent engine and luxury trim featuring a burr walnut woodgrain-trimmed dashboard and door cappings, bucket seating, leather-clad aluminium sports steering wheel, and full instrumentation inside, while a black grille, tail panel, front fog lights, and plated Rostyle wheels on radial tyres featured outside.11

Ford New Zealand developed its own variant of this model called the GTE.

For 1969, the Mark II range was given subtle revisions, with separate "FORD" block letters mounted on the bonnet and boot lids, a blacked out grille and chrome strips on top and below the taillights running the full width of the tail panel marking them out.

A 3.0-litre Essex V6-engined variant was developed privately in South Africa by Basil Green Motors, and was sold through the Grosvenor Ford network of dealers as the Cortina Perana; a similar model appeared later in Britain and was known as the Cortina Savage. Savage was available with 1600E trim in all three body styles, while her South African stablemate was offered only as a four-door saloon initially with GT and later E trim.15


TC Mark III (1970–1976)

Cortina TC Mark III
1972.ford.cortina.mk3.arp.750pix.jpg
Overview
Production 1970–1976
1,126,559 units
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant (Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Chungli City, Taoyuan, Taiwan)
Amsterdam, Netherlands 1962–1975
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door saloon
4-door saloon
5-door estate
2-door coupé utility (P100)
Related Ford Taunus TC
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1.3 L Kent OHV I4
  • 1.6 L Kent OHV I4
  • 1.6 L Pinto TL16 OHC I4
  • 2.0 L Pinto TL20 OHC I4
  • 2.0 L Essex OHV V4 (South Africa)
  • 2.5 L Essex OHV V6 (South Africa)
  • 3.0 L Essex OHV V6 (South Africa)
  • 3.3 L Falcon 200 OHV I6 (Australia)
  • 4.1 L Falcon 250 OHV I6 (Australia)
Transmission 3/4-speed manual
3-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 101 in (2,565 mm)
Length 167.75 in (4,261 mm) (saloon)
171.5 in (4,356 mm) (estate)
Width 67 in (1,702 mm)
Height 52 in (1,321 mm)

In the late 1960s, Ford set about developing the third-generation Cortina, the MK3, which would be produced in higher volumes than before, and following the recent merger of Ford of Britain and Ford of Germany into the modern-day Ford of Europe, the car marked the convergence of the German Taunus and British Cortina platforms with only minor differences between the two, hence the car's internal name TC1, standing for Taunus-Cortina. It was also the last European car engineered by Harley Copp as Vice President Engineering and head of Brentwood, before he returned to Detroit.

The Mark III was heavily inspired by the contemporary "coke bottle" design language which had emanated from Detroit – the car sported similar fluted bonnet and beltline design elements to the North American Mercury Montego and Ford LTD of the same era. It replaced both the Cortina Mark II and the larger, more expensive Ford Corsair by offering more trim levels and the option of larger engines than the Mark II. Its sister car – the Taunus TC – sold in continental Europe was subtly different in appearance, having different door skins and rear wing pressings that toned down the drooping beltline in order to lose the "coke-bottle" appearance of the Cortina.

The MacPherson strut front suspension was replaced with more conventional double A-arm suspension to give the car a softer ride on the road' which gave the larger engines distinct understeer.

Ford UK originally wanted to call it something other than Cortina, but the name stuck. Although the Mark III looked significantly larger than the boxier Mark 2 Cortina,it was actually the same overall length, but 4 inches (100 mm) wider.16 Within the overall length, a wheelbase lengthened by more than 3 inches (76 mm) also contributed to the slightly more spacious interior.16

Trim levels for the MK3 Cortina were Base, L (for Luxury), XL (Xtra Luxury), GT (Grand Touring) and GXL (Grand Xtra Luxury). 1.3 L, 1.6 L and 2.0 L engines were offered, the 1.6 L having two distinct types – the single-carb, OHV Kent unit for models up to GT trim and a SOHC twin-carb Pinto unit was used for the GT and GXL models. The GXL was also offered in 1600 cc form initially. In left-hand drive markets, the 1.6 OHC was replaced by a twin-carb OHV (Kent) unit not offered in the home market, in order to distinguish it from the competing Taunus which only came with the OHC Pinto engine.17 2.0 L variants used a larger version of the 1600 Pinto unit and were available in all trim levels except base. Base, L and XL versions were available as a five-door estate.

Although no longer than its predecessor, the Mark 3 was a heavier car, reflecting a trend towards improving secondary safety by making car bodies more substantial.16 Weight was also increased by the stout cross-member incorporated into the new simplified front suspension set-up,18 and by the inclusion of far more sound deadening material which insulated the cabin from engine and exhaust noise, making the car usefully quieter than its predecessor, though on many cars the benefit was diminished by high levels of wind noise apparently resulting from poor door fit around the windows.16 Four-speed manual transmissions were by now almost universally offered in the UK for this class of car, and contemporary road tests commented on the rather large gap between second and third gear, and the resulting temptation to slip the clutch when accelerating through the gears in the smaller-engined cars:16 it was presumably in tacit acknowledgment of the car's marginal power-to-weight ratio that Ford no longer offered the automatic transmission option with the smallest 1298 cc-engined Cortina.16

Four headlights and Rostyle wheels marked out the GT and GXL versions, while the GXL also had bodyside rub strips, a vinyl roof and a brushed aluminum and black boot lid panel on the GXLs, while the GTs had a black painted section of the boot with a chrome trim at either site of it. All pre-facelift models featured a downward sloping dashboard with deeply recessed dials and all coil suspension all round. In general styling and technical make up, many observed that the Mk3 Cortina aped the Vauxhall Victor FD of 1967.

The Cortina went on sale on 23 October 1970,19 but sales got off to a particularly slow start because of production difficulties that culminated with a ten-week strike at Ford's plant between April and June 1971, which was at the time reported to have cost production of 100,000 vehicles, equivalent to almost a quarter of the output for a full year.20

1972 Ford Cortina (North America)

During 1971 the spring rates and damper settings were altered along with the front suspension bushes which reduced the bounciness of the ride and low speed ride harshness which had generated press criticism at the time of the Cortina III's launch.16

Volumes recovered, and with the ageing Austin/Morris 1100/1300 now losing out to various newer models, the Cortina was Britain's top selling car in 1972,21 closely followed by the Escort.22 It remained the UK's top selling car until 1976 when it overtaken by the Mk2 Escort.

In late 1973 the Cortina MK3 was given a facelift, and was redesignated TD. The main difference was the dashboard and clocks, no longer did it slope away from the driver's line of sight. But shared the same dash and clocks as the later MK4 and MK5 Cortina's, upgraded trim levels and revised grilles, rectangular headlights for the XL, GT and the new 2000E (the "E" standing for executive), which replaced the GXL. The 1.3 L Kent engine was carried over but now, 1.6 L models all used the more modern 1.6 L SOHC engine. Whilst the TD Cortina still had double A-arm suspension with coils at the front and a four-link system at the rear, handling was improved. Inside, the car received a neater dashboard that no longer sloped away from the driver's line of sight and upgraded trim. The 2000E reverted to the classy treatment offered by the 1600E and later Ghia models instead of the faux wood-grain trim offered by the GXL. The 2000E was also available as an estate.

Ford Cortina Mark III 2000E (i.e. executive version), with a pre-facelift Cortina Mark I de luxe alongside.

Like many other Cortinas, Mk.3s were prone to rust and as a result only about 1000 now survive. Because of their rarity and the fact that they are now seen as an iconic car of the mid-70s, prices for MK.3s are rising steadily, with the best examples fetching several thousand pounds. The Mark III was never sold in the US, although it was available in Canada until 1973.

In addition to four-cylinder models, the Mark III was available in South Africa as the 'Big Six' L and GL with the Essex V6 2.5 L engine and Perana, GT and XLE with the Essex V6 3.0 L engine. There was also a pick-up truck version available. Ford Australia built its own versions using both the UK four-cylinder engines (1.6 and 2.0) and locally made inline six-cylinder engines from its Falcon line.

For Japan, the cars were literally narrowed by a few millimeters on arrival in the country in order that they fit into a lower tax bracket determined by exterior dimensions – this was done by bending the wheel arches inwards.

Mark IV (1976–1979)

Cortina Mark IV
Cortinamk4.jpg
Overview
Production 1976–1979
1,131,850 units (including Mk V)
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant (Dagenham, Essex, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Chungli City, Taoyuan, Taiwan)
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Designer Uwe Bahnsen
Body and chassis
Body style
Related Ford Taunus TC2
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 3/4-speed manual
3-speed automatic

The fourth-generation Cortina was a more conventional design than its predecessor, but this was largely appreciated by fleet buyers. Generally a rebody of the Mark III, as an integration of Ford's model range, this car was really a rebadged Ford Taunus. However, although the updated Taunus was introduced to Continental Europe in January 1976, Ford were able to continue selling the Cortina Mark III in undiminished numbers in the UK until they were ready to launch its successor as the Dagenham built Cortina Mark IV, which went on sale on 29 September 1976.23

Many parts were carried over, most notably the running gear. The raised driving position and the new instrument panel had, along with some of the suspension upgrades, already been introduced to the Cortina Mark III in 1975, so that from the driving position the new car looked much more familiar to owners of recent existing Cortinas than from the outside.7 Cinema audiences received an early glimpse of the new Cortina (or Taunus) through its appearance in the James Bond The Spy Who Loved Me 1977 film.

The most obvious change was the new body, which achieved the marketing department objective of larger windows giving a better view out and a brighter feel to the cabin, but at the expense of body weight which was increased, albeit only marginally, by approximately 30 lb (14 kg).7 Ford claimed an overall increase in window area of some 15%, with "40% better visibility" through the wider deeper back window.7 Regardless of how these figures were computed, there must have been substantial weight-saving gains through reduced steel usage in the design, given the unavoidable extra weight of glass.7

This series spawned the first Ghia top-of-the-range model, which replaced the 2000E. The 2.3-litre Ford Cologne V6 engine was introduced in 1977 as an engine above the 2.0 L Pinto engine, already a staple of the Capri and Granada ranges. However, 2.3-litre Cortinas never sold particularly well in the UK. The Cologne V6 was certainly a much smoother and more refined power unit than the Pinto, but the V6 models were more expensive to fuel and insure and were only slightly faster, being about 0.5 seconds faster from 0–60 and having a top speed of about 109 mph compared to the 104 mph of the 2.0-litre models. The 2.0 Ford Cologne V6 engine continued to be offered on Taunus badged cars in parallel with the Pinto unit,24 and offers here an interesting comparison with the similarly sized in-line four-cylinder Pinto engine. The V6 with a lower compression ratio offered less power and less performance, needing over an extra second to reach 50 mph (80 km/h).24 It did, however, consume 12½% less fuel and was considered by motor journalists to be a far quieter and smoother unit.24 The 2.3 L was available to the GL, S and Ghia variants. A 1.6 Ghia option was also introduced at the same time as the 2.3 V6 models in response to private and fleet buyers who wanted Ghia refinements with the improved fuel economy of the smaller 1.6 Pinto engine. Few cars were sold with the 1.6 engine though, the 2.0 Pinto was always by far the most common engine option for Ghia models.

Two-door and four-door saloons and a five-door estate were offered with all other engines being carried over. However, at launch only 1.3-engined cars could be ordered in the UK with the two-door body, and then only with "standard" or "L" equipment packages.7 In practice, relatively few two-door Mark IV Cortinas were sold. There was a choice of base, L, GL, S (for Sport) and Ghia trims, again not universal to all engines and body styles. Rostyle wheels were fitted as standard to all Mk.4 GL, S and Ghia models, with alloy wheels available as an extra cost option. The dashboard was carried over intact from the last of the Mark III Cortinas while the estate used the rear body pressings of the previous 1970 release Taunus.

South African-built 1977 Cortina Mark IV

Despite its status as Britain's bestselling car throughout its production run the Mk.4 is now the rarest Cortina, with poor rustproofing and the model's popularity with banger racers cited as being the main reasons for its demise. Particularly scarce are the 2.0 and 2.3S models which were discontinued when the Mk.5 was introduced in August 1979.

Ford Australia built its own versions with the 2.0-litre 4-cylinder Pinto unit and the Ford Falcon's 3.3 and 4.1 L 6-cylinder unit. Interior door hardware and steering columns were shared with the Falcons and the Aussie versions also had their own instrument clusters, optional air conditioning, and much larger bumpers. It also had side indicators. A considerable number were exported to New Zealand under a free trade agreement where they were sold alongside locally assembled models similar to those available in the UK. In South Africa, the Mark IV was built with the Kent 1.6 and the three-litre "Essex" V6.

Mark V (1979–1982)

Cortina Mark V
FordCortina20080125.jpg
Overview
Production 1979–1982
production – see Mark IV
Assembly Ford Dagenham assembly plant (Dagenham, England, United Kingdom)
Ford Lio Ho (Chungli City, Taoyuan, Taiwan)
Campbellfield, Victoria, Australia
Lower Hutt, New Zealand
Ulsan, South Korea
Body and chassis
Body style
Related Ford Taunus TC3
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission

The Mark V was announced on 24 August 1979.25 Officially the programme was code named Teresa, although externally it was marketed as "Cortina 80", although the Mark V tag was given to it immediately on release, by the press, insiders and the general public.

A large update on the Mark IV, it was really a step between a facelift and a rebody. The Mark V differentiated itself from the Mark IV by having revised headlights with larger turn indicators incorporated (which now showed to the side too), a wider slatted grille said to be more aerodynamically efficient, a flattened roof, more glass area, slimmer C-pillars with revised vent covers, larger, slatted tail lights (on saloon models) and upgraded trim.

Prices started at £3,475 for a basic 1.3-litre-engined model.26

Improvements were also made to the engine range, with slight improvements to both fuel economy and power output compared to the Mk.IV. The 2.3 V6 engine was given electronic ignition and a slight boost in power output to 116 bhp (87 kW; 118 PS), compared to the 108 bhp (81 kW; 109 PS) of the Mk.IV. Ford also claimed improved corrosion protection on Mk.V models; as a result, more Mk.V's have survived; however, corrosion was still quite a problem.

The estate models combined the Mk IV's bodyshell (which was initially from the 1970 Ford Taunus) with Mk V front body pressings. A pick-up ("bakkie") version was also built in South Africa. These later received a longer bed and were then marketed as the P100.

Ford Cortina Mark V Estate
1981 Cortina Mark V pick-up

Variants included the Base, L, GL, and Ghia (all available in saloon and estate forms), together with Base and L spec 2-door sedan versions (this bodystyle was available up to Ghia V6 level on overseas markets). The replacement for the previous Mk.4 S models was an S pack of optional extras which was available as an upgrade on most Mk.5 models from L trim level upwards. For the final model year of 1982 this consisted of front and rear bumper overriders, sports driving lamps, an S badge on the boot, tachometer, 4 spoke steering wheel, revised suspension settings, front gas shock absorbers,'Sports' gear lever knob, sports road wheels, 185/70 SR x 13 tyres and Fishnet Recaro sports seats (optional). Various "special editions" were announced, including the Calypso and Carousel. The final production model was the Crusader special edition which was available as a 1.3, 1.6, and 2.0 saloons or 1.6 and 2.0 estates. The Crusader was a final run-out model in 1982, along with the newly introduced Sierra. It was the best-specified Cortina produced to date and 30,000 were sold, which also made it Ford's best-selling special edition model. Another special edition model was the Cortina Huntsman, of which 150 were produced. By this time, the Cortina was starting to feel the competition from a rejuvenated (and Opel influenced) Vauxhall, which with the 1981 release Cavalier J-Car, was starting to make inroads on the Cortina's traditional fleet market, largely helped by the front wheel drive benefits of weight.

Up to and including 1981, the Cortina was the best selling car in Britain. Even during its final production year, 1982, the Cortina was Britain's second best selling car and most popular large family car. On the continent, the Taunus version was competing with more modern and practical designs like the Talbot Alpine, Volkswagen Passat, and Opel Ascona.

The very last Cortina – a silver Crusader – rolled off the Dagenham production line on 22 July 1982 on the launch of the Sierra, though there were still a few leaving the forecourt as late as 1987, with one final unregistered Cortina GL leaving a Derbyshire dealership in 2005.27 The last Cortina built remains in the Ford Heritage Centre in Dagenham, Essex, not far from the factory where it was assembled.28

1982 was also the year in which the Cortina lost its title as Britain's best selling car, having held that position every year since 1972. It was still selling well though, and the number one position had been taken by another Ford product: the Escort.

Sales success

In 1967, the Ford Cortina interrupted the Austin/Morris 1100/1300s reign as Britain's best selling car. From 1972 to 1981, the Cortina enjoyed an unbroken run as Britain best selling car.citation needed At the end of its life it was facing competition from the more advanced and practical second generation Vauxhall Cavalier.citation needed

The final incarnation of the Cortina was Britain's best selling car for the 1980 and 1981 calendar years, also topping the sales charts for 1979 when the range was making the transition from the fourth generation model to the fifth. Even in 1982, when during its final year of production it was pushed off the top of the charts by the Ford Escort.

The Cortina was also a very popular selling car in New Zealand throughout its production and continued to be sold new until 1984.citation needed

Although the last Cortina rolled off the production line in the summer of 1982, thousands of them remained unsold. More than 11,000 were sold in 1983, and the final six examples didn't find homes until 1987. Its demise left Ford without a traditional four-door saloon, as the Sierra was initially available as a hatchback or estate. Ford later addressed this by launching a saloon version of the Sierra (the Sierra Sapphire) at the time of a major facelift in early 1987. It also added an Escort-based four-door saloon, the Orion, to the range in 1983.

A total of nearly 2,600,000 Cortinas were sold in Britain, and in March 2009 it was revealed that the Cortina was still the third most popular car ever sold there, despite having been out of production for nearly three decades.29

The BBC Two documentary series Arena had a segment about the car and its enthusiasts.30

Racing and rallying

The Cortina also raced in rallies and Lotus did some sportier editions of the Cortina Mark I and Mark II referred to as the Lotus Cortina.

Powered by a Lotus engine, the Ford Cortina was a notable competitor in the American based Trans Am Series.31 In the inaugural series in 1966, Canadian born Australian driver Allan Moffat shocked the outright cars when he drove a Lotus Cortina to outright victory in Round 3, a 250 mi (400 km) race at the Bryar Motorsports Park in Loudon, New Hampshire.

This car is, today, used for racing, because of its powerful cast iron engine. The car can have imported cylinder heads, with hydraulic valves, which give an enormous power boost.

The Cortina was also a popular car in UK Banger racing in the late 1980s and throughout the 1990s proving to be a competitive car and also lasting it out in Demolition Derbys.

Other cars using Cortina engines

The Kent engines used in the Cortina (popularly known as the "Crossflow"), being lightweight, reliable and inexpensive, were popular with several low-volume sports car manufacturers, including Morgan who used them in the 1962–81 4/4 (and continue to use Ford engines in most of their current models). The engines are also found in a number of British kit cars, and until recently was the basis of Formula Ford racing, until replaced by the "Zetec" engine.

The Kent engines were also used in several smaller Fords, most notably the Escort, lower end Capris and Fiesta.

The Pinto overhead cam units used in the Mk.III onwards, as well as being fitted to contemporary Capris, Granadas and Transits, were carried over to the Sierra for its first few years of production, before gradually being phased out by the newer CVH and DOHC units. Like the Kent Crossflow, it was also extensively used in kit cars – as a result many Cortinas were scrapped solely for their engines – the 2.0L Pintos being the most popular.

In recent years, the opposite pheonomenon has become popular among enthusiasts, where classic Cortinas have been retrofitted with modern Ford engines – the most popular unit being the Zetec unit from the Mondeo and Focus. The Zetec, although originally intended only for front wheel drive installation can be adapted fairly easily owing to the engine's use as a replacement for Kent units in Formula Ford.

Non-United Kingdom sales and manufacture

The Cortina was also sold in other right hand drive markets such as the Republic of Ireland where it was assembled locally, Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Malta and South Africa. Mark III Cortina estates were adopted as police cars in Hong Kong. The Cortina was also assembled in left hand drive (carrying Taunus badging) in the Philippines, in South Korea (by Hyundai), Turkey (by Ford-Otosan in Kocaeli), and in Taiwan (by Ford Lio Ho) until the early 1980s.

The first two generations of the car were also sold through American Ford dealers in the 1960s. The Cortina competed fairly successfully there against most of the other small imports of its day, including GM's Opel Kadett, the Renault Dauphine, and the just-appearing Toyotas and Datsuns, although none of them approached the phenomenal success of the Volkswagen Beetle. The Cortina was withdrawn from the US market when Ford decided to produce a domestic small car in 1971, the Ford Pinto, though it continued in Canada until the end of the 1973 model year.

The third generation Cortina was also sold in some continental European markets, such as Scandinavia, alongside the Taunus. A small number were exported to Japan, with the rear of the bodyshell compressed to make it narrower – this was because cars in Japan were taxed on exterior dimensions, and having a narrower body enabled the Cortina to avoid being heavily taxed.

The Ford Cortina was also assembled in the Amsterdam Ford Factory from the launch in 1962 until 1975. Production was for the Dutch market, but also for export to non EU countries and even for export to the UK if the demand there was higher than the UK production capacity.

Australia

Mark I

In Australia, the Mark I Ford Cortinas sold well in a variety of forms. These included a 2 door version in two trim sets being a 220 and a 240. The 220 was sold to governments for basic transport with power, water authorities and councils and was completely devoid of trim or any chrome. The 240 was the unit mostly purchased by the consuming public. The 220 was usually only available with a three main bearing 1200 cc engine (please confirm) and the 240 was mainly fitted with the 1500 cc five main bearing engine (please confirm). Ford Australia also sold the Mk1 in 4 door form as either the 440, which was available in auto or manual or the GT. The Australia 4 door GT was technically the same as the UK 4 door GT (please confirm) and differed visually in the fitent of 'UK export stripping' in the form of a wider side body mounted chrome strip running down the side to a point at the front and returning along the body to the tail whereas the UK GT had no chrome trim. All Australian built GT have this wider chrome strip. The 440 also used body stripping chrome moulds but they where thinner (size please confirm). The only other Mk1 that differed from the UK variant was the GT500 designed and (some) built by Harry Firth.

Cortina GT500 - Australia's answer to the Lotus Cortina

No article on the Cortina GT500 would be complete without a firsthand description from a famous motoring writer describing what driving one of these monsters was like on the open road when David McKay took a new GT500 from Sydney to Melbourne and back in Sept 65 and averaged a respectable 56 mph (90 kph) over a 1100 miles of single lane tarred undulating goat track that was the Hume Highway. .. Quote ...” such a trip can be tiring, but I was out on the mountain that night in the 500 – and really enjoyed myself. The car is a fine example of a GT – a real dual-purpose beastie which must be the best Ford yet. A triumph for Ford Australia and Harry Firth for making such a car available here.” There are very few cars that have three gears that could be used over 70mph (112kph). A stock Cortina GT500 held the under 1500 cc class lap record at Oran Park Raceway (SW of Sydney) until the cataogory was replaced with a 1600cc limit in 1974.

The Australian designed and built Cortina GT500 has the unique privilege of being one of the first of Henry Ford II race car creations when he declared in 1962 that Ford Motor company would start a ‘racing revolution’. This edict then flowed into the Ford family of cars and resulted in a range of cars that successfully adapted to being used as race cars in a variety of arenas. These include the Lotus Cortina, Falcon Sprint, the Mustang GT350 and the famous GT40 as well as cars that used Ford engines like the AC Cobras (260, 289 and 427), the Sunbeam Alpine Tiger and a variety of Indianapolis race cars using Ford engines. [(See Randy Leffingwell’s book “Shelby Mustang racer for the street” (ISBN 978-0-77603-2117-1)]

In Australia the Cortina GT’s had won the Armstrong 500 in 1963 and 64 at Mount Panorama Circuit at Bathurst in New South Wales. Ford Australia was concerned that the new Cooper S with long range tanks could provide a real threat to their potential to win the 1965 race. In 1965 the Bathurst 500 race was intended only for ‘production cars’; and the rules provided minimum production limits in order to be defined as a ‘production car’. Imported models had a high minimum limit of 250 units in country but locally built cars could have a minimum of only 100 cars. Following Henry’s edict, Ford Australia decided to build their own racing Cortina to compete in the 1965 Bathurst race. Ford commissioned a local racing driver Harry Firth to design and build a Cortina to ensure success. To understand the Cortina GT500 however one must first understand how Ford found itself in 1963. A global range of quality products that could be turned into race cars and a bureaucracy bent on volume production. The two clashed severely. This was further complicated by a chairman determined to rebrand the Blue oval as a producer of quality cars that could be raced. Reading “Shelby Mustang” one discovers a range of similarities that occurred between the creation of the Cortina GT500 and US designed and built GT350 Mustang. This comparison is important because it explains the variations in the specifications of the GT500 Cortina. Both projects were several influenced by meddling accountants. In the case of the GT350 Shelby had to beg for funds from Castrol and Goodyear (Leffingwell) to build the prototype and Firth had his initial production run stopped to save a few Pounds. Both projects relied on the using parts from Fords standard parts bin. Both projects started out with fire breathing monsters more suited to racing and moved more towards cars that resembled standard street cars. For example the original GT350 had no trim, radio, muffler, a/c, auto or back seat. This gradually mutated into fully equipped luxury sports cars with every conceivable option including automatic transmission and air. And both projects created two different vehicles. Shelby the GT350R and Firth the type 1. Specification creep can also be seen in the production of Lotus Cortinas. The original Mk1’s built by Chapman started out with ‘A’ frame rear ends, alloy panels and range of other variations and ended with the last Chapman units with steel panels and leaf springs. Ford took control with the release of the Mk2 Cortina Lotus and built the whole production run in house with the result that the Mk2 was a lot more civilised and consistent in their specification as they were produced as a finished, refined and much detailed end product.

The original specification for the Cortina GT500 was announced in May 1965 ‘Wheels’ magazine and included an updated motor, lowered suspension, modified driver’s seat, air scoops for the brakes and a long range fuel tank and a range of other modifications. Ford took delivery of 122 CKD (Complete Knock Down) two door GT body shells from the UK. Some of the production run used for this order where originally intended for other markets as some 500 bulkheads have LHD tags riveted to them and it’s been suggested this could have been destined for the Canadian market as they had recently converted from RHD to LHD. These first 122 shells are easy to identify as they have the diagonal braces connecting the turret tops to the bulkhead and use a heavier gauge steel.

The fact that Ford decided to inject the Cortina GT500 into the global numbering system with the model code of 122E gives some indication of the seriousness that Global Ford HQ had in regard for their new antipodeans racer. The 122 serial number appears on the driver’s side turret and engine block in both type 1 and 2. Other examples of this same serial numbering system tagged the Anglia with 105E and the Lotus Cortina with 125E. The Cortina GT500 was built with three specific specification variations listed below by their Type number. Given Fords experience with Shelby it’s also possible that they observed that all cars built didn’t actually need to have every modification scrutinized and originally intended to run the Type 1’s but changed their mind and ran the type 2’s. The first two Types can be identified by the presence of hex headed screws retaining the three baffles in the additional fuel tank in the boot. The baffles in the type 3 were internally welded. Before the race Triplex Laminated windscreens were offered as an option.

Type 1: Harry Firth started production but found the going tough. Ford accountants found the labour costs associated with building cars one at a time created a situation where the 500 cost more than it was selling for at £1498. According to documents produced by Firth this initial batch was somewhere between 20 to 30 cars. The list of modifications were extensive and differed from the units used in the actual race (Type 2) by having a different steering that was faster, lower front suspension, different front end geometry, hand cut front bumperetts, mess head light covers, Alloy bell housing, modified bonnet release and modified driver’s seat. The engine used in both Type 1 and 2 were the same and the spec is covered below.

Type 2 : Distressed at the cost of production and unable to reason that winning the Armstrong race was the goal, the bean counters pulled the pin and opted to run the remainder of the 122 units down the production line were the motors/gear box, tanks and famous air scoops were fitted. These cars were the ones used in the race and the winning car of Bo Seton was purchased off the show room floor of his local dealer !.

Type 3 : After the race British Leyland complained that Ford had built a 'special' for the race. Ford replied that the 500 was a standard model and that anyone could buy one. To support this decision Ford build a third batch of 125 units (type 3s) using Australian built 220 and 240 - 2 door body shells. There is some evidence that these types 3 could have been built by dealers which produced some 1200cc models but this cannot be confirmed. As the cars were built after the race there was zero pressure to spend money on special bonnet releases and elevated driver seats but they did have all the equipment necessary to make them a lethal machine in the right hands. Given the rules for 1966 increased the local build quantity to 250 its likely Ford still considered running one in 66 as the total build quantity has been confirmed by Ford themselves at 247 made up of all three types.

In material produced by Harry Firth after the race it was revealed that he also built several variations including a 4 door GT500, and the next version of 500 with twin side draft Webbers. Firth describes his time was then consumed developing Fords next weapon, the famous Gold XR GT Falcon, which made him unavailable to supervise the Type 3 build. He also confirms that Ford did not pay him the £10 design royalty per car for the type 3's which annoyed him considerably. Another confirmation of the existence of the type 3’s has occurred in a variety of interviews over a period of years Firth's states the type 3 quantity varied somewhere between 85 and 185 which highlights his non involvement in the third batch.

Visual appearance The GT500 is visually recognizable by the two lower front air scoops, two door export chrome GT trim, twin fuel caps behind the rear window, a 500 badge in front of the GT symbol on the back mudguard and a round blanking plate covering the old fuel entry hole. Ford used the serial number 27134 for the 500 on the alloy tag in the engine bay which has been turned around to read from outside the car.

Brief Technical description. The 500 differs from a normal GT in a fuel load, engine spec and gearbox. Fuel was feed into a large 8.5 gallon tank under the rear window which in turn feed into a standard floor mounted tank through a front connection from a Cortina estate wagon giving a total capacity of 17 gallons. The gearbox used was a 2.5 first gear ratio Lotus gearbox with a standard GT 3.9 diff. This gave a first gear top speed of 59 mph (95 km/h) (detailed in the handbook) and lead to the continual consumption of clutches due to the need to slip considerably to get moving. It was like a 6 speed box without the first two gears but once moving provided immense driving joy over a wide range of road and track conditions.

Engine : The engine used was a Ford OHV Kent GT 5 main bearing unit with a variety of modifications which raised the HP from 78 to 98. Modifications included a ‘113’ camshaft from George Wade, re-jetted down draft Weber carburettor, raised compression, solid small harmonic balance, clipped fan blade, heavy duty generator bracket and a wide range of other refinements. The only thing not changed in the engine was the big end bolts, the failure of which contributed to some of the 500's not finishing the 1965 Bathurst race.

Records show that there are approximately 40 to 50 left which makes them one of motor racing histories rarest Ford factory built race cars. Some of their passionate owners belong to a series of car clubs but the numbers are too low and dispersed to justify a specialty organisation. Unique Cars Magazine gives the valuation in Dec 2013 at A$65,000 and it’s appreciated that this is for a Type 2. Type 1's are valued at $75,000 and Type 3's at $55,000. According to Wheels magazine, Cortina GT500's have been appreciating at a steady 17% PA since 1969 and this growth is not expected to slow given their rarity and formal factory endorsement. Foot note Harry Firth also confirmed that he was in discussion with Colin Chapman (Lotus Cortina fame) in the UK for Chapman to use 'some' 500 parts in a low cost 'budget' Lotus Cortina that Chapman was planning but never app

Mark II

The Mark IIs continued the sales success, being offered in five different models – the 220, 240, 440, GT and the rare "L" luxury model which featured solid wood panelling on the dashboard and doors. The GT was readily identified by its bumperettes on the front and rear. Even rarer was the GTL with a much lightened flywheel but all the L features.

TC

The Mark III was introduced into the Australian market in August 1971 as the TC Cortina.32 and was offered in L, XL and XLE trim levels. It was initially available with 1600 cc "Cross-Flow" and 2000 cc SOHC four-cylinder engines.33 In September 1972 Ford Australia launched a six-cylinder version of the TC,32 using the 200ci and 250ci in-line engines from the Australian Ford Falcon range. These engines had a blue rocker cover for the 200ci (3.3-litre) and a red rocker cover for the 250ci (4.1-litre). The 1600 cc engine option was discontinued in June 1973.34

The TC six-cylinder models had twin 5" headlights which distinguished them from the four-cylinder cars which had single 7" sealed beam headlights on each side. To hold the larger engines, the chassis had reinforced side rails and centre pillar, and a tubular crossmember support under the transmission. In addition, the firewall panels were shaped to accommodate the longer engines and wider bell housing, and were manufactured from thicker metal. This change was spread across the Cortina range so that the four-cylinder models benefited too. But this was not enough to prevent the additional front mass of the larger engines causing roll steer, resulting in relatively unsophisticated handling by today's standards, especially on rough roads. Braking was also an issue under harsh conditions.

In 1973 to 1974, Ford Australia proposed a three-door coupé version of the Cortina, in order to compete with the upcoming Holden Torana hatchback. It would also be a local Capri replacement. This car would have used the Pinto tailgate and other parts from around the world (such as the longer 2-door Cortina doors). However, Ford rejected the idea, as a unique model, particularly a small coupé for Australia could not be justified on cost grounds.

TD

The TD Cortina, released October 1974,35 was offered in L, XL and XLE trim levels and could be identified by its plastic grille. Early TDs used single round headlights for both four- and six-cylinder models but rectangular units were part of the mid-life facelift of March 1976.36 When fitted with the optional "Rallye" Pack, the later models featured round headlights and quartz halogen driving lights.37

Both the TC and TD six-cylinder models were immediately recognised over the four-cylinder versions by the raised 'power bulge' in the center of the bonnet. Basic transmission for the six-cylinder model was originally a three-speed manual floor shift, with a four-speed Borg-Warner single rail transmission available, taken straight from the Falcon GT. Also available was a Borg-Warner 35 three-speed automatic across all models. From 1976 the six-cylinder engines featured a revised crossflow cylinder head, keeping in line with the Falcon.

Australian Ford TD Cortina XL Wagon (1974–76)


TE

The Mark IV was released in Australia in 1977 as the TE Cortina. It had trim levels of L, GL (with optional GS Rally Pack) and Ghia with a few other short run variants, such as the 'S' and 'X' packs. The TE featured the 2.0L Pinto motor as used in earlier models, and the 200ci (3.3 Litre) and 250ci (4.1 Litre) OHV sixes with a crossflow cylinder head. Late in the TE's life, in 1980, the 6-cylinder heads were changed to an alloy design, mirroring the engine development of the Ford Falcon XD range. The external door handles were an item that was shared with the XD Falcon. The front windscreen and front windows as well as a slightly revised dash were carried over from the Australian TD Cortina.

Aside from the engines, the Australian TE had minor exterior differences to the Cortina models sold elsewhere. Bumpers were the most noticeable differences, as the TE had larger chromed steel bumpers with rubber coated ends and additional indicators in the front guards. The whole TE range had a higher centre pressing in the bonnet to accommodate the six-cylinder engine's air cleaner. This change is not obvious unless you compare the TE's bonnet with those of equivalent models sold overseas.

There was a proposal in 1975 by Ford Australia to simply facelift the TD (Mark III) series Cortina for 1977, rather than introduce the Mark IV. A prototype facelift was made; however, Ford instead went with a re-engineered Mark IV (née the German Ford Taunus).

TF
TF Cortina with optional "S-pack" sports trim

The Mark V was released in Australia in 1980 as the TF Cortina and was offered in L, GL and Ghia variants and with an optional S-Pack also available. The TF had minor exterior differences to the Cortina models sold elsewhere with rubber RIM moulded bumpers being the most noticeable. Another example was that the TF's front numberplate was mounted below the front bumper, further distinguishing it from its European Mark V counterparts. Like the TE, the whole TF range had a higher centre pressing in the bonnet to accommodate the six-cylinder engine's air cleaner.

In the late 1970s, the Cortina wagons were built in Renault's local Heidelberg factory in Melbourne, (now closed), as Ford Australia's own factories did not have the capacity. For the last year of Australian Cortina production, 1981, a Ghia wagon was produced, although this was also listed in the September 1980 factory brochure.

Despite the TF Cortina introducing worthwhile improvements in ride, handling, noise reduction and fuel consumption, the Cortina generally was seen by the motoring press as outdated, and buyers generally preferred the rival products – in marked contrast to New Zealand where the Cortina was a highly regarded success.

Ford Australia, however, found enough customers to last to the end of the model's life. In 1982 it was replaced initially by the smaller Ford Meteor (a rebadged Mazda 323 sedan) and then the Ford Telstar saloon / hatchback range in 1983.

New Zealand

The New Zealand Cortina range generally followed that of Britain. Overall CKD assembly ran from 1962 to 1984, at Ford's Lower Hutt (Seaview) plant.

The Mark IV Cortina range, introduced into local assembly early in 1977, was very similar to that offered in the UK – a main specification difference, however, was the use of metric instrumentation, and that a 2-door sedan was not offered. Engine sizes of 1.6 and 2.0 litres were available. The 2.0 L was a very popular fleet vehicle and the transport of thousands of sales reps in New Zealand over the years.

Additionally there were limited imports of Australian Mark IV Cortinas, equipped with both 2.0 four-cylinder engines which featured more emissions control equipment than the UK-sourced cars, and the Falcon's 4.1 L six-cylinder engines.

The Mark V range was introduced early in 1980, a range that featured 1.6 base, 2.0 L, 2.0 GL, 2.0 Ghia, 2.3 V6 Ghia, and wagon variants for the 1.6 base and 2.0 L. In 1982 the 2.0 GL model was discontinued and replaced with a 2.0 S (Sport) model, and unlike in the UK, it was a model in its own right. A 2.0 "van" was also introduced – essentially a Cortina estate without rear seats, aimed towards fleet buyers.

All 2.0-litre models had the option of automatic transmission, and with the 2.3 V6, it was the only transmission offered.

A unique option, offered under guarantee by a dealership, South Auckland Ford, was a turbocharger.

The Ghia models were similarly equipped to UK models, but only the 2.3 V6 models featured imported Ford alloy wheels. Ford 'Rostyle' steel rims were fitted to all 2.0 GL, Ghia and S models, optionally on the other models. New Zealand Ghia models, however, did not feature a steel sliding sunroof (fitted as standard on UK Ghia models), although some models did feature an aftermarket sunroof.

Unlike Australia, the Cortina had been a popular car in New Zealand, and was missed by many when it ceased production in mid-1983, notably after Ford New Zealand had scoured the globe for surplus assembly kits, a number of which came from Cork in Republic of Ireland. Station wagons (estate models) remained available until 1984. The Cortina range was finally replaced by the 1983 Ford Telstar range and the 1984 Ford Sierra station wagon. Sales had been dropping in the early 1980s, however, with the average age of buyers in 1981 being between 45 and 54. Quality and fitment were also issues of concern, with the local assembler welcoming the Cortina's Mazda-built replacement.38

Compared with Britain and many other countries where the Cortina was originally exported, in New Zealand it has a far superior survival rate due to the climate being far drier and more favourable to the preservation of rust-free classic cars. It is not uncommon to see examples in everyday use especially New Zealand's rural areas, and obtaining spare parts to keep them on the roads is yet to become a significant problem.

Portugal

P100 pick-up

From 1971, the Cortina formed the basis of the Ford P100 pick-up truck, which was produced in South Africa, purely for that market. The vehicle had a six-foot load bed with a locally sourced rear body.

In the mid-1970s grey imports of this model to the UK spurred Ford to examine the market for official import. The study culminated in the P100 which was a heavily revised version of the SA product with a seven-foot loadbed and T88 "Pinto" engine. The vehicle was for RHD markets only and was developed under the codename "Atlas" to reflect its market leading one tonne payload capability.

Other markets within Ford's European operation also wanted the vehicle, so when time came for a follow on product it was decided to source it from a European plant. At the time, Ford had divested from South Africa and sold its stake in Samcor, although it continued to assemble Ford models under licence. All production of the European engineered and Sierra bodied P100, codename PE45 was produced for Europe in the Azambuja plant in Portugal. This vehicle was available in RHD and LHD forms.

Ironically, the MK5 Cortina-based P100 was launched in 1982, the year that the standard Cortina was being replaced by the Sierra. However, it remained a popular choice with pick-up truck buyers until the Sierra-based P100 was launched in 1988; this version lasted until the end of Sierra production in early 1993.

South Africa

In South Africa, the Cortina range included V6 "Essex"-engined variants, in both 2.5L and 3.0L forms.

From July 1971, a locally designed pick-up truck version (known in Afrikaans as a "bakkie") was also offered, and this remained in production after the Cortina was replaced by the Sierra.

The Cortina pick-up was exported to the UK, in a lengthened wheelbase form, as the Ford p100 until 1988, when Ford divested from South Africa, and a European built pick-up truck version of the Sierra was introduced in its place.

The Mk V model range, introduced in 1980 for the South African market included: 1.3L (1980–1982), 1.6L GL (1980–1983), 2.0 GL, Ghia, (1980–1984), 3.0 XR6 (1980–1983), 1.6L Estate (1980–1983), 2.0 GL Estate (1980–1983), 3.0 GLS (1980–1984), 1.6 One-Tonner (1980–1985), 3.0 One-Tonner (1980–1985).

The XR6 was a sports version which used the Essex v6 and featured body aerofoils and sport seats.

In 1981 a version called the XR6 Intercepter was released as a homologation special made to compete in production car racing. They featured triple Weber dcnf carburetors, aggressive camshaft, tubular exhaust manifold, suspension revisions and wider Ronal 13 inch wheels. They produced 118 kW and were only available in red. 200 were produced.39

Later on a special edition XR6 TF was released to celebrate 'Team Fords' racing success with the XR6. They were essentially XR6s in exterior and interior Team Ford colours, which were blue and white.

In 1983 a special version was created by Simpson Ford to appease the demand for an Intercepter-like Cortina and was sold through Ford dealerships countrywide. It was called the XR6 X-ocet and featured a Holley carbureter, aggressive camshaft and tuned exhaust. They came in red with a white lower quarter and did 0–100 km/h (62 mph) in 8.5 seconds with a top speed of 195 km/h (121 mph).

South African Mk V models differed slightly from UK models with different wheels, bumpers and interior trim.

The last brand new Cortina was sold in South Africa by mid-1984. It was often the country's top selling car, being far more popular than the Sierra and Mondeo models that followed it.

References

  1. ^ Cortina Auto-Bobbing FordHeritage YouTube channel. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
  2. ^ a b c d e "Used Car Test: 1962 Ford Cortina". Autocar 3804 (130): 22–23. 9 January 1969. 
  3. ^ a b Culshaw; Horrobin (1974). Complete Catalogue of British Cars. London: Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-16689-2. 
  4. ^ "Obituaries: Roy Brown". The Telegraph. 2013-03-05. Retrieved 2014-03-23. 
  5. ^ Evening Times - Google News Archive Search
  6. ^ "Ford Cortina Mk1 UK Domain". Fordcortina.co.uk. 16 May 1998. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Daniels, Jeffrey (2 October 1976). "The Fourth Cortina". Autocar: 12–16. 
  8. ^ The Glasgow Herald - Google News Archive Search
  9. ^ a b "Cortina – new right through". The Motor 3360: 152–158. 22 October 1968. 
  10. ^ "Cortina – new right through". The Motor: 152–158. 22 October 1966. 
  11. ^ a b c Logoz, Arthur, ed. (1971), "Die Taunus-Cortina-Story", Auto-Universum 1971 (in German) (Zürich, Switzerland: Verlag Internationale Automobil-Parade AG) XIV: 39 
  12. ^ Best Selling Cars – Matt's blog » UK 1967: Ford Cortina takes the lead
  13. ^ "Ford Cortina Estate Car". Autocar 3705 (126): 20–21, 32. 15 February 1967. 
  14. ^ "54th Paris Show". Autocar. 127 3739: 66–71. 12 October 1967. 
  15. ^ "Cortina Perana Mk 2". http://www.africanmusclecars.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g "Road test: Ford Cortina 1300XL". Motor: 12–16. 12 February 1972. 
  17. ^ Auto-Universum 1971, p. 41
  18. ^ Smith, Maurice A, ed. (16 November 1967). "Know your car: Ford Cortina". Autocar: 25–26. 
  19. ^ The Glasgow Herald - Google News Archive Search
  20. ^ "World wide: Ford and their market gap". Autocar 134 (3928): 3. 8 July 1971. 
  21. ^ Best Selling Cars – Matt's blog » UK 1972-1973: Ford Cortina best seller
  22. ^ "Autotest Ford Cortina 1600 XL". Autocar. 138. 4004): 16–21. 22 February 1973. 
  23. ^ The Glasgow Herald - Google News Archive Search
  24. ^ a b c "Qual der Wahl: Taunus Kaufberatung". Auto, Motor und Sport. Heft 17: 45–52. 18 August 1976. 
  25. ^ Evening Times - Google News Archive Search
  26. ^ "FORD Cortina ‘80 | Car Specs | Octane". Classicandperformancecar.com. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "Unregistered Cortina, 2005". Homepage.ntlworld.com. Retrieved 4 January 2012. 
  28. ^ "Hammond's trip down memory lane". Norfolk Motoring News. Retrieved 10 September 2010. dead link
  29. ^ "icLiverpool – Recession-proof wise-buys revealed". Icliverpool.icnetwork.co.uk. 17 March 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 
  30. ^ "Arena: The Private Life of the Ford Cortina (1982)". British Film Institute. Retrieved 7 November 2012. 
  31. ^ "1966 TransAm Box Scores". Motorock. Retrieved 2012-11-07. 
  32. ^ a b The Macquarie Dictionary of Motoring, 1986, page 168
  33. ^ Ford Cortina TC sales brochure, June 1971, page 11
  34. ^ The Red Book Used Car Price Guide, November 1985, page 38
  35. ^ Green Book Price & Model Guide, July–August 1983, page 30
  36. ^ Green Book Price & Model Guide, July–August 1983, page 30 & 31
  37. ^ Ford Cortina sales brochure, Ford Motor Company of Australia, August 1976
  38. ^ Webster, Mark (2002), Assembly: New Zealand Car Production 1921-98, Birkenhead, Auckland, New Zealand: Reed, p. 154, ISBN 0-7900-0846-7 
  39. ^ "Cortina XR6 Interceptor". africanmusclecars.com. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 

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