June 15, 1809|
Quebec, Lower Canada
|Died||February 3, 1866
|Occupation||notary, civil servant, historian, poet|
François-Xavier Garneau (June 15, 1809 – February 2 or February 3, 1866)1 was a nineteenth-century French Canadian notary, poet, civil servant and liberal who wrote a three-volume history of the French Canadian nation entitled Histoire du Canada between 1845 and 1848.
Garneau was born in Quebec City, educated at Quebec seminary, studied law, and was admitted as a notary in 1830. Subsequently he became clerk of the legislative assembly, member of the council of public instruction, and city clerk of Quebec, which office he held from 1845 until his death on February 2 or February 3, 1866. Garneau was an honorary member of literary and historical societies in the United States and Canada, and for several years president of the Institut Canadien of Quebec.2
Garneau argued that conquest was a tragedy, the consequence of which was a perpetual struggle against the forces of English Canada for the French Canadian nation; this struggle would continue into the future as long as French Canadians were under the oppressive reign of the British. The book was originally written as a response to the Durham report, which claimed that French Canadian culture was stagnant and that it would be best served through Anglophone assimilation. It was first translated in 1866 and by then "the accepted national history" of French Canadians.3
- Histoire du Canada depuis sa découverte jusqu'à nos jours, 1845–52, 1st ed. (BAnQ: vol. 1. 2, 3, 4), 1852, 2d ed., 1859, 3rd ed., 1882, 4th ed.(IA: vol. 1, 2, 3, 4)
- Voyage en Angleterre et en France, dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, 1855. (BAnQ: online)
- Abrégé de l'histoire du Canada, depuis sa découverte jusqu'à 1840 : à l'usage des maisons d'éducation, 1858 (IA: online)
- History of Canada: From the Time of its Discovery Till the Union Year, 1860 (IA: vol. 1, 2, 3)
- Additions à l'histoire du Canada, 1864 (BAnQ: online)
The François-Xavier Garneau Medal is the highest award given by the Canadian Historical Association and is given once every five years for an outstanding Canadian contribution to historical research. Recipients were: Louise Dechêne (1980), Michael Bliss (1985), John M. Beattie (1990), Joy Parr (1995), Gérard Bouchard (2000), Timothy Brook (2005), John C. Weaver (2010)4
- In what other climate does the Queen of Silence
- Show us more splendour?
- I love, Oh Canada, night, the vast plain
- Shining with whiteness!
- Savard, Pierre and Paul Wyczienski. "Garneau, François-Xavier", in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto and Université Laval, 2000, retrieved December 22, 2008
- One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (1900). "Garneau, François Xavier". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton
- Hopkins, J. Castell (1898). An historical sketch of Canadian literature and journalism. Toronto: Lincott. p. 119. ISBN 0665080484.
- CHA website: The François-Xavier Garneau Medal
- Savard, Pierre. "Garneau, François-Xavier", in The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica Fondation. 2008
- Savard, Pierre and Paul Wyczienski. "Garneau, François-Xavier", in Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto and Université Laval, 2000
- Brunet, Berthelot. "Dossier François-Xavier Garneau", in L'Encyclopédie de l'Agora, updated May 25, 2006
- Gallichan, Gilles, Kenneth Landry and Denis Saint-Jacques (1998). François-Xavier Garneau, une figure nationale, Québec: Éditions Nota bene, 39 p. (ISBN 2-921053-96-9)
- Bergeron, Gérard (1994). Lire François-Xavier Garneau, 1809-1866 : historien national, Québec: Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture, 244 p.
- Garneau, François-Xavier (1968). Voyage en Angleterre et en France dans les années 1831, 1832 et 1833, Ottawa, Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 379 p. Collection «Présence». (critical edition Paul Wyczynski)
- Wyczynski, Paul (1966). François-Xavier Garneau : aspects littéraires de son oeuvre, Ottawa : Éditions de l'Université d'Ottawa, 207 p.
- Lanctot, Gustave (1946). Garneau, historien national, Montréal: Fides, 1946, 205 p.
- Robitaille, Georges (1966). Études sur Garneau : critique historique, Montréal: Librairie d'Action canadienne-française ltée, 1929, 253 p.
- Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1926). F.-X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
- Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1924). De Gaspé et Garneau, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 123 p.
- Lanctot, Gustave (1923). François Xavier Garneau, Toronto: Ryerson, 1923, 197 p.
- Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1912). F.X. Garneau et Francis Parkman, Montréal: Librairie Beauchemin, limitée, 139 p.
- Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). Biographie de F.X. Garneau, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs, 115 p.
- Chauveau, Pierre-Joseph-Olivier (1883). François-Xavier Garneau : sa vie et ses oeuvres, Montréal: Beauchemin & Valois, libraires-imprimeurs (online)
- Casgrain, Henri-Raymond (1866). F.X. Garneau, Québec: J.N. Duquet, éditeur, 135 p. (online)