|Occupation||physician, pathologist, bacteriologist|
|Known for||discovery of pneumococcal transformation|
Frederick Griffith (c. 1879–1941) was a British bacteriologist whose focus was the epidemiology and pathology of bacterial pneumonia. In January 1928 he reported what is now known as Griffith's Experiment, the first widely accepted demonstrations of bacterial transformation, whereby a bacterium distinctly changes its form and function.1
He showed that Streptococcus pneumoniae, implicated in many cases of lobar pneumonia,2 could transform from one strain into a different strain. The observation was attributed to an unidentified transforming principle or transforming factor.1 This was later identified as DNA.3
America's leading pneumococcal researcher, Oswald T. Avery, speculated that Griffith had failed to apply adequate controls.4 A cautious and thorough researcher, and a reticent individual, Griffith's tendency was to publish only findings that he believed truly significant, and Griffith's findings were rapidly confirmed by researchers in Avery's laboratory.4 His discovery was one of the first to show the central role of DNA in heredity.3
Fred Griffith was born in Hale, Cheshire county, England, in about 1879 (exact month/day uncertain), and attended Liverpool University. Thereafter, he worked at the Liverpool Royal Infirmary, the Joseph Tie Laboratory, and the Royal Commission on Tuberculosis. In 1910 Fred Griffith was hired by the local government board.
During World War I (1913-18), the local government board's laboratory was assumed by the national government, namely UK government, and became the Ministry of Health's Pathological Laboratory—where Griffith was medical officer. UK government spent money sparingly on the laboratory, which remained very basic, though Griffith and his colleague, William M. Scott, "could do more with a kerosene tin and a primus stove than most men could do with a palace".4
Griffith was sent pneumococci samples taken from patients throughout the country, amassed a large number, and would type—in other words classify—each pneumococci sample to search patterns of pneumonia epidemiology, and Griffith experimented on mice for improved understanding of its pathology.5 Griffith performed the pivotal experiments—actually very many experiments—during the 1920s.
With outbreak of World War II (1939-45), the laboratory was expanded into the Emergency Public Health Laboratory Service.
Pneumococci has two general forms—rough (R) and smooth (S). The S form, considered virulent, bears a capsule, which is a slippery polysaccharide coat—atop and outside the peptidoglycan cell wall common among all classical bacteria—enhances bacterial evasion of efficient phagocytosis by the host's innate immune cells. Injected subcutaneously with S form, mice succumbed to pneumonia and death within a couple of days. The R form, however, lacking a capsule—its outer surface being cell wall—was considered avirulent, not prompting pneumonia.
When Griffith injected heat-killed S into mice, as expected no disease ensued. When mice were injected with a mixture of heat-killed S and live R, however, pneumonia and death ensued. The live R had transformed into S—and replicated as such—often characterized as Griffith's Experiment. More accurately, point six of Griffith's abstract reports that R tended to transform into S if a large amount of live R, alone, were injected, and that adding much heat-killed S made transformation reliable1 Griffith also induced some pneumococci to transform back and forth.1
Griffith also reported transformation of serological type—bacterial antigenicity—distinct from presence or absence of a capsule. Bacteriologist Fred Neufeld, of the Robert Koch Institute in Berlin, Germany, had earlier identified the pneumococcal types, confirmed and expanded by Alphonse Dochez at Oswald Avery's laboratory in America at The Rockefeller Hospital.5 Types I, II, and III were each a distinct antigenic grouping, whereas type IV was a catchall of varying antigenicities not matching other types.5
Illustrating S pneumoniaes plasticity, the abstract of Griffith's paper reports, "The S form of Type I has been produced from the R form of Type II, and the R form of Type I has been transformed into the S form of Type II".1
America's most prominent pneumococcus expert, Oswald Avery, in New York at The Rockefeller Hospital—which opened in 1910 on The Rockefeller Institute's campus—initially explained that Griffith's experiments must have been poorly conducted and succumbed to contamination. Avery biographer and colleague at The Rockefeller Institute, microbiologist Rene Dubos, recruited by The Rockefeller Institute from France, later described Griffith's findings as "exploding a bombshell in the field of pneumococcal immunology".6
Avery's associate Martin Dawson at The Rockefeller Hospital confirmed each of Griffith's reported findings.7 Even before Griffith's publication, Fred Neufeld, of Germany's Robert Koch Institute—who had visited Griffith's laboratory and had been told of Griffith's findings—had confirmed them as well, Neufeld merely awaiting publication of Griffith's findings before publishing confirmation.4 Over the following years, Avery's illness, Grave's disease, kept him much out of his laboratory as other researchers in it experimented to determine, largely by process of elimination, which constituent was the transforming factor.8
The first Griffith Memorial Lecture indicates that Fred Griffith died on the night of 17 April 194111—though the fourth lecture indicates that he died in his apartment in February 19414—alongside friend and colleague William M. Scott amid an air raid during World War II's London Blitz. A few weeks earlier Scott had become director of the laboratory, which, with the outbreak of war, had become Emergency Public Health Laboratory Service. Both dated 3 May 1941, his obituary in The Lancet mentions the historical discovery briefly,12 and his obituary in British Medical Journal fails to mention it.13
In 1944 identification of the transforming factor was published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine by Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty of The Rockefeller Hospital.14 This identification departed from the prevailing belief that the protein content of chromosomes probably was the anatomical structure of genes, although it would take another decade—till Watson and Crick's 1953 paper in Nature indicating DNA's molecular structure suggesting how a molecule as seemingly simple as DNA could encode the structure of proteins—for the interpretation of DNA as genes to become widely accepted.1516
Biologists made little more than speculation of Griffith's report of transformation until genetics research in 1951.17 In 1950 the U.S. Army began testing bacterial biowarfare on unwitting American civilians,18 and perhaps in Korea during the Korean War19 (though the officially trained U.S. policy was plausible denial.)19 Griffith's report was virtually ignored by clinicians, and by the medical sector as a whole.4 Leaders of American industry, biomedicine, medical education, and prestigious medical journals—Journal of the American Medical Association and New England Journal of Medicine—continued to espouse population control and negative eugenics.202122
In 1931 Fred Griffith coauthored a paper on acute tonsillitis—its sequelae, epidemiology, and bacteriology.23 In 1934 Griffith reported voluminous findings on the serological typing of Streptococcus pyogenes.24 More casually as well as medically called simply streptococcus,25 S pyogenes is implicated in conditions ranging from the usually minor strep throat, to the sometimes fatal scarlet fever, to the often fatal puerperal fever, to the usually fatal streptococcal sepsis.26 Streptococci infection was a frequent coinfection complicating recovery from lobar pneumonia by pneumococci infection.27
By 1967 pneumococcal transformation had been evidenced to occur in vivo naturally, and it was shown that treatment with streptomycin during dual infection by two pneumococcal strains could increase transformation—and increase virulence—while for the first time pneumococcal transformation was shown to indeed occur in the respiratory tract.28 In 1969 it was shown in vivo that, during drug treatment of a host, pneumococci could acquire genes from antibiotic-resistant streptococci, already in the host, and thereby the pneumococci could newly attain resistance to erythromycin.29
- Griffith F (January 1928). "The significance of pneumococcal types". J Hygiene. 27 (2): 113–59. doi:10.1017/S0022172400031879. PMC 2167760. PMID 20474956.
- Musher DM (April 2011). "New modalities in treating pneumococcal pneumonia". Hospital Practice (1995) 39 (2): 89–96. doi:10.3810/hp.2011.04.398. PMID 21576901.
- Chambers, Donald L. (1995). DNA: the double helix: perspective and prospective at forty years. New York, N.Y: New York Academy of Sciences. p. 49. ISBN 0-89766-905-3.
- Downie AW (November 1972). "Fourth Griffith Memorial Lecture. Pneumococcal transformation—a backward view.". J Gen Microbiol. 73 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1099/00221287-73-1-1. PMID 4143929.
- Lehrer S. Explorers of the Body: Dramatic Breakthroughs in Medicine from Ancient Times to Modern Science, 2nd edn (Lincoln NE: iUniverse, 2006), p 47.
- U.S. National Library of Medicine. "The Oswald T. Avery Collection". Profiles in Science. 31 Jan 2007.
- McCarty M. The Transforming Principle: Discovering that Genes are Made of DNA (New York: W.W. Norton & Co, 1985), p 79.
- McCarty M, Transforming Principle.
- Kritschewski IL & Ponomarewa IW (August 1934). "On the pleomorphism of bacteria. I. On the pleomorphism of B Paratyphi B"—sec "Summary". J Bacteriol. 28 (2): 111–26. PMC 533658. PMID 16559732.
- Paracer S and Ahmadjian V. Symbiosis: An Introduction to Biological Associations, 2nd edn (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), chapter 1, subchapter 1.3, section "Bacteria as multicellular organisms", p 10.
- Hayes W. "First Griffith Memorial Lecture. Genetic transformation: A retrospective appreciation". J Gen Microbiol.
- "Obituary". Lancet 237 (6140): 588. 1941. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)95174-2.
- Bacharach, A. L. (1941). "The "English Disease"". Br Med J. 1 (4191): 691. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4191.691.
- Avery OT, MacLeod CM, McCarty M (February 1944). "Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types: Induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from pneumococcus Type III". J Exp Med. 79 (2): 137–58. doi:10.1084/jem.79.2.137. PMC 2135445. PMID 19871359.
- McCarty M (January 2003). "Discovering genes are made of DNA". Nature. 421 (6921): 406. doi:10.1038/nature01398. PMID 12540908.
- Anderson, ES (Sep 1985). "The road to DNA". New Scientist 107 (1474): 53–4.
- Lederberg J. "Notes on the biological interpretation of Fred Griffith's finding". Am Scientist.
- Riedel S (October 2004). "Biological warfare and bioterrorism: A historical review"—sec "Biowarfare programs after World War II". Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 17 (4): 400–6. PMC 1200679. PMID 16200127.
- Bruwer A (2001). "The United States and biological warfare: Secrets from the early cold war and Korea". Med Confl Surviv. 17 (4): 355–68. doi:10.1080/13623690108409596. PMID 11720378.
- Lombardo PA & Dorr GM (2006). "Eugenics, medical education, and the Public Health Service: Another perspective on the Tuskegee syphilis experiment". Bull Hist Med. 80 (2): 291–316. doi:10.1353/bhm.2006.0066. PMID 16809865.
- Sofair AN & Kaldjian LC (February 2000). "Eugenic sterilization and a qualified Nazi analogy: The United States and Germany, 1930–1945". Ann Intern Med. 132 (4): 312–9. PMID 10681287.
- Brown S (June 2009). "Hitler's bible: An analysis of the relationship between American and German eugenics in pre-war Nazi Germany". Vesalius. 2009 Jun; 15 (1): 26–31. PMID 20027757.
- Glover JA & Griffith F (1931). "Acute tonsillitis and some of its sequels: Epidemiological and bacteriological observations". Br Med J. 2 (3689): 521–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.3689.521. PMC 2315140. PMID 20776393.
- Griffith F (December 1934). "The serological classification of Streptococcus pyogenes". J Hygiene. 34 (4): 542–84. doi:10.1017/S0022172400043308. PMC 2170909. PMID 20475253.
- Kenneth Todar PhD. "Streptococcus pyogenes and streptococcal disease (page 1) ". Todar's Online Textbook of Bateriology. 2008.
- "Streptococcal sepsis". Br Med J. 1 (5695): 513–4. February 1970. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.5695.513. PMC 1699551. PMID 5198333.
- Parsons JW & Meyers WK (1933). "Streptococcic sepsis complicating recovery from pneumococcal pneumonia". J Am Med Assoc. 100 (23): 1857. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740230035007.
- Conant JE & Sawyer WD (June 1967). "Transformation during mixed pneumococcal infection of mice". J Bacteriol. 93 (6): 1869–75. PMC 276704. PMID 4381631.
- Ottolenghi-Nightingale E (October 1969). "Spontaneously occurring bacterial transformations in mice". J Bacteriol. 100 (1): 445–52. PMC 315412. PMID 4390504.