Freedom of movement for workers

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The freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communautaire of the European Union. It is part of the free movement of persons and one of the four economic freedoms: free movement of goods, services, labour and capital. Article 45 TFEU (ex 39 and 48) states that:

  1. Freedom of movement for workers shall be secured within the Community.
  2. Such freedom of movement shall entail the abolition of any discrimination based on nationality between workers of the Member States as regards employment, remuneration and other conditions of work and employment.
  3. It shall entail the right, subject to limitations justified on grounds of public policy, public security or public health:
    (a) to accept offers of employment actually made;
    (b) to move freely within the territory of Member States for this purpose;
    (c) to stay in a Member State for the purpose of employment in accordance with the provisions governing the employment of nationals of that State laid down by law, regulation or administrative action;
    (d) to remain in the territory of a Member State after having been employed in that State, subject to conditions which shall be embodied in implementing regulations to be drawn up by the Commission.
  4. The provisions of this article shall not apply to employment in the public service.1

The right to free movement has both 'horizontal' and 'vertical' direct effect,23 such that a private citizen can invoke the right, without more, in an ordinary court, against other persons, both governmental and non-governmental.

History

The Treaty of Paris (1951)4 establishing the European Coal and Steel Community established a right to free movement for workers in these industries and the Treaty of Rome (1957)5 provided a right for the free movement of workers within the European Economic Community. The Directive 2004/38/EC on the right to move and reside freely assembles the different aspects of the right of movement in one document, replacing inter alia the directive 1968/360/EEC. It also clarifies procedural issues, and it strengthens the rights of family members of European citizens using the freedom of movement.

Definition of "worker"

The meaning of 'worker' is a matter of European Union law.6 "The essential feature of an employment relationship, however, is that for a certain period of time a person performs services for and under the direction of another person in return for which he receives remuneration."7

  • Purpose: under the ECJ caselaw, the rights of free movement of workers applies regardless of the worker's purpose in taking up employment abroad,8 so long as the work is not solely provided as a means of rehabilitation or reintegration of the workers concerned into society.9
  • Time commitment: the right of free movement applies to both part-time and full-time work, so long as the work is effective and genuine8 and not of such small scale, irregular nature or limited duration to be purely marginal and ancillary.810...
  • Remuneration: a wage is a necessary precondition for activity to constitute work, but the amount is not important. The right to free movement applies whether or not the worker required additional financial assistance from the Member State into which he moves.11 Remuneration may be indirect quid pro quo (e.g. board and lodging) rather than strict consideration for work.12

Extent of the right

The right to free movement applies where the legal relationship of employment is entered into in or shall take effect within the territory of the European Community.1314 The precise legal scope of the right to free movement for workers has been shaped by the European Court of Justice and by directives and regulations. Underlying these developments is a tension "between the image of the Community worker as a mobile unit of production, contributing to the creation of a single market and to the economic prosperity of Europe" and the "image of the worker as a human being, exercising a personal right to live in another state and to take up employment there without discrimination, to improve the standard of living of his or her family".15

Discrimination and market access

Public service exception

Directives and regulations

Social rights

Transitional provisions in new member states

In both the Treaty of Accession 2003 and the Treaty of Accession 2005, there is a clause about a transition period before workers from the new member states can be employed on an equal, non-discriminatory terms in the old member states. The old member states have the right to impose such transitional period for 2 years, then to decide if to extend it for additional 3 years, and then, if there is serious proof that labour from new member states would be disruptive to the market in the old member states then the period can be extended for the last time for 2 more years.21

Further the citizens of the member states of the European Economic Area have the same right of freedom of movement inside the EEA. Also, the European Union and Switzerland have concluded a bilateral agreement with the same meaning. Both EEA member states and Switzerland are treated as "old member states" in regard to the Treaty of Accession of the new EU members, so they can impose such 2+3+2 transitional periods.

Establishment of rights of nationals of each member state to work in each member state
The citizens of → can be employed in ↓ starting ↘
European Union members
Other EEA
members
Switzerland
The citizens of ← can be employed in ↓ starting ↙
Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece
France
Germany
Austria
Belgium
Netherlands
Luxembourg
Denmark
Finland
Ireland
United Kingdom
Sweden
Cyprus
Malta
Estonia
Latvia
Lithuania
Poland
Hungary
Czech Republic
Slovakia
Slovenia
Bulgaria
Romania
Croatia22
Norway
Iceland
Liechtenstein
Portugal 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 2013 22 1994 1994 1994 2002 Portugal
Spain 1986 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1986 1986 1994 1986 1986 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2014 (2015)23 1994 1994 1994 2002 Spain
Italy 1986 1986 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 (2015)24 1994 1994 1994 2002 Italy
Greece 1986 1986 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1981 1981 1994 1981 1981 1994 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2009 2009 (2015)25 1994 1994 1994 2002 Greece
France 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2008 2014 2014 (2015)26 1994 1994 1994 2002 France
Germany 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1994 1958 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 (2015)27 1994 1994 1994 2002 Germany
Austria 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 (2015)28 1994 1994 1994 2002 Austria
Belgium 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2014 2014 (2015)23 1994 1994 1994 2002 Belgium
Netherlands 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2014 2014 (2015)29 1994 1994 1994 2002 Netherlands
Luxembourg 1986 1986 1958 1981 1958 1958 1994 1958 1958 1973 1994 1973 1973 1994 2004 2004 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2014 2014 (2015)30 1994 1994 1994 2002 Luxembourg
Denmark 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1954 1973 1973 1954 2004 2004 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 201331 1954 1954 1994 2002 Denmark
Finland 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 201331 1954 1954 1994 2002 Finland
Ireland 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 197332 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2012 2012 201333 1994 1994 1994 2002 Ireland
United Kingdom 1986 1986 1973 1981 1973 1973 1994 1973 1973 1973 1973 1994 197332 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2014 2014 (2018)34 1994 1994 1994 2002 United Kingdom
Sweden 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201335 1954 1954 1994 2002 Sweden
Cyprus 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 (2015)36 2004 2004 2004 2005 Cyprus
Malta 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2014 2014 (2015)37 2004 2004 2004 2005 Malta
Estonia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201331 2004 2004 2004 2005 Estonia
Latvia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201337 2004 2004 2004 2005 Latvia
Lithuania 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201338 2004 2004 2004 2005 Lithuania
Poland 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201339 2006 2006 2007 2007 Poland
Hungary 2006 2006 2006 2006 2008 2009 2009 2009 2007 2007 2009 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2009 2009 201340 2006 2006 2009 2009 Hungary
Czech Republic 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201328 2004 2004 2004 2005 Czech Republic
Slovakia 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 201341 2004 2004 2004 2005 Slovakia
Slovenia 2006 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2006 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2004 2007 2007 (2015)42 2006 2006 2007 2007 Slovenia
Bulgaria 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2013 22 2007 2007 2007 2007 Bulgaria
Romania 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 2007 201338 2007 2007 2007 2007 Romania
Croatia22 201343 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 (2015)43 201343 201343 201343 (2018)43 201343 (2015)43 (2015)43 201343 201343 201343 201343 201343 201343 201343 (2015)43 201343 201343 2014 (TBD) (TBD) Croatia
Norway 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 2014 1954 1994 2002 Norway
Iceland 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1954 1954 1994 1994 1954 2004 2004 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2006 2012 2012 (TBD) 1954 1994 2002 Iceland
Liechtenstein44 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 1994 2004 2004 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2014 2014 (TBD) 1994 1994 2002 Liechtenstein44
Switzerland4546 2002 2002 2002 Switzerland4546
  no restriction on freedom of movement of workers or restriction expired as of 2014; year of lifting of restrictions; 0+0+0
  restricted movement of workers; Expected date for lifting of the restrictions is 1 July 2015 for Croatia; 2+0+0
  restricted movement of workers; Expected date for lifting of the restrictions is July 1st 2018 for Croatia; 2+3+0
  restricted movement of workers; Switzerland currently imposes a quota on all EU citizens until at least May 2014 and is scheduled to extend said quota indefinitely;46 Croatia needs to join the EEA first; 2+3+2
  Currently no restriction on freedom of movement, however scheduled to impose permanent quotas

  Liechtenstein imposes a permanent quota for all EEA citizens.44

See also

References

  1. ^ Treaty of Rome (consolidated version). EUR-Lex
  2. ^ Union royale belge des sociétés de football association ASBL v Jean-Marc Bosman, Case C-415/93. EUR-Lex
  3. ^ Roman Angonese v Cassa di Risparmio di Bolzano SpA, Case C-281/98 (2000). EUR-Lex
  4. ^ Article 69 part of Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Rome, 25 March 1957) on CVCE website.
  5. ^ Title 3 part of Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (Rome, 25 March 1957) on CVCE website.
  6. ^ Hoekstra (née Unger) v Bestuur der Bedrijfsvereniging voor Detailhandel en Ambachten, Case 75-63 (1964). EUR-Lex
  7. ^ Deborah Lawrie-Blum v Land Baden-Württemberg, Case 66/85 (1986). EUR-Lex
  8. ^ a b c Levin v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 53/81 (1982). EUR-Lex
  9. ^ Bettray v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 344/87 (1989). EUR-Lex
  10. ^ Raulin v Minister van Onderwijs en Wetenschappen, Case C-357/89 (1992). EUR-Lex
  11. ^ Kempf v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 139/85 (1986). EUR-Lex
  12. ^ Udo Steymann v Staatssecretaris van Justitie, Case 196/87 (1988). EUR-Lex
  13. ^ Walrave and Koch v Association Union cycliste internationale, Koninklijke Nederlandsche Wielren Unie et Federación Española Ciclismo, Case 36-74 (1974). EUR-Lex
  14. ^ See alsoIngrid Boukhalfa v Bundesrepublik Deutschland, C-214/94 (1996). EUR-Lex
  15. ^ Craig & de Búrca 2003, p. 701
  16. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&numdoc=61987J0379&lg=en Anita Groener v Minister for Education and the City of Dublin Vocational Educational Committee. Judgment of the Court of 28 November 1989.
  17. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:61991CJ0267:EN:HTML Judgment of the Court of 24 November 1993. - Criminal proceedings against Bernard Keck and Daniel Mithouard. - References for a preliminary ruling: Tribunal de grande instance de Strasbourg - France. - Free movement of goods - Prohibition of resale at a loss. - Joined cases C-267/91 and C-268/91.
  18. ^ http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!CELEXnumdoc&lg=en&numdoc=61995J0018 F.C. Terhoeve v Inspecteur van de Belastingdienst Particulieren/Ondernemingen buitenland. Judgment of the Court of 26 January 1999.
  19. ^ Council Directive 68/360/EEC of 15 October 1968 on the abolition of restrictions on movement and residence within the Community for workers of Member States and their families
  20. ^ Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 of the Council of 15 October 1968 on freedom of movement for workers within the Community
  21. ^ European Commission. "FAQ on the Commission's free movement of workers report". Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  22. ^ a b c d http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1067&langId=en
  23. ^ a b http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/spanjolska-od-1-srpnja-uvodi-ogranicenja-za-hrvatske-radnike---291989.html
  24. ^ "Croazia in Europa, ecco le prime limitazioni adottate dall’Italia". TriesteLive.it. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  25. ^ http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/vecina-zemalja-ce-omoguciti-rad-hrvatima-u-eu-nakon-sto-hrvatska-postane-clanica/465032.aspx
  26. ^ http://www.jutarnji.hr/i-francuska-uvela-zabranu-zaposljavanja-hrvata-dvogodisnji-moratorij-za-nase-radnike-objavilo-vec-devet-clanica-eu/1112216/
  27. ^ http://www.dw.de/ograni%C4%8Denje-za-hrvate-s-mnogim-iznimkama/a-16535931
  28. ^ a b http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/svijet/austrija-uvodi-dvije-godine-ogranicenja-na-zaposljavanje-radnika-iz-hrvatske---286801.html
  29. ^ http://www.vecernji.hr/vijesti/nizozemci-uvode-ogranicenja-radnike-hrvatske-clanak-525619
  30. ^ http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/svijet/270463/Luksemburg-uveo-ogranicenje-za-hrvatske-radnike.html
  31. ^ a b c http://www.hrt.hr/index.php?id=vijesti-clanak&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=210819&cHash=9553f6e4f9
  32. ^ a b Date of applicability as member states of the EEC. A similar right previously existed on a bilateral basis.
  33. ^ http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Hrvatska/Hrvatski-radnici-dobrodosli-u-Irsku
  34. ^ http://www.housingrights.org.uk/news/croatia-joins-european-union
  35. ^ http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/svijet/261666/Gdje-ce-u-EU-hrvatski-radnici-biti-dobrodosli.html
  36. ^ http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Svijet/I-Cipar-uvodi-ogranicenje-hrvatskim-radnicima
  37. ^ a b "Eleven EU nations to restrict access for Croatian workers". ANSA. Retrieved 3 July 2013. 
  38. ^ a b http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/doznajte-u-kojim-cemo-zemljama-moci-raditi-od-1-srpnja---286177.html
  39. ^ http://www.wprost.pl/ar/405625/Polska-to-nie-Niemcy-Chorwaci-bd-mogli-tu-pracowa/
  40. ^ http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/svijet/267650/Madarska-otvara-trziste-rada-Hrvatima.html
  41. ^ http://www.poslovni.hr/hrvatska/slovacka-hrvatima-otvara-trziste-rada-nakon-1-srpnja-242015
  42. ^ http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/svijet/266470/Slovenija-potvrdila-dvogodisnji-moratorij-za-hrvatske-radnike.html
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa . Narodne Novine http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2013_06_79_1629.html. Retrieved 1 July 2013.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  44. ^ a b c "Work permits and labour market restrictions in some EU countries". Europa. December 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2014. 
  45. ^ a b "Free movement of persons". Directorate for European Affairs. Bern: Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. November 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014. 
  46. ^ a b c "Free Movement of Persons Switzerland – EU/EFTA". Federal Office for Migration. Bern: Federal Department of Justice and Police. February 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2014. 

Bibliography

  • P. Craig and G. de Búrca, EU Law: Text, Cases and Materials, 3rd edn OUP, 2003.

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