Futsal

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Futsal
Futebol Salao Pan2007.jpg
Highest governing body FIFA and AMF
First played 1930
Characteristics
Contact Yes
Team members Five per side
Categorization Indoor
Equipment Futsal ball
Venue Futsal pitch
Presence
Olympic No
Paralympic No

Futsal (Portuguese pronunciation: [futsal]) is a variant of football that is played on a smaller field and mainly played indoors. Its name comes from the Portuguese futebol de salão, which can be translated as "hall football". During the sport's second world championships held in Madrid in 1985, the Spanish name fútbol sala was used. Since then, all other names have been officially and internationally changed to futsal. It was developed in Brazil and Uruguay in the 1930s and 1940s. In Brazil futsal is played by more people than football but does not attract as many spectators as the outdoor sport. Several futsal players have moved on to careers as successful professional football players.1

Futsal is a game played between two teams of five players each, one of whom is the goalkeeper. Unlimited substitutions are permitted. Unlike some other forms of indoor football, the game is played on a hard court surface delimited by lines; walls or boards are not used. Futsal is also played with a smaller ball with less bounce than a regular football due to the surface of the pitch.2 The surface, ball and rules create an emphasis on improvisation, creativity and technique as well as ball control and passing in small spaces.3

Rules

As international governing bodies of futsal, FIFA and Asociación Mundial de Fútbol de Salón (AMF) are responsible for maintaining and promulgating the official rules of their respective versions of futsal. FIFA publishes its futsal rules as the 'Laws of the Game', in which each of the 17 'laws' is a thematically related collection of individual regulations. The laws define all aspects of the game, including what may be changed to suit local competitions and leagues.4

Players, equipment and officials

The Brazil national futsal team line up before a match.

There are five players on each team, one of whom is the goalkeeper. The maximum number of substitutes allowed is nine (FIFA change 2012), with unlimited substitutions during the match. Substitutes can come on even when the ball is in play but the player coming off must leave the pitch before the substitute can enter the playing field.5 If a team has fewer than three players in the team, the match is abandoned and counted as a loss for the team with the lack of players.6

The kit is made up of a jersey or shirt with sleeves, shorts, socks, shinguards made out of rubber or plastic, and shoes with rubber soles. The goalkeeper is allowed to wear long trousers and a different coloured kit, to distinguish himself from the other players in the team and the referee. He is also allowed to wear elbow pads because the surface is about as hard as a tennis court or basketball court. Jewellery is not allowed, nor are other items that could be dangerous to the player wearing the item or to other active participants.7

The match is controlled by the referee, who enforces the Laws of the Game, and the first referee is the only one who can legally abandon the match because of interference from outside the pitch. This referee is also assisted by a second referee who typically watches over the goal lines or assists the primary referee with calls on fouls or plays. The decisions made by the referees are final and can only be changed if the referees think it is necessary and play has not restarted.8 There is also a third referee and a timekeeper, who are provided with equipment to keep a record of fouls in the match. In the event of injury to the referee or second referee, the third referee will replace the second referee.9

The pitch

A futsal pitch

The pitch is made up of wood or artificial material, or similar surface, although any flat, smooth and non-abrasive material may be used. The length of the pitch is in the range of 38–42 m (42–46 yd), and the width is in the range of 20–25 m (22–27 yd) in international matches. For other matches, it can be 25–42 m (27–46 yd) in length, while the width can be 16–25 m (17–27 yd), as long as the length of the longer boundary lines (touchlines) are greater than the shorter boundaries where the goals are placed (goal lines). The "standard" size court for an international is 40 m × 20 m (44 yd × 22 yd).10 The ceiling must be at least 4 m (4 yd) high.11 A rectangular goal is positioned at the middle of each goal line. The inner edges of the vertical goal posts must be 3 m (3.3 yd) apart, and the lower edge of the horizontal crossbar supported by the goal posts must be 2 m (2.2 yd) above the ground. Nets made of hemp, jute or nylon are attached to the back of the goalposts and crossbar. The lower part of the nets is attached to curved tubing or another suitable means of support. The depth of the goal is 80 cm (31 in) at the top and 1 m (3.3 ft) at the bottom.12

A futsal arena in Tokyo

In front of each goal is an area known as the penalty area. This area is created by drawing quarter-circles with a 6 m (6.6 yd) radius from the goal line, centred on the goalposts. The upper part of each quarter-circle is then joined by a 3.16 m (3.46 yd) line running parallel to the goal line between the goalposts. The line marking the edge of the penalty area is known as the penalty area line.13 The penalty area marks where the goalkeeper is allowed to touch the ball with his hands. The penalty mark is six metres from the goal line when it reaches the middle of the goalposts. The second penalty mark is 10 metres (11 yd) from the goal line when it reaches the middle of the goalposts. A penalty kick from the penalty spot is awarded if a player commits a foul inside the penalty area.14 The second penalty spot is used if a player commits his team's sixth foul in the opposing team's half or in his own half in the area bordered by the halfway line and an imaginary line parallel to the halfway line passing through the second penalty mark; the free kick is taken from the second penalty mark.15

Any standard team handball pitch can be used for futsal, including goals and floor markings.

Duration and tie-breaking methods

A standard match consists of two equal periods of 20 minutes. The length of either half is extended to allow penalty kicks to be taken or a direct free kick to be taken against a team that has committed more than five fouls. The interval between the two halves cannot exceed 15 minutes.16

In some competitions, the game cannot end in a draw, so away goals, extra time and penalties are the three methods for determining the winner after a match has been drawn. Away goals mean that if the team's score is level after playing one home and one away game, the goals scored in the away match count as double. Extra time consists of two periods of five minutes. If no winner is produced after these methods, five penalties are taken, and the team that has scored the most wins. If it is not decided after five penalties, it continues to go on with one extra penalty to each team at a time until one of them has scored more goals than the other. Unlike extra time, the goals scored in a penalty shoot-out do not count towards the goals scored throughout the match.17

The start and restart of play

At the beginning of the match, a coin toss is used to decide who will start the match. A kick-off is used to signal the start of play and is also used at the start of the second half and any periods of extra time. It is also used after a goal has been scored, with the other team starting the play.18 After a temporary stoppage for any reason not mentioned in the Laws of the Game, the referee will drop the ball where the play was stopped, provided that, prior to the stoppage, the ball was in play and had not crossed either the touch lines or goal lines.19

If the ball goes over the goal line or touchline, hits the ceiling, or the play is stopped by the referee, the ball is out of play. If it hits the ceiling of an indoor arena, play is restarted with a kick-in to the opponents of the team that last touched the ball, under the place where it hit the ceiling.11

Lack of offside rule

Unlike football, there is no offside rule in futsal. Attackers can get much closer to the goal than they can in the traditional outdoor version of football.

Misconduct

Players are cautioned with a yellow card and sent off with a red card.

A direct free kick can be awarded to the opposing team if a player succeeds or attempts to kick or trip an opponent, jumps, charges or pushes an opponent, or strikes or attempts to strike an opponent. Holding, touching or spitting at an opponent are offenses that are worthy of a direct free kick, as are sliding in to play the ball while an opponent is playing it or carrying, striking or throwing the ball (except the goalkeeper). These are all accumulated fouls. The direct free kick is taken where the infringement occurred, unless it is awarded to the defending team in their penalty area, in which case the free kick may be taken from anywhere inside the penalty area.20 A penalty kick is awarded if a player commits one of the fouls that are worthy of a direct free kick inside his own penalty area. The position of the ball does not matter as long as it is in play but for a penalty kick, the ball must be on the outer line, perpendicular to the centre of the net.21

An indirect free kick is awarded to the opposing team if a goalkeeper clears the ball but then touches it with his hands before anyone else, if he controls the ball with his hands when it has been kicked to him by a teammate, or if he touches or controls the ball with his hands or feet in his own half for more than four seconds.21 An indirect free kick is also awarded to the opposing team if a player plays in a dangerous manner, deliberately obstructs an opponent, prevents the goalkeeper from throwing the ball with his hands or anything else for which play is stopped to caution or dismiss a player. The indirect free kick is taken from the place where the infringement occurred.21

Yellow and red cards are both used in futsal. The yellow card is to caution players over their actions, and, if they get two, they are given a red card, which means they are sent off the field. A yellow card is shown if a player shows unsporting behaviour, dissent, persistent infringement of the Laws of the Game, delaying the restart of play, failing to respect the distance of the player from the ball when play is being restarted, infringement of substitution procedure or entering, re-entering and leaving the pitch without the referee's permission.22 A player is shown the red card and sent off if they engage in serious foul play, violent conduct, spitting at another person, or denying the opposing team a goal by handling the ball (except the goalkeeper inside his penalty area). Also punishable with a red card is denying an opponent moving towards the player's goal a goalscoring opportunity by committing an offence punishable by a free kick or a penalty kick and using offensive, insulting or abusive language or gestures.22 A player who has been sent off must leave the vicinity of the pitch. A substitute player is permitted to come on two minutes after a teammate has been sent off, unless a goal is scored before the end of the two minutes. If a team with more players scores against a team with fewer players, another player can be added to the team with an inferior number of players. If the teams are equal when the goal is scored or if the team with fewer players scores, both teams remain with the same number of players.

Ranking

Men's ranking

As of April 7, 2014, the top 25 teams according to the ELO-based rankings are:23

# Team Points
1  Brazil 1928
2  Spain 1915
3  Italy 1771
4  Russia 1739
5  Argentina 1641
6  Portugal 1616
7  Iran 1589
8  Ukraine 1460
9  Japan 1396
10  Azerbaijan 1391
11  Paraguay 1384
12  Colombia 1381
13  Romania 1377
14  Slovenia 1364
15  Croatia 1351
16  Thailand 1349
17  Czech Republic 1325
18  Serbia 1268
19  Guatemala 1267
20  Uzbekistan 1248
20  Netherlands 1248
22  Australia 1243
23  Slovakia 1228
24  Costa Rica 1223
25  Belarus 1210

As of May 7, 2012, the top 25 teams according to a ranking based partly on the ELO system and partly on a form-based system are:24

# Team Points
1  Brazil 2401
2  Spain 2395
3  Italy 2288
4  Russia 2277
5  Portugal 2250
6  Argentina 2239
7  Paraguay 2197
8  Ukraine 2197
9  Iran 2176
10  Colombia 2174
11  Serbia 2157
12  Azerbaijan 2126
13  Uruguay 2108
14  Croatia 2107
15  Czech Republic 2102
16  Romania 2097
17  Guatemala 2089
18  Japan 2075
19  Slovenia 2048
20  Slovakia 2046
21  Hungary 2039
22  Belarus 2033
23  Netherlands 2031
24  Libya 2021
25  Cuba 2009

Women's ranking

As of May 7, 2012, according to a ranking based partly on the ELO system and partly on a form-based system, the top 10 teams are:25

# Team Points
1  Brazil 2326
2  Spain 2248
3  Portugal 2172
4  Russia 2019
5  Ukraine 2014
6  Japan 1963
7  Guatemala 1934
8  Netherlands 1911
9  Australia 1888
10  Argentina 1876

23

FIFA competitions

Men's national teams

International

Competition Year City Country Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
FIFA Futsal World Cups 1989 Rotterdam Netherlands  Brazil  Netherlands  United States  Belgium
1992 Hong Kong Hong Kong  Brazil  United States  Spain  Iran
1996 Barcelona Spain  Brazil  Spain  Russia  Ukraine
2000 Guatemala City Guatemala  Spain  Brazil  Portugal  Russia
2004 Taipei City Chinese Taipei  Spain  Italy  Brazil  Argentina
2008 Rio de Janeiro Brazil  Brazil  Spain  Italy  Russia
2012 Bangkok Thailand  Brazil  Spain  Italy  Colombia
2016 Bogota Colombia
Al-Fateh Confederations Futsal Cup 2009 Tripoli Libya  Iran  Uruguay  Libya  Guatemala
Mediterranean Futsal Cup 2010 Tripoli Libya  Croatia  Libya  Slovenia  France
Futsal Mundialito 1994 Milan Italy  Italy  Croatia  Spain  Hungary
1995 Rio de Janeiro Brazil  Brazil  Italy  Spain  United States
1996 Rio de Janeiro Brazil  Brazil  Paraguay  Argentina  United States
1998 Rio de Janeiro Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  United States  Italy
2001 Joinville Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Portugal  Czech Republic
2002 Reggio Calabria Italy  Brazil  Italy  Russia  Argentina
2006 Algarve Portugal  Portugal  Croatia  Angola  Mozambique
2007 Algarve Portugal  Portugal  Slovakia  Hungary  Croatia
2008 Algarve Portugal  Portugal  Hungary  Angola  Libya
Grand Prix de Futsal 2005 Brusque, Santa Catarina Brazil  Brazil  Colombia  Argentina  Uruguay
2006 Caxias do Sul Brazil  Brazil  Italy  Croatia  Argentina
2007 Joinville & Lages & Jaraguá do Sul Brazil  Brazil  Iran  Argentina  Hungary
2008 Fortaleza Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Ukraine  Paraguay
2009 Anápolis & Goiânia Brazil  Brazil  Iran  Romania  Czech Republic
2010 Anápolis Brazil  Spain  Brazil  Paraguay  Iran
2011 Manaus Brazil  Brazil  Russia  Argentina  Iran
2013 Maringá Brazil  Brazil  Russia  Iran  Paraguay
Arab Futsal Championship 1998 Cairo Egypt  Egypt  Morocco  Libya  Palestine
2005 Cairo Egypt  Egypt  Morocco  Lebanon  Libya
2007 Tripoli Libya  Libya  Egypt  Lebanon  Morocco
2008 Port Said Egypt  Libya  Egypt  Jordan  Lebanon

Continental (major)

Continental Year Country Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
Africa (CAF) 1996 Egypt  Egypt  Ghana  Zimbabwe  Somalia
2000 Egypt  Egypt  Morocco  Libya  South Africa
2004 Egypt  Egypt  Mozambique  Morocco
2008 Libya  Libya  Egypt  Morocco  Mozambique
Asia (AFC) 1999 Malaysia  Iran  South Korea  Kazakhstan  Japan
2000 Thailand  Iran  Kazakhstan  Thailand  Japan
2001 Iran  Iran  Uzbekistan  South Korea  Japan
2002 Indonesia  Iran  Japan  Thailand  South Korea
2003 Iran  Iran  Japan  Thailand  Kuwait
2004 Macau  Iran  Japan  Thailand  Uzbekistan
2005 Vietnam  Iran  Japan  Uzbekistan  Kyrgyzstan
2006 Uzbekistan  Japan  Uzbekistan  Iran  Kyrgyzstan
2007 Japan  Iran  Japan  Uzbekistan  Kyrgyzstan
2008 Thailand  Iran  Thailand  Japan  China
2010 Uzbekistan  Iran  Uzbekistan  Japan  China
2012 United Arab Emirates  Japan  Thailand  Iran  Australia
2014 Vietnam
Europe (UEFA) 1996 Spain  Spain  Russia  Belgium  Italy
1999 Spain  Russia  Spain  Italy  Netherlands
2001 Russia  Spain  Ukraine  Russia  Italy
2003 Italy  Italy  Ukraine  Spain  Czech Republic
2005 Czech Republic  Spain  Russia  Italy  Ukraine
2007 Portugal  Spain  Italy  Russia  Portugal
2010 Hungary  Spain  Portugal  Czech Republic  Azerbaijan
2012 Croatia  Spain  Russia  Italy  Croatia
2014 Belgium  Italy  Russia  Spain  Portugal
North American and Central American
(CONCACAF)
1996 Guatemala  United States  Cuba  Mexico  Guatemala
2000 Costa Rica  Costa Rica  Cuba  United States  Mexico
2004 Costa Rica  United States  Cuba  Costa Rica  Mexico
2008 Guatemala  Guatemala  Cuba  United States  Panama
2012 Guatemala  Costa Rica  Guatemala  Panama  Mexico
Oceanian (OFC) 1992 Australia  Australia  Vanuatu  New Zealand
1996 Vanuatu  Australia  Vanuatu  Fiji  Samoa
1999 Vanuatu  Australia  Fiji  Vanuatu  Papua New Guinea
2004 Australia  Australia  New Zealand  Vanuatu  Fiji
2008 Fiji  Solomon Islands  French Polynesia  Vanuatu  New Zealand
2009 Fiji  Solomon Islands  Fiji  Vanuatu  New Caledonia
2010 Fiji  Solomon Islands  Fiji  New Zealand  Vanuatu
2011 Fiji  Solomon Islands  French Polynesia  New Zealand  Vanuatu
2013 New Zealand  Australia  Malaysia  New Zealand  French Polynesia
South American (CONMEBOL) 1992 Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Paraguay  Ecuador
1995 Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Uruguay  Paraguay
1996 Brazil  Brazil  Uruguay  Argentina  Paraguay
1997 Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Paraguay
1998 Brazil  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay
1999 Brazil  Brazil  Uruguay  Argentina
2000 Brazil  Brazil  Argentina  Uruguay  Bolivia
2003 Paraguay  Argentina  Brazil  Paraguay  Peru
2008 Uruguay  Brazil  Uruguay  Argentina  Paraguay
2011 Argentina  Brazil  Argentina  Paraguay  Colombia

Continental (minor)

Africa
Asia
South America
North and Central America

Clubs

Discontinued tournaments

Women's national teams

International

Competition Year Host Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
Women's Futsal World Tournament 2010 Spain  Brazil  Portugal  Russia &  Spain
2011 Brazil  Brazil  Spain  Portugal  Russia
2012 Portugal  Brazil  Portugal  Spain  Russia
2013 Spain  Brazil  Spain  Russia  Portugal

Continental

Continental Year Host Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-Up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
South American 2005 Brazil  Brazil  Ecuador  Argentina  Uruguay
2007 Ecuador  Brazil  Colombia  Venezuela  Uruguay
2009 Brazil  Brazil  Colombia  Venezuela  Peru
2011 Venezuela  Brazil  Argentina  Paraguay  Venezuela

FIFUSA/AMF competitions

Men's national teams

International

Competition Year City Country Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
FIFUSA World Futsal Championships 1982 São Paulo Brazil  Brazil  Paraguay  Colombia  Uruguay
1985 Madrid Spain  Brazil  Spain  Paraguay  Argentina
1988 Melbourne Australia  Paraguay  Brazil  Spain  Portugal
1991 Italy  Portugal  Paraguay  Brazil  Bolivia
1994 Argentina  Argentina  Colombia  Uruguay  Brazil
1997 Mexico  Venezuela  Uruguay  Brazil  Russia
2000 Bolivia  Colombia  Bolivia  Argentina  Russia
AMF World Futsal Championships 2003 Asunción Paraguay  Paraguay  Colombia  Bolivia  Peru
2007 Mendoza Argentina  Paraguay  Argentina  Colombia  Peru
2011 Bogotá Colombia  Colombia  Paraguay  Argentina  Russia
2015 Minsk Belarus
Futsal in World Games 2013 Cali Colombia  Colombia  Venezuela  Brazil  Argentina

Continental (major)

Continental Year Country Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
Europe (UEFS) 1989 Spain  Portugal  Spain  Czechoslovakia  Israel
1990 Portugal  Portugal  Czechoslovakia  Spain  England
1992 Portugal  Spain  Russia  Portugal  Israel
1995 Morocco  Slovakia  Morocco  Russia  Czech Republic
1998 Slovakia  Russia  Spain  Slovakia  Belarus
2004 Belarus  Belarus  Czech Republic  Russia  Ukraine
2006 Catalonia  Russia  Catalonia  Czech Republic  Belgium
2008 Belgium  Russia  Czech Republic  Belarus  Belgium
2010 Russia  Russia  Belgium  Czech Republic  Belarus
2012 Belarus  Belgium  Czech Republic  Russia  Catalonia
South American
1964 Paraguay  Paraguay  Brazil
1969 Paraguay  Brazil  Paraguay  Argentina  Uruguay
1971 Brazil  Brazil  Uruguay  Paraguay  Peru
1973 Uruguay  Brazil  Uruguay  Paraguay  Argentina
1975 Argentina  Brazil  Uruguay  Paraguay  Argentina
1976 Uruguay  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay  Argentina
1977 Brazil  Brazil  Paraguay  Colombia  Uruguay
1979 Colombia  Brazil  Uruguay
1983 Uruguay  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay  Argentina
1986 Argentina  Brazil  Paraguay  Argentina  Uruguay
1989 Brazil  Brazil  Paraguay  Uruguay  Bolivia

Women's national teams

International

Competition Year Host Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
AMF World Futsal Championships 2008 Spain  Catalonia  Galicia  Colombia  Russia
2013 Colombia  Colombia  Venezuela  Czech Republic  Argentina

Continental

Continental Year Host Winner Gold medal icon.svg Runner-up Silver medal icon.svg 3rd Bronze medal icon.svg 4th
Europe (UEFS) 2001 Russia  Russia  Belarus  Ukraine  Italy
2004 Russia  Russia  Catalonia  Ukraine  Belgium
2007 Czech Republic  Czech Republic  Russia  Slovakia  Ukraine
2009 Poland  Russia -  Czech Republic Catalonia
2011 Czech Republic  Czech Republic  Russia  Catalonia  France

Clubs

Futsal in Italy

The A.I.F.S. (Italian Association of Football Sala) was founded in 1987 and renamed the Federazione Italiana Football Sala (FIFS) in 1988. It was immediately recognized by FIFUSA (the international organization of futsal, known by the Portuguese acronym Federação Internacional de Futebol de Salão). In 1988 it was among the founders of UEFS federation (European Union of Futsal). In 1991 it organized the World Championships in Milan. In the five years From 1992 to 1996, it organized the Mickey Mouse Trophy, sponsored by the Walt Disney. In 1992 it took part in the European Championship held in Porto (Portugal) by the Spanish UEFS. In 1994 he took part for the last time in World Cup organized by the FIFUSA. The Italian national team finished in last place. FIFS sent the teams who won national championships to participate in the Champions League Cup. In 1991 AS Milan finished seventh, as did GS Danypel Milan in 1992 and 1993. In 1995 the Sporting Turro was placed eight. Giovanni Caminiti, the President of the FIFS ceased its work at the end of the 1990s due to ill health, and the organisation was dormant until the summer of 2009 when Axel Paderni revived its activities. In 2009 it joined the International Futsal World League Association, founded in Switzerland to preserve and promote Futsal globally. Now 15 national futsal organisations are member of the association: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Germany, Italy, Morocco, Nigeria, Peru, Monaco, Seborga, Switzerland, Tunisia. The association organizes international friendly matches for national teams and clubs, the Mediterranean Cup (for men and for disabled athletes) and Mundialito Cup.

See also

References

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External links








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