|Latin: Universitas Gallaudetensis|
a dialect of Aramaic
|Motto in English||Be opened|
|Established||April 8, 1864|
|President||T. Alan Hurwitz|
|Campus||Urban, 99 acres (0.40 km2)|
|Former names||Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind
Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb
|Colors||Buff and Blue|
Founded in 1864, Gallaudet University was originally for both deaf and blind children. It was the first school for the advanced education of the deaf and hard of hearing in the world and remains the only higher education institution in which all programs and services are specifically designed to accommodate deaf and hard of hearing students. Hearing students are admitted to the graduate school and a small number are also admitted as undergraduates each year. The university was named after Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a notable figure in the advancement of deaf education.
Gallaudet University is officially bilingual, with American Sign Language (commonly abbreviated ASL) and English used for instruction and by the college community. Although there are no specific ASL proficiency requirements for undergraduate admission, many graduate programs do require varying degrees of knowledge of the language as a prerequisite.5
- 1 History
- 2 Congressional charter
- 3 Academics
- 4 Campus
- 5 Athletics
- 6 Greek life
- 7 Research
- 8 Notable alumni
- 9 Notable faculty
- 10 List of Presidents of Gallaudet University
- 11 Quotations
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
In 1856, philanthropist and former United States Postmaster General Amos Kendall became aware of several deaf and blind children in Washington, D.C. who were not receiving proper care. Kendall had the courts declare the children to be his wards and donated 2 acres (8,100 m2) of his land to establish housing and a school for them.6 Edward Miner Gallaudet was the first superintendent of the new school. Later, John Carlin suggested placing a monument of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet with Alice Cogswell.7
In 1857, the 34th Congress passed H.R. 806, which chartered the grammar school as the Columbia Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind and funded tuition costs for indigent deaf, dumb, or blind children belonging to the District of Columbia.8 Seven years later, in 1864, the 38th Congress authorized the institution to grant and confirm college degrees.9 The collegiate department became known as the National Deaf-Mute College. The following year, in 1865, the 38th Congress removed the instruction that the institution was to educate the blind, and renamed it the Columbia Institution for the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb.
In 1954, Congress amended the charter of the institution, changing the corporate name to Gallaudet College, which had been the official name of the collegiate department since 1894.10
George Ernst Detmold was an instrumental figure in the development of Gallaudet, principally in the drama department. A Shakespeare scholar with a tone for the deaf, he fostered the development of the drama department at Gallaudet. In addition, as the Dean of Students, he was instrumental in gaining national recognition and accreditation.citation needed
In 1986, Congress again amended the charter of the Institution, renaming it Gallaudet University.11
The school was established in 1857 with considerable efforts being made by several concerned citizens of Washington, D.C. Two houses were used, one purchased and one rented. On November 1, 1858, the First Annual Report was submitted to the Secretary of the Interior.12
During the school's second full year of operation (1858–1859), 14 deaf students and 7 blind students were in attendance. Superintendent Gallaudet, anticipating the future growth of the school, requested money for more buildings, lamenting the fact that the money was not issued in the year prior, due to federal budget problems. The Second Annual Report was submitted November 5, 1859.13
During the third academic year (1859–1860), Kendall beseeched the federal government for funds to relocate the school to more spacious grounds. Gallaudet praised Kendall for donating money needed to construct a new brick building; however, both school buildings were already at capacity. There were 24 deaf students, necessitating a second teacher of the deaf. The teacher of the 6 blind students resigned due to health concerns.14
By the 1860–61 academic year, the Civil War had been in progress for over six months. Gallaudet reported that the students were safe and free from fear. There were 35 deaf students and 6 blind students in attendance during the academic year. An art teacher was hired for the first time.15
During 1861–62, new monies provided for industrial education were used to rent a nearby shop in order to teach cabinet-making to the male students. Plans were underway to construct a new building using $9,000 that Congress appropriated to the school. There were 35 deaf students and 6 blind students. During vacation in August a regiment of troops used the brick building for a hospital, and some of the students who stayed over the summer helped with tending to the sick soldiers. One soldier died. For the first time, Gallaudet proposed expanding the school to create a college for deaf students.16
Even with new construction completed for the 1862-1863 school year, the school was still at capacity and more money was needed to purchase 13 acres (53,000 m2) of adjoining land and then build even more buildings. Gallaudet asked for money to pipe in water from the river, as the existing cistern and well were inadequate to the school's needs.17
College-level classes were offered for the first time during the 1863-64 academic year. Congress provided approval for Columbia to grant college degrees, and an enabling act for the college was passed and approved by President Lincoln. An elaborate inauguration ceremony was held in June with Laurent Clerc in attendance. Fourteen acres of land was purchased with money supplied by the government. Gallaudet was promoted to the position of president of the institution. He continued to push for funds for expansion and new buildings. Gallaudet also proposed discontinuing services for blind students, saying that the small number of blind students would be better served at the school for the blind in Baltimore.18
The enrollment numbers increased rapidly during the 1864–65 academic year. Gallaudet asked the government for money to accomplish several projects, including the construction of an ice house and a gas house, sewer lines, and more. Major construction continued on campus. The name of the collegiate department was changed to "National Deaf-Mute College". The blind students were transferred to a school in Baltimore.19
During the 1865–66 academic year, Gallaudet responded to criticism from supporters of the oral method in Massachusetts, saying that oral instruction is usually of little value to congenitally deaf children. Gallaudet proposed that a representative of the school be sent to Europe to study the methods employed there, in order to determine which types of instructional methods might be added to those methods already being used successfully at the Columbia Institution and other American schools. Combined enrollment of all levels of instruction, including the collegiate level, exceeded 100 for the first time during this year. There were 25 students enrolled in the college, including students from 14 states of all parts of the Union. Edward Allen Fay joined the faculty as a professor of history, having learned to sign as a child.20
In the 1866–67 academic year, the building for the primary school was extended and sickness was thereby reduced. A mathematics professor was hired for the first time. More money was needed to accommodate additional students expected to swell the ranks of the school.
Gallaudet gave a lengthy account of his travels to Europe and was very critical of the extent to which speech is taught to deaf children in European schools for the deaf. Nevertheless, he recommended that a limited amount of speech training be afforded to deaf students in America to those who show they can benefit. His travels took him to: Doncaster, England; Birmingham, England; Manchester, England; Liverpool, England; Glasgow, Scotland; Belfast, Ireland (Belfast, Northern Ireland); Dublin, Ireland; Geneva, Switzerland; Nancy, France, Saint-Hippolyte-du-Fort, France; Vienna, Austria; Leipsic, Saxony (Leipzig, Germany); Lubec (Lübeck, Germany); Frankfort On-the-Main (Frankfurt, Germany); Brussels, Belgium; Zurich, Switzerland; Rotterdam, Netherlands; Paris, France; Weissenfels, Prussia (Weißenfels, Germany); Prague, Bohemia; (Prague, Czech Republic); Berlin, Prussia (Berlin, Germany); Milan, Italy; Genoa, Italy; Turin, Italy; Dresden, Saxony (Dresden, Germany); London, England; Edinburgh, Scotland; Bordeaux, France; Marseilles, France; Munich, Bavaria (Munich, Germany); Bruges, Belgium; St. Petersburg, Russia; Åbo, Finland (Turku, Finland); Stockholm, Sweden; and Copenhagen, Denmark.21
The biggest educational conference in the then-history of deaf education was held during the month of May 1868 in Washington, D.C., largely made up of principals of schools for the deaf. Fourteen schools for the deaf were represented from 22 different states. The chief topic of discussion was the recommendations put forth by Edward Gallaudet regarding adding articulation lessons to schools' curricula.22
In 1868–69, the first students completed a full course of college studies, all graduating with bachelor's degrees.23
The founder of the school, Amos Kendall, died in November 1869. Gallaudet delivered a eulogy at the board meeting in January 1870. The main central building was partially completed, with rooms in the basement and on the first floor first being used. Plans were being made to purchase Amos Kendall's estate, which adjoined the grounds of the school. Gallaudet cautioned Congress that Kendall's heirs had plans to subdivide the property if it was not sold to Columbia, and hence the land would never again become available for purchase as a whole.24
In 1881, Laura Sheridan, a hearing woman, inquired about Gallaudet University's accepting women. She was told that deaf women could not enter the institution. In 1887 Gallaudet agreed to allow women to apply with the intent that women would not stay. Temporary living arrangements were made and the college remained co-educational.25
Student strikes at Gallaudet University starting March 6, 1988, revolutionized the perception and education of Deaf culture. Deaf students were outraged at the selection of another hearing president, Elisabeth Zinser; the university had never selected a deaf person for this position. Alumni, faculty, staff, and students demanded that the next president of the university be deaf. After a week of protest and activism, Zinser resigned and was replaced by I. King Jordan. This movement became known as Deaf President Now (DPN).
||This article may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. (January 2008)|
Jordan announced his retirement in September 2005. On May 1, 2006, the University's Board of Trustees announced that Jane Fernandes, the University's current provost, would be the University's next president. This was met with protests from the student body, both in person on campus and in internet blogs and forums.
Jordan publicly accused some critics of rejecting Fernandes because "she is not deaf enough." He described the protest as "identity politics", saying, "We are squabbling about what it means to be deaf."28
The Washington Post reported that Fernandes "would like to see the institution become more inclusive of people who might not have grown up using sign language," stating that Gallaudet must embrace "all kinds of deaf people."29 Those who opposed her said that they feared a "weakening of American Sign Language at an institution that should be its standard-bearer."30
Protesters said Fernandes distorted their arguments and that the protest centered on her inability to lead, an unfair selection process and longstanding problems at the school.31
In the spring 2006 protest, students blocked entrances to the Gallaudet campus, held rallies, and set up tents near the University's main entrance. Fernandes, appointed to serve as president-designate until Jordan retired, said that she would not step down. On May 8, the faculty gave a vote of no confidence for Fernandes.
When the fall 2006 academic year resumed, some students, faculty, staff, and alumni continued their protest, calling for Fernandes to step down and for the presidential search to be done again. On October 11, a group of protesting students shut down the campus. On October 16 at a regularly scheduled meeting, faculty members voted 138 to 24 to block Fernandes from becoming president of Gallaudet University.
Fernandes said, "I really don't understand so I have to believe it's not about me. ... I believe it's about evolution and change and growth in the deaf community."32
On October 29, the university withdrew the appointment of Fernandes.33 In an opinion piece in The Washington Post, Jordan defended Fernandes's remarks and denounced the board's decision and the actions of the protesters, saying, "I am convinced that the board made a serious error in acceding to the demands of the protesters by terminating Fernandes's presidency before it began."34
On December 10, 2006, the Board of Trustees announced that Robert Davila would serve as interim president for a period of up to two years.35 He was formally installed on May 9, 2007, during a ceremony that included a speech by D.C. Congressional Delegate Eleanor Holmes Norton, who spoke positively of the 2006 protest.36 He stepped down on December 31, 2009.
On June 29, 2007, in the aftermath of the controversy over the university's presidency, Gallaudet was temporarily placed on probation by its accreditation organization, the Commission on Higher Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools.37 It was also reported that in 2006, the Office of Management and Budget had found that "Gallaudet failed to meet its goals or showed declining performance in key areas, including the number of students who stay in school, graduate and either pursue graduate degrees or find jobs upon graduation."38 In January 2007, former president Jordan wrote an editorial on the topic that appeared in the Washington Post.35 The Middle States Commission later reaffirmed Gallaudet's accreditation on June 27, 2008.39
On October 18, 2009, the Board of Trustees announced that Gallaudet's tenth president would be T. Alan Hurwitz. He began his tenure on January 1, 2010.
The university acknowledges that it "is a congressionally created corporation that serves governmental objectives."40 The university and the Department of Education explain that Gallaudet has been structured by the Federal Government to take the form of a "federally chartered, private, non-profit educational institution." The federal government plays various roles within the institution:41
- Congress incorporated the Columbia Institution in 1857, significantly amended its charter in 1954, and authorized permanent congressional appropriations. In 1986, Congress passed the Education of the Deaf Act and amended it in 1992. These Congressional acts are part of "the supreme law of Gallaudet University."42
- Gallaudet must obtain authorization from the Secretary of the US Department of Education in order to sell or transfer title of any of its real property.11
- The diplomas of all Gallaudet graduates are signed by the current U.S. President, which dates from President U.S. Grant signing students' diplomas in 1872.43
- Three members of Congress are appointed to the university's Board of Trustees as "Public Members."44
- Gallaudet must provide annual reports to the Secretary of Education.45
- "Gallaudet receives the bulk of its income in the form of an annual appropriation from Congress, and the Department of Education oversees the University's appropriation for the Federal government."46
- Gallaudet University (and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf) are authorized to make purchases through the General Services Administration.
Gallaudet's Fifty-Fifth Annual Report47 contains an appendix that includes the text of 99 Federal Acts related to Gallaudet/Columbia which were enacted between 1857 and 1912.
- President Ulysses S. Grant, 1870 and 1871.4849
- President Rutherford B. Hayes, 1877, 1878, 1879, and 1880.50515253
- President James A. Garfield, 1881.545556
- President Chester A. Arthur, 1882.57
- President Grover Cleveland, 1885.58
- President Benjamin Harrison, 1889.59
- President Theodore Roosevelt, 1906.6061
- President Lyndon Baines Johnson, 1964 and 1966.626364
- President Bill Clinton, 1994.65
Several programs and majors are offered at Gallaudet University. The five most popular majors are education, communications, business, psychology, and mathematics.66 Almost 90 percent of the classes offered at Gallaudet University contain fewer than 20 students.66 The freshmen retention rate at the university is relatively low, at 65.8 percent, and the graduation rate is also low, at 8 percent.66
The Gallaudet campus has been designated a historic place on a number of registries and surveys:
- National Register of Historic Places (added in 1974). Gallaudet College Historic District 6869
- District of Columbia Inventory of Historic Sites (listings added in 1964 and 1973).70"...well-preserved romantic landscape campus designed in 1866 by Olmsted, Vaux & Co. (on site of estate named Kendall Green); includes excellent examples of High Victorian Gothic collegiate architecture; monument to founder Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, pioneer educator of the deaf (Daniel Chester French, sculptor); includes approximately 10 buildings c. 1866–1885..." 70
- National Historic Landmarks designation (added 1965).71
- Historic American Buildings Survey (added 1933).72
Gallaudet is a member of NCAA Division III and the North Eastern Athletic Conference.73 The teams that play in the North Eastern Athletic Conference are the men's and women's basketball, cross country, soccer teams, along with the baseball, softball, and volleyball teams.73 However, the Gallaudet football team plays in the Eastern Collegiate Football Conference. In addition to the football team, which plays in a different conference than most sports at Gallaudet, the men's and women's swimming teams, as well as the men's and women's track and field teams, compete as independents. The Bison compete in baseball, basketball, cross country running, football, indoor and outdoor track and field, soccer, softball, swimming, tennis, volleyball, and wrestling. Their colors are buff and blue, which were chosen after Union soldiers' uniforms in the Civil War.
Prior to the arrival of Coach Kevin Cook in 2006, the Gallaudet Women's basketball team was nothing more than mediocre. The team had not yet had a full-time basketball coach. In 2006, Kevin Cook took over as the head basketball coach after spending 10 years in the WNBA, coaching the Nigerian Women's Basketball team and coaching overseas. Cook became the first ever head Women's Basketball coach at Gallaudet. Cook did not anticipate such a large project in turning around the women's basketball team, but also faced problems with communication. Coach Cook did not know sign language. Since taking over as coach, Cook has learned ASL and signs during practices. Cook uses a translator during games.74
Prior to Cook's arrival, the Gallaudet Women's Basketball team had not won a conference game in five years and even lost a game by 75 points in Cook's first year in charge.74 Cook's persistence on defense and discipline turned the program around. Gallaudet began the 2010–11 season on a 20 game winning streak and finished the season 24–4 (20–2 in conference play). Cook was named North Eastern Athletic Conference Coach of the Year, and senior Easter Faafiti was voted NEAC Player of the Year. The 2010–11 season ended in the first round of the Division III NCAA Championships with a loss to Juniata.75
After a victory over Penn State-Berks in the 2010–11 season, Penn State guard Corin Bishop "said that she views the Gallaudet team as a great basketball team, not a team of deaf players." Hayes of Gallaudet later said, "I feel like there are people who stereotype us as deaf players, I'm just like everyone else who plays basketball".74 With national media coverage of the Gallaudet Women's Basketball team surrounding the great run throughout the 2010–11 season, it is clear that the accomplishments of Gallaudet's female athletes are transcending the basketball court while giving Gallaudet students the opportunity to show their pride. In an interview with Lydia Lum of Diverse, he said, "Because of us, there's a growing awareness that there are differences between deaf people, but we're all the same."76
After an undefeated season in 2005, which was achieved after 122 years, head coach Ed Hottle began his campaign to return Gallaudet to the NCAA ranks. With support from the Gallaudet administration, the Bison played their last season of club football in 2006 and played a full NCAA slate of eight games in 2007.78
After the 2009 football season, Coach Hottle left to become the first head coach of the first football team at Stevenson University. He announced his decision in a heart-felt meeting with the football team. Offensive Coordinator Chuck Goldstein was tapped to be the interim head coach of the football team. On December 17, 2009, the interim tag was removed and he is now the permanent head coach of the team.79
Gallaudet University's football team has a longstanding rivalry with Catholic University of America, another school in the Washington D.C. area. On September 7, 2012, Gallaudet University defeated Catholic University of America for the first time in the 106-year history of the rivalry between the two D.C. schools.80
In the fall of 2013, Gallaudet's football program began a remarkable run for the Division III playoffs and garnering a considerable amount of publicity, winning the regular season with a 9-1 record, before falling to Hobart College in the first round of the playoffs and ending the season with a 9-2 (.818) overall record.8182
In 2006, the Gallaudet women's volleyball team ended their season 30–10 after a history-making run to the Sweet Sixteen in the NCAA Division III tournament. Tamijo Foronda, a senior outside hitter, was named to the AVCA All-American Team.83
Gallaudet University has had its share of students that became notable in a range of sports. Such athletes are:
- Richard Jacobs, member of the national US Team Handball squad, with several international games to his credit; was one of the last cuts with the US Olympic Team Handball squad
- Dawn Birley, certified as Olympic-eligible, won several national Canadian TaeKwonDo championships; she didn't make it to the Olympics only because Canada was not one of the invited nations in this event
- Denny Guinn, also another Canadian, was the nation's top ranked Air Pistol shooter; while representing Gallaudet at the National Collegiate Shooting championship, finished #1 in the nation, despite having to practice at a shooting range, off campus because of safety concerns
- Marvin Marshall won the Washington, DC local Golden Gloves boxing championship and took part at the national Golden Gloves championship; had over 500 amateur bouts in his boxing career
- Gillian Hall was a Connecticut state synchronized swimming champion
- Tony Tatum, All-American Cornerback from 2009-2012, became the first football player in Gallaudet University to play professionally. Signed to AFL's Utah Blaze and posted 3 interceptions, one returned for a touchdown. Currently signed to the Cleveland Gladiator.
The campus Greek community is relatively small with only 4 fraternities and 4 sororities. The four fraternities are Kappa Gamma, Alpha Sigma Pi, Kappa Sigma, and Delta Sigma Phi. The sororities are Phi Kappa Zeta, Delta Epsilon, Alpha Sigma Theta, and Delta Zeta.
The Gallaudet Research Institute (often abbreviated GRI) is internationally recognized for its leadership in deafness-related research. GRI researchers gather and analyze data concerning the social, academic, and perceptual characteristics of deaf and hard of hearing populations, primarily to provide information needed by educators in the field. Staff are skilled in various research methodologies including surveys, test norming and assessment, ethnographic studies, clinical studies, and information management.84 Gallaudet publishes three journals. Sign Language Studies has been published since 1972. Recently, the university launched the Deaf Studies Digital Journal, the first peer-reviewed academic and creative arts journal in American Sign Language and English.85 Also, Gallaudet University Press publishes American Annals of the Deaf, "the oldest and most widely read English-language journal dealing with deafness and the education of deaf persons".86
- Olof Hanson, American architect
- George Veditz, teacher, American Sign Language filmmaker, preservatist of American Sign Language
- Dorothy Miles, British poet and activist
- Fred Schreiber, first Executive Director of the National Association of the Deaf
- Bernard Bragg, actor
- Phyllis Frelich, actress
- Linda Bove, actress
- Leonard M. Elstad, 3rd President of Gallaudet (Master's, 1923)
- I. King Jordan, 8th President of Gallaudet (Undergraduate, 1970)
- Robert R. Davila, 9th President of Gallaudet (Undergraduate, 1953)
- Shoshannah Stern, actress
- Tyrone Giordano, actor
- Russell Harvard, actor
- Ella Mae Lentz, poet
- Edward Miner Gallaudet (1864-1910)
- Dr. Percival Hall (1910-1945)
- Leonard M. Elstad (1945-1969)
- Edward C. Merrill, Jr. (1969-1983)
- W. Lloyd Johns (October 1983-January 1984)
- Jerry C. Lee (1984-1988)
- Elisabeth A. Zinser (March 1988)
- I. King Jordan (1988-2006)
- Robert Davila (2006-2009)
- T. Alan Hurwitz (2010-present)
"America does mean opportunity. But it was not until 1864 that that great principle found illustration in a college for the training of the deaf. A German writer, commenting upon American literature, declares that the central note in it, the special characteristic of all our great writers, has been idealism—high and lofty idealism. And he says it is no wonder that Longfellow's poem 'Excelsior' was written by an American, because the excelsior note is the dominant note in American literature. This college, ladies and gentlemen, is 'Excelsior' wrought into an institution. It stands for justice, not charity. This college, and this college alone stands for the principle that a limitation upon one faculty shall not be a limitation upon all faculties, but rather a challenge to all faculties. It stands for the principle that the men and women who enter here shall see before them the same shining goal that beckons to the men and women who enter other colleges. It stands for the principle that the human mind, if compassed by eternal silence, shall be compassed also by eternal truth."87
- American Sign Language
- Bilingual-bicultural education
- Willy Conley
- Andrew Foster (educator)
- William Stokoe
- American School for the Deaf
- National Association for the Deaf (NAD)
- "Columbia Institution for the Deaf" was the corporate name for what is now Gallaudet University. In 1954 a law was passed, changing the corporate name to "Gallaudet College." (The collegiate department of the Columbia Institution had gone by the name "Gallaudet College" since 1894.) In 1986, another law was passed changing the name to "Gallaudet University."3
- Profiles of Existing Government Corporations—A Study Prepared by the U.S. General Accounting Office for the Committee on Government Operations. 1988. (Document: H402-4) Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp. 18, 125
- Current as of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved March 8, 2010.
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- Marschark, Marc, Lang, Harry G. and Albertini, John A. "Educating Deaf Students". Oxford University Press. 2002. p. 31
- The Chronicle of Higher Education: "Student Protests Over Presidential Pick Return to Gallaudet U."
- The Washington Post: "Gallaudet Names New President."
- Fox News: "Is Gallaudet University's Dean 'Deaf Enough'?"
- The Washington Post: "Signs of Change At Gallaudet."
- The New York Times: "Protests Continue at University for Deaf."
- The Washington Post: "Source of Gallaudet Turmoil Is Up for Debate."
- The Washington Post: "Gallaudet Reopens With Protesters Still At Front Gates."
- Inside Gallaudet: "Board of Trustees votes to terminate Dr. Jane Fernandes appointment as president"
- Gallaudet Chooses Interim President, Washington Post, December 11, 2006
- Jordan, I. King (January 22, 2007). "Deaf Culture and Gallaudet". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Speech by Congresswoman Eleanor Holmes Norton at the Installation of Gallaudet President Robert R. Davila". Save Our Deaf Schools. May 9, 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Inside Gallaudet – Gallaudet University
- On Probation, Washington Post, July 14, 2007.
- "MSCHE Accreditation – Gallaudet University". Aaweb.gallaudet.edu. 2008-06-26. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- "Janice Becker, Plaintiff vs. Gallaudet University, Defendant". Save Our Deaf Schools. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
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- History of the College for the Deaf, 1857–1907 – Edward Miner Gallaudet, Lance J. Fischer, David L. De Lorenzo – Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-02-10.
- Columbia Institution for the Deaf Annual Report, Gallaudet University Archives, 1879
- "Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb: 23rd Annual Report". Save Our Deaf Schools. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
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- Gallaudet, Edward M. "A History of the Columbia Institution For The Deaf and Dumb.". Save Our Deaf Schools. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
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- "Gallaudet Bison Athletics : Gallaudet University Joins North Eastern Athletic Conference". Gallaudetathletics.com. 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2012-07-16.
- Donvan, John (February 3, 2011). "Gallaudet University Making Noise in Women's Basketball". ABC News. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- "Parade magazine feature on Gallaudet University's women's basketball season". D3hoops.com. USA Today. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Lum, Lydia. "Gallaudet Women on the Road to Winner's Circle". Diverse Issues in Higher Education. Cox, Matthews and Assoc. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
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- Foster, Brooke (August 19, 2007). "Sound and the Fury". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 3, 2010.
- "Goldstein Named Gallaudet's 36th Head Football Coach, Davis Elevated to Assistant Coach". Gallaudet University. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
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- "Women's Volleyball". Gallaudet University. Retrieved 16 July 2012.
- Gallaudet Research Institute (GRI) Home Page
- Announcement of journal launch
- American Annals of the Deaf website
- C. Alphonso Smith, from address given on Presentation Day at Gallaudet, May 6, 1914
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