Gamma Andromedae (Gamma And, γ And, γ Andromedae) is the third brightest star in the constellation of Andromeda. It is also known by the traditional name Almach (also spelt as Almaach, Almaack, Almak, Almaak, or Alamak).
In 1778, Johann Tobias Mayer discovered that γ Andromedae was a double star. When examined in a small telescope, it appears to be a bright, golden yellow star (γ1 Andromedae) next to a dimmer, indigo blue star (γ2 Andromedae), separated by approximately 10 arcseconds. It is considered by stargazers to be a beautiful double star with a striking contrast of color.123 It was later discovered that γ2 Andromedae is itself a triple star system. What appears as a single star to the naked eye is thus a quadruple star system, approximately 350 light-years from the Earth.14
Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
|Right ascension||02h 03m 53.9531s2|
|Declination||+42° 19′ 47.009″2|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||2.262|
|U−B color index||+1.585|
|B−V color index||+1.375|
|R−I color index||+0.685|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−11.7 ± 0.92 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: 43.082 mas/yr
Dec.: −50.852 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||9.19 ± 0.732 mas|
|Distance||350 ± 30 ly
(109 ± 9 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||−2.96|
|Rotational velocity (v sin i)||< 175 km/s|
Almach, Almaach, Almak, Almaak, Alamak, γ1 And, Gamma1 Andromedae, Gamma1 And, γ Andromedae A, γ And A, Gamma Andromedae A, Gamma And A, 57 Andromedae A, 57 And A, STF 205A, ADS 1630 A, BD+41 395, CCDM J02039+4220A, FK5 73, GC 2477, HD 12533, HIP 9640, HR 603, IDS 01578+4151 A, PPM 44721, SAO 37734, WDS 02039+4220A.258
Epoch J2000.0 Equinox J2000.0 (ICRS)
|Right ascension||02h 03m 54.720s (B)9|
|Declination||+42° 19′ 51.41″ (B)9|
|Apparent magnitude (V)||4.84 (BC)
|Spectral type||B9.5V/B9.5V (B)
|U−B color index||−0.1210|
|B−V color index||+0.0310|
|Radial velocity (Rv)||−14 ± 5 (B)3 km/s|
|Proper motion (μ)||RA: 37 (B)3 mas/yr
Dec.: −57 (B)3 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||9.19 ± 0.739 mas|
|Distance||350 ± 30 ly
(109 ± 9 pc)
|Absolute magnitude (MV)||−0.3 (BC)6|
|Period (P)||63.67 ± 1.0 yr|
|Semimajor axis (a)||0.302 ± 0.001"|
|Eccentricity (e)||0.927 ± 0.03|
|Inclination (i)||109.8 ± 5.0°|
|Longitude of the node (Ω)||109.6 ± 5.0°|
|Periastron epoch (T)||B2015.5 ± 1.5|
|Argument of periastron (ω)
|183.4 ± 15.0°|
|Position (relative to γ1 And)|
|Epoch of observation||2004|
|Angular distance||9.6″ 8|
|Position angle||63° 8|
γ2 Andromedae, with an overall apparent visual magnitude of 4.84,10 is 9.6 arcseconds away from γ1 Andromedae at a position angle of 63 degrees.8 In October 1842, Wilhelm Struve found that γ2 Andromedae was itself a double star whose components were separated by less than an arcsecond.15 The components are an object of apparent visual magnitude 5.5, γ Andromedae B, and a type-A main sequence star with apparent visual magnitude 6.3, γ Andromedae C.10 They have an orbital period of about 64 years.13 Spectrograms taken from 1957 to 1959 revealed that γ Andromedae B was itself a spectroscopic binary, composed of two type-B main sequence stars orbiting each other with a period of 2.67 days.11
- The name Almach is derived from the Arabic العناق الأرض al-‘anāq al-’arđ̧15 "the caracal" (desert lynx).16
- Another term for this star used by medieval astronomers writing in Arabic was آلرجل المسلسلة Al Rijl al Musalsalah "the Woman's Foot"15
- In Chinese, 天大將軍 (Tiān Dà Jiāng Jūn), meaning Heaven's Great General, refers to an asterism consisting of γ Andromedae, φ Persei, 51 Andromedae, 49 Andromedae, χ Andromedae, υ Andromedae, τ Andromedae, 56 Andromedae, β Trianguli, γ Trianguli and δ Trianguli. Consequently, γ Andromedae itself is known as 天大將軍一 (Tiān Dà Jiāng Jūn yī, English: the First Star of Heaven's Great General.).17
- In the catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Al Achsasi al Mouakket, this star was designated جمس ألنعامة Khamis al Naamat, which was translated into Latin as Quinta Struthionum, meaning the fifth ostrich.1819
- In the Babylonian star catalogues, γ Andromedae together with Triangulum formed the constellation known as MULAPIN (𒀯𒀳) "The Plough".20
- Astrologically this star was considered "honourable and eminent." 21
The star's location is shown in the following chart of the Andromeda constellation:
USS Almaack (AKA-10) is once of United States navy ship.
- pp. 113–114, vol. 1, Burnham's Celestial Handbook: An Observer's Guide to the Universe Beyond the Solar System, Robert Burnham, New York: Courier Dover Publications, 1978, ISBN 0-486-23567-X.
- NAME ALMACH -- Star in double system, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- HD 12534 -- Spectroscopic binary, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- 01578+4151, database entry, MSC - a catalogue of physical multiple stars, A. A. Tokovinin, CDS database ID J/A+AS/124/75.
- HR 603, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID V/50. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- From apparent magnitude and parallax.
- Almach, Jim Kaler, Stars. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- Entry 02039+4220, discoverer code STF 205, components A-BC, The Washington Double Star Catalog, United States Naval Observatory. Accessed on line August 27, 2008.
- Component 2, HIP 9640, database entry, Hipparcos catalogue, CDS ID I/239.
- HR 604, database entry, The Bright Star Catalogue, 5th Revised Ed. (Preliminary Version), D. Hoffleit and W. H. Warren, Jr., CDS ID V/50. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- A Preliminary Study of the Spectroscopic Binary Gamma Andromedae B, L. A. Maestre and J. A. Wright, Astrophysical Journal 131 (January 1960), pp. 119–121, Bibcode: 1960ApJ...131..119M.
- Entry 02039+4220, discoverer code STT 38BC, The Washington Double Star Catalog, United States Naval Observatory. Accessed on line August 19, 2008.
- Entry 02039+4220, Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars, William I. Hartkopf & Brian D. Mason, United States Naval Observatory. Accessed on line August 21, 2007.
- BD+41 395C -- Star in double system, database entry, SIMBAD. Accessed on line August 21, 2008.
- p. 36–37, Star-names and Their Meanings, Richard Hinckley Allen, New York: G. E. Stechert, 1899.
- p. 23, Star tales, Ian Ridpath, James Clarke & Co., 1989, ISBN 0-7188-2695-7.
- (Chinese) AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 10 日
- Knobel, E. B. (June 1895). "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a catalogue of stars in the Calendarium of Mohammad Al Achsasi Al Mouakket". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 55: 429. Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K.
- η Cet (Deneb Algenubi), θ Cet (Deneb Algenubi), τ Cet (Durre Menthor), ζ Cet (Baten Kaitos), and υ Cet, were Al Naʽāmāt, the Hen Ostriches See Star Name - R.H.Allen p. 160. In Al Achsasi Al Mouakket catalogue, η Cet as Aoul al Naamat or Prima Struthionum (the first ostrich), θ Cet as Thanih al Naamat or Secunda Struthionum (the second ostrich), τ Cet as Thalath al Naamat or Tertia Struthionum (the third ostrich), and ζ Cet as Rabah al Naamat or Quarta Struthionum (the fourth ostrich). υ Cet should be Khamis al Naamat or Quinta Struthionum (the fifth ostrich) consistently, but Al Achsasi Al Mouakket designated the title the fifth ostrich to γ Gam with uncleared consideration.
- Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions, J. H. Rogers, Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108, #1 (February 1998), pp. 9–28, Bibcode: 1998JBAA..108....9R.
- p.27, Star Lore of All Ages, William Tyler Olcott, G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York and London, The Knickerbocker Press, 1911
- Almaak (Gamma Andromedae) at The Internet Encyclopedia of Science
- Image ALMACH
- Gamma Andromedae on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Astrophoto, Sky Map, Articles and images