Women's rights in Pakistan

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Women's rights in Pakistan
Gender Inequality Index1
Value 0.573 (2011)
Rank 115th out of 148
Maternal mortality (per 100,000) 260 (2008)
Women in parliament 21.0% (2011)
Females over 25 with secondary education 23.5% (2010)
Women in labour force 21.7% (2009)
Global Gender Gap Index
Value 0.5478 (2012)
Rank 134th out of 136

Women's rights in Pakistan is a prominent issue, but many activists such as the National Plan of Action for Women and the All-Pakistan Women’s Association are working hard towards equality.citation needed

Education

The literacy rate of females in Pakistan is at 39.6 percent compared to that of males at 67.7 percent.2 The objectives of education policies in Pakistan aim to achieve equality in education between girls and boys and to reduce the gender gap in the educational system.3 However, the policy also encourages girls, mainly in rural areas of Pakistan, to acquire basic home management skills, which are preferred over full-scale primary education. The attitudes towards women in Pakistani culture make the fight for educational equality more difficult. The lack of democracy and feudal practices of Pakistan also contribute to the gender gap in the educational system.4 This feudal system leaves the underpowered, women in particular, in a very vulnerable position. The long-lived socio-cultural belief that women play a reproductive role within the confines of the home leads to the belief that educating women holds no value.

Regional differences

Women in elite urban districts of Pakistan enjoy a far more privileged lifestyle than those living in rural tribal areas. Women in urbanized districts typically lead more elite lifestyles and have more opportunities for education. Rural and tribal areas of Pakistan have an increasingly high rate of poverty and alarmingly low literacy rates. In 2002 it was recorded that 81.5 percent of 15-19 year old girls from high-income families had attended school while 22.3 percent of girls from low-income families had ever attended school.5 In comparison, it was recorded that 96.6 percent of Pakistani boys ages 15–19 coming from high-income families had attended schooling while 66.1 percent of 15-19 year old boys from low-income families had attended school.6 Girls living in rural areas are encouraged not to go to school because they are needed in the home to do work at a young age. In most rural villages, secondary schooling simply does not exist for girls, leaving them no choice but to prepare for marriage and do household tasks. These rural areas often have inadequate funding and schooling for girls is at the bottom of their priorities.

Workforce

In 2008, it was recorded that 21.8 percent of females were participating in the labor force in Pakistan while 82.7 percent of men were involved in labor.7 The rate of women in the labor force has an annual growth rate of 6.5 percent. Out of the 47 million employed peoples in Pakistan in 2008, only 9 million were women and of those 9 million, 70 percent worked in the agricultural sector. The income of Pakistani women in the labor force is generally lower than that of men, due in part to a lack of formal education.8

Government

Pakistan’s constitution places no constraints on female participation in government. In 1988, Benazir Bhutto became the first female prime minister of a Muslim state and is Pakistan's first and only female prime minister to date. 9

See also

References

  1. ^ "Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2013. p. 156. 
  2. ^ Lloyd, Cynthia. Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture 1 (1). pp. 105–110. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  3. ^ Qureshi, Rashida (2007). "1". Gender and Education in Pakistan (Hardcover) (1st ed.). Oxford: University Press. 
  4. ^ Lloyd, Cynthia. Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture 1 (1). pp. 105–110. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  5. ^ Lloyd, Cynthia. Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture 1 (1). pp. 105–110. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  6. ^ Lloyd, Cynthia. Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture 1 (1). pp. 105–110. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  7. ^ Hayat, Malik. "Pakistan Employment Trends for Women". Labour Market Information and Analysis Unit (Ministry of Labour and Manpower) 5 (2): 13–17. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  8. ^ Hayat, Malik. "Pakistan Employment Trends for Women". Labour Market Information and Analysis Unit (Ministry of Labour and Manpower) 5 (2): 13–17. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  9. ^ "Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of Tragedy" by Muhammad Najeeb, Hasan Zaidi, Saurabh Shulka and S. Prasannarajan, India Today, 7 January 2008

Bibliography

  • Malik, Iftikhar (2006). Culture and Customs of Pakistan (Hardcover) (1st ed.). Connecticut: Greenwood Press. 
  • Lloyd, Cynthia. Rural girls in Pakistan: Constraints of policy and culture 1 (1). pp. 105–110. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  • Qureshi, Rashida (2007). "1". Gender and Education in Pakistan (Hardcover) (1st ed.). Oxford: University Press. 
  • Ferdoos, Abmer. Social Status of Rural and Urban Working Women in Pakistan. der Universität Osnabrück. pp. 46–53. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  • Hayat, Malik. "Pakistan Employment Trends for Women". Labour Market Information and Analysis Unit (Ministry of Labour and Manpower) 5 (2): 13–17. Retrieved 2010-01-13. 
  • Okkenhaug, Marie (2005). Gender, Religion, and Change in the Middle East (Hardcover) (1st ed.). New York: Berg Publishers. 
  • Brown, Louise (2006). The Dancing Girls of Lahore (Hardcover) (1st ed.). New York: HarperCollins. 
  • Mandelbaum, David (1988). Women's Seclusion and Men's Honor (Hardcover) (1st ed.). Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. 
  • Roald, Anne (2002). Women in Islam (Hardcover) (1st ed.). New York: Routledge. 
  • Ahmed, Amineh (2006). Sorrow and Joy among Muslim Women (Hardcover) (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 

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