Genocides in history
Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious or national group. The term was coined in 1944 by Raphael Lemkin. It is defined in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) of 1948 as "any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such: killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; deliberately inflicting on the groups conditions of life, calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; [and] forcibly transferring children of the group to another group."1
The preamble to the CPPCG states that "genocide is a crime under international law, contrary to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by the civilized world" and that "at all periods of history genocide has inflicted great losses on humanity".1
Determining what historical events constitute a genocide and which are merely criminal or inhuman behavior is not a clear-cut matter. In nearly every case where accusations of genocide have circulated, partisans of various sides have fiercely disputed the details and interpretation of the event, often to the point of depicting wildly different versions of the facts. Alleged genocides should be understood in this context and such allegations cannot be regarded as the final word.
- 1 Alternate definitions
- 2 Pre-World War I
- 2.1 Before 1490
- 2.2 1490 to 1914
- 2.2.1 Africa
- 2.2.2 Americas
- 2.2.3 Asia
- 2.2.4 Europe
- 3 Twentieth century
- 3.1 World War I through World War II
- 3.1.1 Ottoman Empire/Turkey
- 3.1.2 Soviet Union
- 3.1.3 Japan
- 3.1.4 Germany and Nazi-occupied Europe
- 3.1.5 Expulsion of Germans
- 3.1.6 Dominican Republic
- 3.1.7 Republic of China and Tibet
- 3.2 1951 to 2000
- 3.2.1 Australia 1900–1969
- 3.2.2 Zanzibar
- 3.2.3 Guatemala 1966–1996
- 3.2.4 Pakistan (Bangladesh War of 1971)
- 3.2.5 Burundi 1972 and 1993
- 3.2.6 North Korea
- 3.2.7 Equatorial Guinea
- 3.2.8 Indonesia
- 3.2.9 Laos
- 3.2.10 Argentina
- 3.2.11 Ethiopia
- 3.2.12 Iraq
- 3.2.13 Tibet
- 3.2.14 Brazil
- 3.2.15 Democratic Republic of Congo
- 3.2.16 Somalia
- 3.2.17 Sri Lanka
- 3.2.18 Srebrenica
- 3.1 World War I through World War II
- 4 International prosecution
- 5 See also
- 6 Footnotes
- 7 References
- 8 External links
M. Hassan Kakar3 argued that the definition should include political groups or any group so defined by the perpetrator. He prefers the definition Chalk and Jonassohn: "Genocide is a form of one-sided mass killing in which a state or other authority intends to destroy a group so defined by the perpetrator."4
According to R. J. Rummel, genocide has multiple meanings. The ordinary meaning is murder by a government of people due to their national, ethnic, racial, or religious group membership. The legal meaning is defined by CCPG. This includes actions such as preventing births or forcibly transferring children to another group. Rummel created the term democide to include assaults on political groups.7
In this article, atrocities that have been called genocide by some reliable source are included, whether or not they match one of these definitions. The acts may involve mass killings, mass deportations, withholding of food and/or other necessities of life, death by invasive infectious disease agents or combinations of these, whether or not specific evidence documents an intent by the perpetrators to destroy a people.
Jones claimed that the less a people have in common with another group the easier it is for one to define the other as less than human to consider them a threat that must be eliminated.8 Jones continues "The difficulty, as Frank Chalk and Kurt Jonassohn pointed out in their early study, is that such historical records as exist are ambiguous and undependable. While history today is generally written with some fealty to 'objective' facts, most previous accounts aimed rather to praise the writer's patron (normally the leader) and to emphasize the superiority of one's own gods and religious beliefs."9
Chalk and Jonassohn: "Historically and anthropologically peoples have always had a name for themselves. In a great many cases, that name meant 'the people' to set the owners of that name off against all other people who were considered of lesser quality in some way. If the differences between the people and some other society were particularly large in terms of religion, language, manners, customs, and so on, then such others were seen as less than fully human: pagans, savages, or even animals.1011
Scholars of antiquity differentiate between genocide and gendercide, in which males were killed but the children (particularly the girls) and women were incorporated into the conquering group. Jones notes, "Chalk and Jonassohn provide a wide-ranging selection of historical events such as the Assyrian Empire's root-and branch depredations in the first half of the first millennium BCE, and the destruction of Melos by Athens during the Peloponnesian War (fifth century BCE), a gendercidal rampage described by Thucydides in his 'Melian Dialogue'."12
Jared Diamond suggested that genocidal violence may have caused the Neanderthals to go extinct.13 Ronald Wright also suggested such a genocide.14
Quoting Eric Margolis, Jones observes that in the 13th century the Mongol horsemen of Temüjin Genghis Khan were genocidal killers (génocidaires)11 who were known to kill whole nations, leaving nothing but empty ruins and bones.17 He ordered the extermination of the Tata Mongols, and all Kankalis males in Bukhara "taller than a wheel"18 using a technique called measuring against the linchpin. Rosanne Klass referred to the Mongols' rule of Afghanistan as "genocide".19
Similarly, the Turko-Mongol conqueror Tamerlane was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres.20 William Rubinstein wrote: "In Assyria (1393–4) – Tamerlane got around – he killed all the Christians he could find, including everyone in the, then, Christian city of Tikrit, thus virtually destroying Christianity in Mesopotamia. Impartially, however, Tamerlane also slaughtered Shi'ite Muslims, Jews and heathens."21
Under the command of Leopold II of Belgium, who acquired the Congo Free State in 1885, the Scramble For Africa began. Leopold II and his Belgian regime were responsible for the death of approximately 2 to 15 million Congolese. Many of the people in the state were enslaved or mutilated with the intentions of creating profits for Leopold in the rubber industry as well as other work fields. With the help of a 1924 census, it can be approximated that roughly 10 million were dead up to that point.
Between 1810 and 1828, the Zulu kingdom under Shaka Zulu laid waste to large parts of present-day South Africa and Zimbabwe. Zulu armies often aimed not only at defeating enemies but at their total destruction. Those exterminated included prisoners of war, women, children and even dogs.14 (Controversial) estimates for the death toll range from 1 million to 2 million.22232425
The Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa (present-day Namibia) occurred between 1904 and 1907.26 Eighty percent of the Herero population and 50 percent of the Nama population were killed in a brutal scorched earth campaign led by German General Lothar von Trotha. Between 24,000 and 100,000 Herero perished along with 10,000 Nama.2728
A copy of Trotha's Extermination Order survives in the Botswana National Archives. The order states "every Herero, with or without a gun, with or without cattle, will be shot. I will no longer accept women or children, I will drive them back to their people [to die in the desert] or let them be shot at."29 Olusoga and Erichsen write: "It is an almost unique document: an explicit, written declaration of intent to commit genocide".30 These mass killings were named as the first example of a 20th-century genocide in the 1985 Whitaker Report, commissioned but never adopted by the now defunct United Nations subcommittee ECOSOC.31
From the 1490s when Christopher Columbus landed in the Americas to the 1890 massacre of Sioux at Wounded Knee by the United States military, the indigenous population of the Western Hemisphere declined, mostly from disease, to 1.8 million from around 50 million, a decline of 96%.32 In Brazil alone, the indigenous population declined from a pre-Columbian high of an estimated 3 million to some 300,000 (1997).3334 Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived have varied tremendously; 20th century scholarly estimates ranged from a 8.4 million to 112.5 million.35 However, Robert Royal stated, "estimates of pre-Columbian population figures have become heavily politicized with scholars who are particularly critical of Europe and/or Western civilization often favoring wildly higher figures."36
Epidemic disease was the overwhelming direct cause of the population decline of the American natives.3738 After first contacts with Europeans and Africans, the death of 90 to 95 percent of the native population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases such as smallpox and measles.39 Some estimates indicate fatality rates of 80–90% in Native American populations during smallpox epidemics.40
A highly disputed claim regarding the intentional ethnocide of indigenous populations in the Americas was the intentional use of disease as a biological weapon, which was first proposed by a commander of British forces Jeffery Amherst.4142 It was the only documented case of germ warfare and it is uncertain whether it successfully infected the target population.43
Some historians argue that genocide, as a crime of intent, does not describe the colonization experience. Stafford Poole, a research historian, wrote: "There are other terms to describe what happened in the Western Hemisphere, but genocide is not one of them. It is a good propaganda term in an age where slogans and shouting have replaced reflection and learning, but to use it in this context is to cheapen both the word itself and the appalling experiences of the Jews and Armenians, to mention but two of the major victims of this century."44
By contrast, David Stannard argued that the destruction of the American aboriginals, in a "string of genocide campaigns", was the most massive genocide in world history.45 Stannard's claim of 100 million deaths has been challenged because he does not cite any demographic evidence to support this number, and because he makes no distinction between death from violence and death from disease. Multiple concurring pieces were released around the year 1992 to coincide with the 500th anniversary of Columbus' voyage. Noble David Cook rejected such claims, writing "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact."46
The Conquest of the Desert was a military campaign directed mainly by General Julio Argentino Roca in the 1870s, which established Argentine dominance over Patagonia, then inhabited by indigenous peoples, killing more than 1,300.49
Contemporary sources indicate that it was a deliberate genocide by the Argentine government.50 Others perceived the campaign as intending to suppress only groups of aboriginals that refused to submit to the government and carried out attacks on European settlements.5152
Jean-Jacques Dessalines, the first ruler of an independent Haiti, ordered the killing of the white population of French creoles on Haiti which culminated in the 1804 Haiti Massacre. According to Philippe Girard, "when the genocide was over, Haiti's white population was virtually non-existent."53
The Caste War of Yucatán (approx. 1847–1901) against the population of European descent, called Yucatecos, who held political and economic control of the region. Adam Jones wrote: Genocidal atrocities on both sides cost up to 200,000 killed."54
In 1835, Don Ignacio Zuniga, commander of the presidios of northern Sonora, asserted that since 1820 the Apaches had killed at least five thousand settlers. The state of Sonora then offered a bounty on Apache scalps in 1835. Beginning in 1837 Chihuahua state also offered a bounty of 100 pesos per warrior, 50 pesos per woman and 25 pesos per child.55
Determining how many people died as a direct result of armed conflict between Native Americans, and Europeans and their descendants, is difficult because accurate records are generally not available.21 One notable study by Gregory Michno concluded that of 21,586 tabulated casualties, military personnel and settlers accounted for 6,596 (31%), while indigenous casualties totaled about 14,990 (69%) for the period 1850–90. However, Michno used Army estimates in almost every case, potentially biasing the results.58
According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), "The Indian wars under the government of the United States have been more than 40 in number. They have cost the lives of about 19,000 white men, women and children, including those killed in individual combats, and the lives of about 30,000 Indians."59 Even if these figures underestimated indigenous casualties by a factor of 10, the number killed in the Indian wars represents only 0.3% of the 100 million total claimed by Stannard.
Chalk and Jonassohn claimed that the deportation of the Cherokee tribe along the Trail of Tears would almost certainly be considered an act of genocide today.60 The Indian Removal Act of 1830 led to the exodus. About 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 Cherokee-owned black slaves—were removed from their homes.61 The number of people who died as a result of the Trail of Tears has been variously estimated. American doctor and missionary Elizur Butler, who made the journey with one party, estimated 4,000 deaths.62
An attempt to move the goalposts by broadening or narrowing the definition of genocide has been made by some modern scholars which is crucial to whether or not the genocide by European expansion into the West ever occurred: The term was coined by Raphael Lemkin, a Polish-born jurist who served as an adviser to the U.S. Department of War during World War II, to describe the premeditated effort to destroy a population. Merriam-Webster Dictionary, The Oxford English Dictionary, U.S. Law (18 USC 1091) and International Law have different definitions: but the common elements of all these definitions define genocide as "the deliberate destruction of a race, religion or ethnicity by various methods."
Dr. David Stannard, of the University of Hawaii, infers that inadvertent contact by Europeans expecting to arrive in the East Indies, constituted genocide: "To put this in a contemporary context, the ratio of native survivorship in the Americas following European contact was less than half of what the human survivorship ratio would be in the United States today if every single white person and every single black person died. The destruction of the Indians of the Americas was, far and away, the most massive act of genocide in the history of the world."63
He (Stannard)goes on to refine his terms "From almost the instant of first human contact between Europe and the Americas firestorms of microbial pestilence and purposeful genocide began laying waste the American natives. Although at times operating independently, for most of the long centuries of devastation that followed 1492, disease and genocide were interdependent forces acting dynamically – whipsawing their victims between plague and violence, each one feeding upon the other, and together driving countless numbers of entire ancient societies to the brink-and often over the brink-of total extermination."64
Objectively, the native population of the United States has been difficult to pin down due to the lack of reliable source materials. Historian and Information Scientist, Dr. David Henige asserts that the modern trend of high population estimates is "pseudo-scientific number-crunching." While he does not advocate a low population estimates, he argues that the scarce and uncomprehensive nature of the evidence renders broad estimates(eg.as high as the entire population of the US at the onset of World War I) to be somewhat suspect, saying Examining the methodologies used by "high counters" have been particularly flagrant in their misuse of sources.65
Contemporaneous accounts of the effects of smallpox, among the native population suggest a 80% to 95% mortality rate of the entire population effected. Governor William Bradford wrote, in 1633, about the second reported outbreak (e.g. 1617, 1633) in New England: "... for it pleased God to visit these Indians with a great sickness, and such a mortality that of a 1000. above 900.and a half of them died, and many of them did rot above ground for want of burial, ..."6667
While the use of germ warfare or "the Spanish Method"68 was deliberated and attempted, a preponderance of evidence suggests that the smallpox among the natives preceded the exchange and the attempt was unsuccessful.
On June 24, 1763, according to sundries trader and militia Captain, William Trent, Captain Simeon Ecuyer, a Swiss-born soldier employed by the British, gave two blankets, one silk handkerchief and one linen from the smallpox hospital,69 to two Delaware delegates, Turtle's heart, a principal warrior, and Mamaltee, a Chief.
Smallpox (variola major) has an incubation period of about two weeks before eruptions appear on the skin. On July 26, 1763, a full month later, an Indian delegation, Turtle's Heart and Mamaltee among them, came back to the Fort, under a flag of truce, to parley.70
Gershom Hicks, taken captive in May 1763 by the Shawnee and Delaware people suggested that the epidemic was well underway, among the natives, since spring of 1763. Hicks escaped and arrived to Fort Pitt on April 14, 1764 and reported to the 42nd Regiment Captain, William Grant, "that the Small pox has been very general & raging amongst the Indians since last spring and that 30 or 40 Mingoes, as many Delawares and some Shawneese Died all of the Small pox since that time, that it still continues amongst them."71
Another captive, then 15-year-old John McCullough, residing at the Indian Camp at Mahonig (Newton Falls, Ohio)at the time, later recalled that, beginning on July 5, 1763,72 the Lenape people "committed several depredations along the Juniata; it happened to be at a time when the smallpox was in the settlement where they were murdering, the consequence was, a number of them got infected, and some died before they got home, others shortly after."73
In contrast, John M. Gates rejected the charge, estimating that some 34,000 Filipino soldiers were killed in combat, while as many as 200,000 civilians died due to a cholera epidemic largely unrelated to the war.76
The Dzungar (or Zunghar), Oirat Mongols who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia (most of which is located in present-day Xinjiang), were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.77 After a series of inconclusive military conflicts that started in the 1680s, the Dzungars were subjugated by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty (1644–1911) in the late 1750s. According to Qing scholar Wei Yuan, 40 percent of the 600,000 Zunghar people were killed by smallpox, 20 percent fled to Russia or sought refuge among the Kazakh tribes and 30 percent were killed by the army.7879 Clarke argued that the Qing campaign in 1757–58 "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people."80 Historian Peter Perdue attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to a "deliberate use of massacre" and has described it as an "ethnic genocide".79 Historian Mark Levene81 stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."82
The Taiping Rebellion during the 1850s and 1860s resulted in some 20 to 25 million deaths. Large-scale massacres by Imperial Forceswho?, and a deliberate scorched-earth policy, contributed to the massive death toll.citation needed
According to research published from 2009, in 1789 the British deliberately spread smallpox from the First Fleet to counter overwhelming native tribes near Sydney in New South Wales. In his book "An Indelible Stain", Henry Reynolds described this act as genocide.
The Black War was a period of conflict between British colonists and Tasmanian Aborigines in Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in the early 19th century. The conflict, in combination with introduced diseases and other factors, had such devastating impacts on the Tasmanian Aboriginal population that it was reported the Tasmanian Aborigines had been exterminated.8384 Historian Geoffrey Blainey wrote that by 1830, "Disease had killed most of them but warfare and private violence had also been devastating."85 In the 19th century, smallpox was the principal cause of Aboriginal deaths.86
Lemkin and most other comparative genocide scholars present the extinction of the Tasmanian Aborigines as a textbook example of a genocide, while the majority of Australian experts are more circumspect.8788 Detailed studies of the events surrounding the extinction have raised questions about some of the details and interpretations in earlier histories.8990 Curthoys concluded, "It is time for a more robust exchange between genocide and Tasmanian historical scholarship if we are to understand better what did happen in Tasmania."87
On the Australian continent during the colonial period (1788–1901), the population of 500,000–750,000 Australian Aborigines was reduced to fewer than 50,000.9192 Most were devastated by the introduction of alien diseases after contact with Europeans, while perhaps 20,000 were killed by massacres and fighting with colonists.91
In the early 19th Century Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama (local Māori tribes) massacred the Moriori people. The Moriori were the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in Moriori, Wharekauri in Māori), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. These people lived by a code of non-violence and passive resistance (see Nunuku-whenua), which led to their near-extinction at the hands of Taranaki Māori invaders in the 1830s.93
In 1835, some Ngāti Mutunga and Ngāti Tama from the Taranaki region of North Island invaded the Chathams. On 19 November 1835, the Rodney, a European ship hired by the Māori, arrived carrying 500 Māori armed with guns, clubs, and axes, followed by another ship with 400 more warriors on 5 December 1835. They proceeded to enslave some Māori and kill and cannibalise others. "Parties of warriors armed with muskets, clubs and tomahawks, led by their chiefs, walked through Māori tribal territories and settlements without warning, permission or greeting. If the districts were wanted by the invaders, they curtly informed the inhabitants that their land had been taken and the Māori living there were now vassals."94
A council of Māori elders was convened at the settlement called Te Awapatiki. Despite knowing of the Māori predilection for killing and eating the conquered, and despite the admonition by some of the elder chiefs that the principle of Nunuku was not appropriate now, two chiefs—Tapata and Torea—declared that "the law of Nunuku was not a strategy for survival, to be varied as conditions changed; it was a moral imperative."95 A Māori survivor recalled: "[The Maori] commenced to kill us like sheep.... [We] were terrified, fled to the bush, concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed – men, women and children indiscriminately." A Māori conqueror explained, "We took possession... in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. Not one escaped..."96
After the invasion, Moriori were forbidden to marry Moriori, or to have children with each other. All became slaves of the invaders. Many Moriori women had children by their Maori masters. A small number of Moriori women eventually married either Maori or European men. Some were taken from the Chathams and never returned. Only 101 Moriori out of a population of about 2,000 were left alive by 1862.97 Although the last Moriori of unmixed ancestry, Tommy Solomon,98 died in 1933 several thousand mixed ancestry Moriori are alive today.
In 1986, Reynald Secher argued that the actions of the French republican government during the revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796), a popular mostly Catholic uprising against the anti-clerical Republican government during the French Revolution was the first modern genocide.99 Secher's claims caused a minor uproar in France and mainstream authorities rejected Secher's claims.100101 Timothy Tackett countered that "the Vendée was a tragic civil war with endless horrors committed by both sides—initiated, in fact, by the rebels themselves. The Vendeans were no more blameless than were the republicans. The use of the word genocide is wholly inaccurate and inappropriate."102
Toward the end of the War of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) the English Rump Parliament sent the New Model Army to Ireland to subdue and take revenge on the Catholic population of the country and to prevent Royalists loyal to Charles II from using Ireland as a base to threaten England. The force was initially under the command of Oliver Cromwell and later under other parliamentary generals. The Army sought to secure the country, but also to confiscate lands of Irish families involved in the fighting. This became a continuation of the Elizabethan policy of encouraging Protestant settlement of Ireland, because the Protestant New Model army soldiers—could be paid in confiscated lands rather than in cash.103
During the Interregnum (1651–1660), this policy was enhanced with the passing of the Act of Settlement of Ireland in 1652. Its goal was a further transfer of land from Irish to English hands.103 The immediate war aims and the longer term policies of the English Parliamentarians resulted in an attempt by the English to transfer the native population to the western fringes to make way for Protestant settlers. This policy was reflected in a phrase attributed to Cromwell: "To Hell or to Connaught" and has been described by historians as ethnic cleansing, if not genocide.104
During the Irish Potato Famine (1845–1852), approximately 1 million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland,105 causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%.106 The proximate cause of famine was a potato disease commonly known as potato blight.107 Although blight ravaged potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, the impact and human cost in Ireland – where one-third of the population was entirely dependent on the potato for food – was exacerbated by a host of political, social, and economic factors which remain the subject of historical debate.108109
During the Famine, Ireland produced enough food, flax, and wool to feed and clothe double its nine million people.110 When Ireland had experienced a famine in 1782–83, ports were closed to keep Irish-grown food in Ireland to feed the Irish. Local food prices promptly dropped. Merchants lobbied against the export ban, but government in the 1780s overrode their protests. There was no such export ban in the 1840s.111 Some historians112113 In this sense the famine was artificial, caused by the British government's choice not to stop exports.110
Francis A. Boyle claimed that the government violated sections (a), (b), and (c) of Article 2 of the CPPCG and committed genocide in a formal legal opinion to the New Jersey Commission on Holocaust Education on May 2, 1996.114115 Charles E. Rice issued another formal opinion, also based on Article 2, alleging that the British had committed genocide.116
The claims were contested by Peter Gray, who concluded that UK government policy "was not a policy of deliberate genocide", but a dogmatic refusal to admit that the policy was wrong. James S. Donnelly, Jr., split the difference, writing, "while genocide was not in fact committed, what happened ... had the look of genocide to a great many Irish".117
Cecil Woodham-Smith claimed that while the export policy embittered the Irish, this did not implicate the policy in genocide, but rather in excessive parsimony obtuseness, short-sightedness, and ignorance.118
W.D. Rubinstein also rejected the genocide claim.21
The Russian Tsarist Empire waged war against Circassia in the Northwest Caucasus for more than one hundred years, trying to replace Circassia's hold along the Black Sea coast. After a century of insurgency and war and failure to end the conflict, the Tsar ordered the expulsion of most of the Muslim population of the North Caucasus. Many Circassians, Western historians, Turks and Chechens claimed that the events of the 1860s constituted one of the first modern genocides, in that a whole population was eliminated to satisfy the desires (in this case economic) of a powerful country.citation needed
Antero Leitzinger flagged the affair as the 19th century's largest genocide.120 Approximately 1-1.5 million Circassians were killed and most of the Muslim population was deported. Ossete Muslims and Kabardins generally did not leave. The modern Circassians and Abazins descend from those who managed to escape the onslaught and later returned another 1.5 million Circassians and others. This effectively annihilated (or deported) 90% of the nation.121 Tsarist documents recorded more than 400,000 Circassians killed, 497,000 forced to flee and only 80,000 were left in their native area.122 Circassians were viewed as tools by the Ottoman government, and settled in restive areas whose populations had nationalist yearnings- Armenia, the Arab regions and the Balkans. Many more Circassians were killed by the policies of the Balkan states, primarily Serbia and Bulgaria, which became independent at that time.citation needed Still more Circassians were forcefully assimilated by nationalist Muslim states (Turkey, Syria, Iraq, etc.) who looked upon non-Turk/Arab ethnicity as a foreign presence and a threat.
In May 1994, the then Russian President Boris Yeltsin admitted that resistance to the tsarist forces was legitimate, but he did not recognize "the guilt of the tsarist government for the genocide."122 In 1997 and 1998, the leaders of Kabardino-Balkaria and of Adygea sent appeals to the Duma to reconsider the situation and to apologize, without response. In October 2006, the Adygeyan public organizations of Russia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, the USA, Belgium, Canada and Germany sent the president of the European Parliament a letter with a request to recognize the genocide.citation needed
On 5 July 2005 the Circassian Congress, an organisation that unites representatives of the various Circassian peoples in the Russian Federation, called on Moscow to acknowledge and apologize for the genocide.123
In 1915, during World War I, the concept of crimes against humanity was introduced into international relations for the first time when the Allied Powers sent a letter to the government of the Ottoman Empire, a member of the Central Powers, protesting massacres that were taking place within the Empire.124
On May 24, 1915, the Allied Powers (Britain, France, and Russia) jointly issued a statement that for the first time ever explicitly charged a government with committing a "crime against humanity" in reference to that regime's persecution of its Christian minorities, including Armenians, Assyrians and Greeks.125 Many researchers consider these events to be part of the policy of planned ethnoreligious purification of the Turkish state advanced by the Young Turks.126 127128129130
This joint statement stated, "[i]n view of these new crimes of Turkey against humanity and civilization, the Allied Governments announce publicly to the Sublime Porte that they will hold personally responsible for these crimes all members of the Ottoman Government, as well as those of their agents who are implicated in such massacres."124
The Armenian Genocide (Armenian: Հայոց Ցեղասպանություն, translit.: Hayots’ Ts’eġaspanout’youn; Turkish: Ermeni Soykırımı and Ermeni Kıyımı) refers to the deliberate and systematic destruction of the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire during and just after World War I. It was implemented through wholesale massacres and deportations, with the deportations consisting of forced marches under conditions designed to lead to the death of the deportees. The total number of resulting deaths is generally held to have been between one and one and a half million.131
The genocide began April 24, 1915, when Ottoman authorities arrested some 250 Armenian intellectuals and community leaders in Constantinople. Thereafter, the Ottoman military uprooted Armenians from their homes and forced them to march for hundreds of miles, without food and water, to the desert of what is now Syria. Massacres ignored age and gender, with rape and other sexual abuse commonplace.132 The majority of Armenian diaspora communities were founded as a result of these events. Mass killings continued under the Republic of Turkey during the Turkish–Armenian War phase of Turkish War of Independence.133
Modern Turkey succeeded the Ottoman Empire in 1923 and vehemently denies that a genocide took place. It has resisted calls in recent years by scholars, countries and international organizations to acknowledge the crime. It is the second most-studied case of genocide after the Holocaust. Lemkin coined "genocide" to describe these events.
The Assyrian Genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo; Aramaic: ܩܛܠܐ ܕܥܡܐ ܐܬܘܪܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ, Turkish: Süryani Soykırımı) was committed against the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire during the First World War by the Young Turks.134 The Assyrian population of northern Mesopotamia (Tur Abdin, Hakkari, Van, Siirt region in modern-day southeastern Turkey and Urmia region in northwestern Iran) was forcibly relocated and massacred by Ottoman (Turkish and allied Kurdish) forces between 1914 and 1920.135 This genocide paralleled the Armenian Genocide and Greek genocide.136137 The Assyro-Chaldean National Council stated in a December 4, 1922, memorandum that the total death toll is unknown, but it estimated that about 750,000 Assyrians died between 1914–18.138
The Greek genocide139 refers to the fate of the Greek population of the Ottoman Empire during and in the aftermath of World War I (1914–18). Like Armenians and Assyrians, the Greeks were subjected to various forms of persecution including massacres, expulsions, and death marches by Young Turks.140137 Mass killing of Greeks continued under the Republic of Turkey during the Greco-Turkish War phase of Turkish War of Independence.141 George W. Rendel of the British Foreign Office, among other diplomats, noted the massacres and deportations of Greeks during the post-Armistice period.142 They killed an estimate of 348,000 Anatolian Greeks.143
The Dersim massacre refers to the depopulation of Dersim in Turkish Kurdistan, in 1937–38, in which approximately 65,000–70,000 Alevi Kurds144 were killed and thousands were driven into exile. A key component of the Turkification process was a policy of massive population resettlement. The main document, the 1934 Law on Resettlement, was used to target the region of Dersim as one of its first test cases, with disastrous consequences for the local population.145
Many Kurds and some ethnic Turks consider the events that took place in Dersim to constitute genocide. A prominent proponent of this view is İsmail Beşikçi.146 Under international laws, the actions of the Turkish authorities were arguably not genocide, because they were not aimed at the extermination of a people, but at resettlement and suppression.147 A Turkish court ruled in 2011 that the events could not be considered genocide because they were not directed systematically against an ethnic group.148 Scholars such as Martin van Bruinessen, have instead talked of an ethnocide directed against the local language and identity.147
Multiple documented instances of unnatural mass death occurred in the Soviet Union. These include Union-wide famines in the early 1920s and early 1930s and deportations of ethnic minorities.
Soviet diplomatic efforts removed the extermination of political groups from the United Nations Convention on Genocide. This left many of the Soviet atrocities outside the United Nations definition of genocide, because the atrocities targeted political or economic groups rather than the ethnic, racial, religious, or national groups listed in the UN convention.
- Nicolas Werth, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Panné, Jean-Louis Margolin, Andrzej Paczkowski, Stéphane Courtois. The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-674-07608-7 pp. 8–9
- Orlando Figes (1997). A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution, 1891–1924. Pimlico. p. 660. ISBN 978-0-7126-7327-3.
- Donald Rayfield (2004). Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those who Killed for Him. Random House. p. 83. ISBN 978-0-375-50632-1.
- 150 The most reliable estimates indicate that out of a population of three million, between 300,000 and 500,000 were killed or deported in 1919–20.151
During the Soviet famine of 1932–33 that affected Ukraine, Kazakhstan and some densely populated regions of Russia, the scale of death in Ukraine is referred to as the Holodomor and is recognized as genocide by the governments of Australia, Argentina, Georgia, Estonia, Italy, Canada, Lithuania, Poland, the USA and Hungary. The famine was caused by the confiscation of the whole 1933 harvest in Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the Kuban (a densely populated Ukrainian region), and some other parts of the Soviet Union, leaving the peasants too little to feed themselves. As a result, an estimated ten million died, including over seven million in Ukraine, one million in the North Caucasus and one million elsewhere.152 American historian Timothy Snyder wrote of "3.3 million Soviet citizens (mostly Ukrainians) deliberately starved by their own government in Soviet Ukraine in 1932–1933"153
In addition to the requisitioning of crops in Ukraine, all food was confiscated by Soviet authorities. Any and all aid and food was prohibited from entering the Ukrainian republic. Ukraine's Yuschenko administration recognised the Holodomor as an act of genocide and pushed international governments to acknowledge this.154 This move was opposed by the Russian government and some Russophile members of the Ukrainian parliament. A Ukrainian court found Joseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav Kosior, Pavel Postyshev, Vlas Chubar and Mendel Khatayevich guilty of genocide on 13 January 2010.155156 As of 2010, the Russian government's official position was that the famine took place, but was not an ethnic genocide;154 former Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych supported this position.157158 A ruling of January 13, 2010 by Kyiv's Court of Appeal declared the Soviet leaders guilty of 'genocide against the Ukrainian national group in 1932–33 through the artificial creation of living conditions intended for its partial physical destruction.'"159
A few scholars argued that the killing, on the basis of nationality and politics, of more than 120,000 ethnic Poles in the Soviet Union during 1937–38 was genocide.160
On February 26, 2004 the plenary assembly of the European Parliament recognized the deportation of Chechen people during Operation Lentil (23 February 1944), as an act of genocide, on the basis of the 1907 IV Hague Convention: The Laws and Customs of War on Land and the CPPCG.161
The event began on 23 February 1944, when the entire population of Checheno-Ingushetia was summoned to local party buildings where they were told they were to be deported as punishment for their alleged collaboration with the Germans. The inhabitants were rounded up and imprisoned in Studebaker trucks and sent to Siberia.162 Many times, resistance was met with slaughter, and in one such instance, in the aul of Khaibakh, about 700 people were locked in a barn and burned to death. By the next summer, Checheno-Ingushetia was dissolved; a number of Chechen and Ingush placenames were replaced with Russian ones; mosques and graveyards were destroyed, and a massive campaign to burn numerous historical Chechen texts was nearly complete.Gammer 2006, p. 182
- Jaimoukha 2004, p. 212 Throughout the North Caucasus, about 700,000 (according to Dalkhat Ediev, 724297,163 of which the majority, 412,548, were Chechens, along with 96,327 Ingush, 104,146 Kalmyks, 39,407 Balkars and 71,869 Karachais). Many died on the trip, of exposure in Siberia's extremely harsh environment. The NKVD, supplying the Russian perspective, gives the statistic of 144,704 killed in 1944–1948 alone (with a death rate of 23.5% for all groups). Estimates for Chechen deaths alone (excluding the NKVD statistic), range from about 170,000 to 200,000,164165 thus ranging from over a third of the total Chechen population to nearly half being killed (of those that were deported, not counting those killed on the spot) in those 4 years alone. Both the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria and the European Union Parliament marked it as genocide in 2004.166
The mass deportations of up to 17,500 Lithuanians, 17,000 Latvians and 6,000 Estonians carried out by Stalin were allegedly the start of another genocide. Added to the killing of the Forest Brethren and the renewed Dekulakization that followed the Soviet reconquest of the Baltic states at the end of World War Two, the total number deported to Siberia was 118,559 from Lithuania, 52,541 from Latvia, and 32,540 from Estonia.167 The high death rate of deportees during the first few years of exile, caused by the failure of Soviet authorities to provide suitable clothing and housing at the destination, led some sources to label the affair an act of genocide.168 Based on the Martens Clause and the principles of the Nuremberg Charter, the European Court of Human Rights held that the March deportation constituted a crime against humanity.169170 According to Erwin Oberlander, these deportations are a crime against humanity, rather than genocide.171
Lithuania began trials for genocide in 1997. Latvia and Estonia followed in 1998.172 Latvia has since convicted four security officers and in 2003 sentenced a former KGB agent to five years. Estonia tried and convicted ten men and is investigating others. In Lithuania by 2004 23 cases were before the courts, but as of the end of the year none had been convicted.173
In 2007 Estonia charged Arnold Meri (then 88 years old), a former Soviet Communist Party official and highly decorated former Red Army soldier, with genocide. Shortly after the trial opened, it was suspended because of Meri's frail health and then abandoned when he died.174175 A memorial in Vilnius, Lithuania, is dedicated to genocidal victims of Stalin and Hitler,176 and the Museum of Genocide Victims in Lithuania, which opened on 14 October 1992 in the former KGB headquarters, chronicles the imprisonment and deportation of Lithuanians.177
During the Nanking Massacre in the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese engaged in mass killings against the Chinese. Bradley Campbell described the Nanking Massacre as a genocide, because the Chinese were unilaterally killed by the Japanese en masse during the aftermath, despite the successful and certain outcome of their battle.178
The Nazi Holocaust is universally recognized as genocide. The term appeared in the indictment of 24 German leaders. Count three of the indictment stated that all the defendants had "conducted deliberate and systematic genocide – namely, the extermination of racial and national groups…"179
The term "the Holocaust" (from the Greek hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") is generally used to describe the killing of approximately six million European Jews, as part of a program of deliberate extermination planned and executed by the National Socialist German Workers Party in Germany led by Adolf Hitler.180181 A majority of scholars do not include other groups in the definition of the Holocaust, reserving the term to refer only to the genocide of the Jews,182
- The Holocaust: Definition and Preliminary Discussion, Yad Vashem, "The Holocaust, as presented in this resource center, is defined as the sum total of all anti-Jewish actions carried out by the German regime between 1933 and 1945: from stripping the German Jews of their legal and economic status in the 1930s, to segregating and starving Jews in the various occupied countries, to the murder of close to six million Jews in Europe. The Holocaust is part of a broader aggregate of acts of oppression and murder of various ethnic and political groups in Europe by the Germans."
- 180183184185186 or what the Germans called the "Final Solution of the Jewish Question."
However, some scholars include Germany's genocide of other groups, including Slavs, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Serbs, Czechoslovaks, and others), mentally ill (see T-4 Euthanasia Program), homosexuals and "sexual deviants", people with disabilities, Jehovah's Witnesses, Romani (see Porajmos), Communists, Soviet prisoners of war, and other political and religious opponents, which occurred regardless of ethnic origin as part of the Holocast.187 Using this definition, the total number of Holocaust victims is between 11 million and 17 million people. Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition, including Soviet civilian deaths, would produce a death toll of 17 million. Overall, about 5.7 million (78 percent) of the 7.3 million Jews in occupied Europe perished.188 This was in contrast to the five to 11 million (1.4 percent to 3.0 percent) of the 360 million non-Jews in German-dominated Europe.189190
The Holocaust was accomplished in stages. Legislation to remove the Jews from civil society was enacted years before the outbreak of World War II. Concentration camps were established in which inmates were used as slave laborers until they died. Where the Third Reich conquered new territory in eastern Europe, specialized units called Einsatzgruppen murdered Jews and political opponents in mass shootings.191 Jews and Romani were crammed into ghettos before being transported in box cars by freight train to extermination camps where, if they survived the journey, the majority were killed in gas chambers. Every arm of Germany's bureaucracy was involved in the logistics of the mass murder, turning the country into what one Holocaust scholar has called "a genocidal nation."192
Rummel estimated that 16,315,000 people died as a result of genocide, just over 10.5 million Slavs, just under 5.3 million Jews, 258,000 Romani and 220,000 homosexuals.193 Donald Niewyk suggests that the broadest definition would produce a death toll of 17 million.194 A figure of 26 million is given in Service d'Information des Crimes de Guerre: Crimes contre la Personne Humain, Camps de Concentration. Paris, 1946, p. 197. Jones argued that the German killing of 2.8 million Soviet POWs in eight months in 1941-2 was an act of "gendercide" (since only men were killed) and that it "vies with the genocide in Rwanda as the most concentrated mass killing in human history."195
In the longer term,196 the Germans wanted to exterminate some 30–45 million Slavs.197 Roger Chickering alleged, "Had the Germans won the war, they would have undertaken the largest genocide in history."198 Some historians speak of the siege of Leningrad operations as genocide, as a "racially motivated starvation policy" became an integral part of the German strategy.199 Dieter Pohl estimated the total death toll of Nazi genocide and other mass murder at 12 to 14 million.200 Pohl's estimate did not include the siege of Leningrad.
In 1995 a paper published by the Russian Academy of Science M. V. Philimoshin put the civilian death toll in the regions occupied by Germany at 13.7 million. Philimoshin cited sources from Soviet era to support his figures, he used the terms "genocide" and "premeditated extermination" when referring to deaths of 7.4 million civilians in the occupied USSR caused by the direct, intentional actions of violence. Civilians killed in reprisals during the Soviet partisan war account for a major part of the huge toll.201 The report of Philimoshin lists the deaths of civilian forced laborers in Germany totaling 2,164,313. G. I. Krivosheev in the report on military casualties gives a total of 1,103,300 POW dead. The total of these two figures is 3,267,613, which is in close agreement with estimates by western historians of about 3 million deaths of prisoners in German captivity. In the occupied regions Nazi Germany had a policy of forced confiscation of food that resulted in the famine deaths of an estimated 6% of the population, 4.1 million persons.202
|Soviet civilian war dead estimated by Russian Academy of Science203204205|
|Deaths caused by the result of direct, intentional actions of violence||7,420,379206|
|Deaths of forced laborers in Germany||2,164,313206|
|Deaths due to famine and disease in the occupied regions||4,100,000207|
After the Nazi invasion of Yugoslavia, the Nazis and fascists established the Croatian state known as the Nezavisna Država Hrvatska (Independent State of Croatia) or NDH. Immediately afterwards, the NDH began a terror campaign against Serbs, Jews and Romani people. From 1941 to 1945, when Josip Broz Tito's partisans liberated Croatia, the Ustaše regime killed approximately 300,000 to 350,000 people,208 mostly Serbs and almost the entire Jewish and Romani population, many of them in the Jasenovac concentration camp. Helen Fein estimated that the Ustaše killed virtually every Romani in the country.209 The Ustaše enacted a policy that called for a solution to the "Serbian problem" in Croatia. The solution was to "kill one-third of the Serbs, expel one-third, and convert one-third".210 According to the United States Holocaust Museum, 320,000–340,000 ethnic Serbs were murdered under Ustaše rule.211 The Yad Vashem World Holocaust Museum and Research Center concludes that "more than 500,000 Serbs were murdered in horribly sadistic ways, 250,000 were expelled, and another 200,000 were forced to convert".212 The Ustaše killed nearly 80,000 Roma and 35,000 Jews.
The massacres of Poles in Volhynia and Eastern Galicia were part of an ethnic cleansing operation carried out by the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) West in the Nazi-occupied regions of Eastern Galicia (Nazi created Distrikt Galizien in General Government), and UPA North in Volhynia (in Nazi created Reichskommissariat Ukraine), from March 1943 until the end of 1944. The peak took place in July/August 1943 when a senior UPA commander, Dmytro Klyachkivsky, ordered the liquidation of the entire male Polish population between 16 and 60 years of age.215216 Despite this, most were women and children. The UPA killed 40,000–60,000 Polish civilians in Volhynia,217 from 25,000218 to 30,000–40,000 in Eastern Galicia.217 The killings were directly linked with the policies of the Bandera fraction of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, whose goal, specified at the Second Conference of the OUN-B, was to remove non-Ukrainians from a future Ukrainian state.219
The massacres are recognized in Poland as ethnic cleansing with "marks of genocide."220 According to IPN prosecutor Piotr Zając, the crimes have a "character of genocide".221 However, according to Katchanovski, the actions in Volhynia lacked evidence of an intent to eliminate all or part of the Polish population, and the anti-Polish action was mostly limited to a small region.
After WWII ended at least 12 million222223224 Germans migrated from other countries to Germany, the largest transfer of a single ethnic population in modern history.222223 Estimates of the total number of dead range from 500,000 to 2,000,000, where the higher figures include "unsolved cases" of persons reported as missing and presumed dead. Many German civilians were sent to internment and labor camps. Rummel estimated that 1,585,000 Germans were killed in Poland and 197,000 were killed in Czechoslovakia.225 The German-Czech Historians Commission, on the other hand, established a death toll for Czechoslovakia of 15-30,000.226 The events are usually classified as population transfer,227228 or as ethnic cleansing.229230231
In 1937, Dominican dictator Rafael Trujillo ordered the execution of Haitians living in the Dominican Republic. The Parsley Massacre, known in the Dominican Republic as "El Corte" (the Cutting), lasted approximately five days. Trujillo had his soldiers show parsley to suspected Haitians and ask, "What is this?" Spanish-speaking Dominicans would be able to pronounce the Spanish word for parsley ("perejil") perfectly. In Haitian Creole, the word for parsley is "persil". Those who mispronounced "perejil" were assumed to be Haitian and slaughtered. The program resulted in the deaths of 20,000 to 30,000 people.235
The Kuomintang's Republic of China government supported Muslim warlord Ma Bufang when he launched seven expeditions into Golog, causing the deaths of thousands of Tibetans.236 Uradyn Erden Bulag called the events that followed genocidal, while David Goodman called them ethnic cleansing. One Tibetan counted the number of times Ma attacked him, remembering the seventh attack that made life impossible.237 Ma was anti-communist and he and his army wiped out many Tibetans in northeast and eastern Qinghai and destroyed Tibetan Buddhist Temples.238239 Ma also patronized the Panchen Lama, who was exiled from Tibet by the Dalai Lama's government.
The CPPCG was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1948 and came into effect on 12 January 1951 (Resolution 260 (III)). After the necessary 20 countries became parties to the Convention, it came into force as international law on 12 January 1951. At that time however, only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the treaty, which caused the Convention to languish for over four decades.
Sir Ronald Wilson was once the president of Australia's Human Rights Commission. He stated that Australia's program in which 20-25,000 Aboriginal children were forcibly separated from their natural families240 was genocide, because it was intended to cause the Aboriginal people to die out. The program ran from 1900 to 1969.241 The nature and extent of the removals have been disputed within Australia, with opponents questioning the findings contained in the Commission report and asserting that the size of the Stolen Generation had been exaggerated. The intent and effects of the government policy were also disputed.240
In 1964, towards the end of the Zanzibar Revolution—which led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries—John Okello claimed in radio speeches to have killed or imprisoned tens of thousands of the Sultan's "enemies and stooges,"242 but estimates of the number of deaths vary greatly, from "hundreds" to 20,000. The New York Times and other Western newspapers gave figures of 2-4,000;243244 the higher numbers possibly were inflated by Okello's own broadcasts and exaggerated media reports.242245246 The killing of Arab prisoners and their burial in mass graves was documented by an Italian film crew, filming from a helicopter, in Africa Addio.247 Many Arabs fled to safety in Oman245 and by Okello's order no Europeans were harmed.248 The violence did not spread to Pemba.246 Leo Kuper described the killing of Arabs in Zanzibar as genocide.249
During the Guatemalan civil war, some 200,000 died. More than one million fled their homes and hundreds of villages were destroyed. The officially chartered Historical Clarification Commission attributed more than 93% of all documented human rights violations to Guatemala's military government; and estimated that Maya Indians accounted for 83% of the victims. It concluded in 1999 that state actions constituted genocide.250
In 1999, Nobel peace prize winner Rigoberta Menchú brought a case against the military leadership in a Spanish Court. Six officials, among them Efraín Ríos Montt and Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores, were formally charged on 7 July 2006 to appear in the Spanish National Court after Spain's Constitutional Court ruled in 2005 that Spanish courts could exercise universal jurisdiction over war crimes committed during the Guatemalan Civil War.251 In May 2013, Rios Montt was found guilty of genocide for killing 1,700 indigenous Ixil Mayans during 1982–83 by a Guatemalan court and sentenced to 80 years in prison.252
An academic consensus holds that the events that took place during the Bangladesh Liberation War constituted genocide.253 During the nine-month long conflict an estimated 3 million people were killed and that Pakistani armed forces raped between 200-400,000 Bangladeshi women and girls in an act of genocidal rape.254
According to Sarmila Bose, 50-100,000 combatants and civilians were killed by both sides.255unreliable source? Bose's work and methodology were heavily critiqued.256 A 2008 study estimated that up to 269,000 civilians died in the conflict; the authors noted that this is far higher than two earlier estimates.257 According to Serajur Rahman, the official Bangladeshi estimate of "3 lahks" (300,000) was wrongly translated into English as 3 million.258unreliable source?
A case was filed in the Federal Court of Australia on 20 September 2006 for alleged war crimes, crimes against humanity and genocide during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators:259
|“||We are glad to announce that a case has been filed in the Federal Magistrate's Court of Australia today under the Genocide Conventions Act 1949 and War Crimes Act. This is the first time in history that someone is attending a court proceeding in relation to the [alleged] crimes of Genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity during 1971 by the Pakistani Armed Forces and its collaborators. The Proceeding number is SYG 2672 of 2006. On 25 October 2006, a direction hearing will take place in the Federal Magistrates Court of Australia, Sydney registry before Federal Magistrate His Honor Nicholls.||”|
On 21 May 2007, at the request of the applicant the case was discontinued.260
After Burundi's independence in 1962, two events were called genocide. The 1972 mass-killings of Hutu by the Tutsi army261 and the 1993 killing of Tutsi by the Hutu population that is recognised as an act of genocide in the final report of the International Commission of Inquiry for Burundi presented to the United Nations Security Council in 2002.262
Several million in North Korea have died of starvation since the mid-1990s, with aid groups and human rights NGOs stating often that North Korea has systematically and deliberately prevented food aid from reaching the areas most devastated by food shortages.263 A further one million have died in North Korea's political prison camps that detain dissidents and their entire families, including children, for perceived political offences.264
In 2004, Yad Vashem called on the international community to investigate "political genocide" in North Korea.264
In September 2011, a Harvard International Review article argued that North Korea was violating the UN Genocide Convention by its systematic killing of half-Chinese babies and members of religious groups.265 North Korea's Christian population, which included 25–30% of the inhabitants of Pyongyang and was considered to be the center of Christianity in East Asia in 1945, has been systematically massacred and persecuted; as of 2012 50,000–70,000 Christians were imprisoned in North Korea’s concentration camps.266
Francisco Macías Nguema was the first President of Equatorial Guinea, from 1968 until his overthrow in 1979.267 During his presidency, his country was nicknamed "the Auschwitz of Africa". Nguema's regime was characterized by its abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; he acted as chief judge and sentenced thousands to death. This led to the death or exile of up to 1/3 of the country's population. From a population of 300,000, an estimated 80,000 had been killed, in particular those of the Bubi ethnic minority on Bioko associated with relative wealth and education.268 Uneasy around educated people, he had killed everyone who wore spectacles. All schools were ordered closed in 1975. The economy collapsed and skilled citizens and foreigners emigrated.269
On August 3, 1979, he was overthrown by Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.270 Macías Nguema was captured and tried for genocide and other crimes along with 10 others. All were found guilty, four received terms of imprisonment and Nguema and the other six were executed on September 29.271
John B. Quigley noted at Macías Nguema's trial that Equatorial Guinea had not ratified the Genocide convention and that records of the court proceedings show that there was some confusion over whether Nguema and his co-defendants were tried under the laws of Spain (the former colonial government) or whether the trial was justified on the claim that the Genocide Convention was part of customary international law. Quigley stated, "The Macias case stands out as the most confusing of domestic genocide prosecutions from the standpoint of the applicable law. The Macias conviction is also problematic from the standpoint of the identity of the protected group."272
East Timor was occupied by Indonesia from 1975 to 1999 as an annexed territory with provincial status. A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a lower range of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 excess deaths from hunger and illness, including the Indonesian military using "starvation as a weapon to exterminate the East Timorese",273 most of which occurred during the Indonesian occupation.274275 Earlier estimates of deaths during the occupation ranged from 60,000 to 200,000.276
According to Sian Powell a UN report confirmed that the Indonesian military used starvation as a weapon and employed Napalm and chemical weapons, which poisoned the food and water supply.275 Ben Kiernan wrote:
the crimes committed ... in East Timor, with a toll of 150,000 in a population of 650,000, clearly meet a range of sociological definitions of genocide ...[with] both political and ethnic groups as possible victims of genocide. The victims in East Timor included not only that substantial 'part' of the Timorese 'national group' targeted for destruction because of their resistance to Indonesian annexation...but also most members of the twenty-thousand strong ethnic Chinese minority.277
An estimated 100,000+ Papuans have died since Indonesia took control of West New Guinea from the Dutch Government in 1963.278 An academic report alleged that "contemporary evidence set out [in this report] suggests that the Indonesian government has committed proscribed acts with the intent to destroy the West Papuans as such, in violation of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide and the customary international law prohibition this Convention embodies".279
The communist Pathet Lao overthrew the royalist government of Laos in December 1975, establishing the Lao People's Democratic Republic.280 The conflict between Hmong rebels and the Pathet Lao continued in isolated pockets. The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization accused the government of Laos in collaboration with Vietnam of committing genocide against the Hmong,281 with up to 100,000 killed out of a population of 400,000.282 283
In September 2006, Miguel Osvaldo Etchecolatz, who had been the police commissioner of the province of Buenos Aires during the Dirty War (1976–1983), was found guilty of six counts of murder, six counts of unlawful imprisonment and seven counts of torture in a federal court. The judge who presided over the case, Carlos Rozanski, described the offences as part of a systematic attack that was intended to destroy parts of society that the victims represented and as such was genocide. Rozanski noted that CPPCG does not include the elimination of political groups (because that group was removed at the behest of Stalin), but instead based his findings on 11 December 1946 United Nations General Assembly Resolution 96 barring acts of genocide "when racial, religious, political and other groups have been destroyed, entirely or in part" (which passed unanimously), because he considered the original UN definition to be more legitimate than the politically compromised CPPCG definition.284
Ethiopia's former Soviet-backed Marxist dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was tried in an Ethiopian court, in absentia, for his role in mass killings. Mengistu's charge sheet and evidence list covered 8,000 pages. The evidence against him included signed execution orders, videos of torture sessions and personal testimonies.285 The trial began in 1994 and on 12 December 2006 Mengistu was found guilty of genocide and other offences. He was sentenced to life in prison in January 2007.286287 Ethiopian law includes attempts to annihilate political groups in its definition of genocide.288 106 Derg officials were accused of genocide during the trials, but only 36 of them were present. Several former Derg members have been sentenced to death.289 Zimbabwe refused to respond to Ethiopia's extradition request for Mengistu, which permitted him to avoid a life sentence. Mengistu supported Robert Mugabe, the long-standing President of Zimbabwe, during his leadership of Ethiopia.290
“The biggest problem with prosecuting Mengistu for genocide is that his actions did not necessarily target a particular group. They were directed against anybody who was opposing his government, and they were generally much more political than based on any ethnic targeting. In contrast, the irony is the Ethiopian government itself has been accused of genocide based on atrocities committed in Gambella. I’m not sure that they qualify as genocide either. But in Gambella, the incidents, which were well documented in a human rights report of about 2 years ago, were clearly directed at a particular group, the tribal group, the Anuak.”
An estimated 150,000 university students, intellectuals and politicians were killed during Mengistu's rule.292 Amnesty International estimates that up to 500,000 people were killed during the Ethiopian Red Terror293 Human Rights Watch described the Red Terror as "one of the most systematic uses of mass murder by a state ever witnessed in Africa."285 During his reign it was not uncommon to see students, suspected government critics or rebel sympathisers hanging from lampposts. Mengistu himself is alleged to have murdered opponents by garroting or shooting them, saying that he was leading by example.294
- See also 1988 Anfal campaign
On December 23, 2005 a Dutch court ruled in a case brought against Frans van Anraat for supplying chemicals to Iraq, that "[it] thinks and considers it legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets the requirement under the genocide conventions as an ethnic group. The court has no other conclusion than that these attacks were committed with the intent to destroy the Kurdish population of Iraq." Because van Anraat supplied the chemicals before 16 March 1988, the date of the Halabja poison gas attack he was guilty of a war crime but not guilty of complicity in genocide.295296
On 5 June 1959 Shri Purshottam Trikamdas, Senior Advocate, Supreme Court of India, presented a report on Tibet to the International Commission of Jurists (an NGO). The press conference address on the report states in paragraph 26:
|“||From the facts stated above the following conclusions may be drawn: ... (e) To examine all such evidence obtained by this Committee and from other sources and to take appropriate action thereon and in particular to determine whether the crime of Genocide – for which already there is strong presumption – is established and, in that case, to initiate such action as envisaged by the Genocide Convention of 1948 and by the Charter of the United Nations for suppression of these acts and appropriate redress;297||”|
The report of the International Commission of Jurists (1960) claimed that there was 'only' "cultural" genocide. ICJ Report (1960) page 346: "The committee found that acts of genocide had been committed in Tibet in an attempt to destroy the Tibetans as a religious group, and that such acts are acts of genocide independently of any conventional obligation. The committee did not find that there was sufficient proof of the destruction of Tibetans as a race, nation or ethnic group as such by methods that can be regarded as genocide in international law".
The Central Tibetan Administration and other Tibetan in exile media claimed that approximately 1.2 million Tibetans have died of starvation, violence, or other indirect causes since 1950.300 White states "In all, over one million Tibetans, a fifth of the population, had died as a result of Chinese occupation up until the end of the Cultural Revolution."301
Jones argued that the struggle sessions after the 1959 Tibetan uprising may be considered genocide, based on the claim that the conflict resulted in 92,000 deaths.302 However, according to tibetologist Tom Grunfeld, "the veracity of such a claim is difficult to verify."303
The Helmet Massacre of the Tikuna people took place in 1988 and was initially treated as homicide. During the massacre four people died, nineteen were wounded, and ten disappeared. Since 1994 the episode has been treated by Brazilian courts as genocide. Thirteen men were convicted of genocide in 2001. In November 2004, after an appeal was filed before Brazil's federal court, the man initially found guilty of hiring men to carry out the genocide was acquitted, and the killers had their initial sentences of 15–25 years reduced to 12 years.305
In November 2005 during an investigation code-named Operation Rio Pardo, Mario Lucio Avelar, a Brazilian public prosecutor in Cuiabá, told Survival International that he believed that there were sufficient grounds to prosecute for genocide of the Rio Pardo Indians. In November 2006 twenty-nine people were arrested with others implicated, such as a former police commander and the governor of Mato Grosso state.306
In 2006 the [Brazilian] Supreme Federal Court (STF) unanimously reaffirmed that the crime known as the Haximu Massacre [perpetrated on the Yanomami Indians in 1993]307 was a genocide and that the decision of a federal court to sentence miners to 19 years in prison for genocide in connection with other offenses, such as smuggling and illegal mining, was valid.307308
During the Congo Civil War (1998–2003), Pygmies were hunted down and eaten by both sides in the conflict, who regarded them as subhuman.309 Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti pygmies, asked the UN Security Council to recognize cannibalism as a crime against humanity and also as an act of genocide.310 Minority Rights Group International reported evidence of mass killings, cannibalism and rape. The report, which labeled these events as a campaign of extermination, linked the violence to beliefs about special powers held by the Bambuti.311 In Ituri district, rebel forces ran an operation code-named "Effacer le tableau" (to wipe the slate clean). The aim of the operation, according to witnesses, was to rid the forest of pygmies.312
In 2010 a report accused Rwanda's Tutsi-led army of committing genocide against ethnic Hutus. The report accused the Rwandan Army and allied Congolese rebels of killing tens of thousands of ethnic Hutu refugees from Rwanda and locals in systematic attacks between 1996 and 1997. The government of Rwanda rejected the accusation.313
In 2007 attacks on Somalia's Bantu population and Jubba Valley dwellers from 1991 onwards were reported, noting that "Somalia is a rare case in which genocidal acts were carried out by militias in the utter absence of a governing state structure."|314
The Sri Lankan military were accused of human rights violations during Sri Lanka's 26-year civil war.315 A United Nation's Panel of Experts looking into these alleged violations found "credible allegations, which if proven, indicate that serious violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law were committed both by the Government of Sri Lanka and the LTTE, some of which would amount to war crimes and crimes against humanity".316 Some activists and politicians also accused the Sri Lankan government of carrying out genocide against the minority Sri Lankan Tamil people during and after the war.
Bruce Fein alleged that Sri Lanka's leaders committed genocide,317 along with Tamil Parliamentarian Suresh Premachandran.318 Refugees escaping Sri Lanka also stated that they fled from genocide,319 and various Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora groups echoed these accusations.320
In 2009 thousands of Tamils protested in cities all over the world against the atrocities.321 Various diaspora activists formed a group called Tamils Against Genocide to continue the protest.322 Legal action against Sri Lankan leaders for alleged genocide has been initiated. Norwegian human rights lawyer Harald Stabell filed a case in Norwegian courts against Sri Lankan President Rajapaksa and others officials.323
Politicians in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu also made genocide accusations.324 In 2008 and 2009 the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu M. Karunanidhi repeatedly appealed to the Indian government to intervene to "stop the genocide of Tamils",325 while his successor J. Jayalalithaa called on the Indian government to bring Rajapaksa before international courts for genocide.326 The women's wing of the Communist Party of India, passed a resolution in August 2012 finding that "Systematic sexual violence against Tamil women" by Sri Lankan forces constituted genocide, calling for an "independent international investigation".327
In January 2010 a Permanent Peoples' Tribunal (PPT) held in Dublin, Ireland found Sri Lanka guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity, but found insufficient evidence to justify the charge of genocide.328329 The tribunal requested a thorough investigation as some of the evidence indicated "possible acts of genocide".328 Its panel found Sri Lanka guilty of genocide at its December 7–10, 2013 hearings in Berman, Germany. It also found that the US and UK were guilty of complicity. A decision on whether India, and other states, had also acted in complicity was withheld. PPT reported that LTTE could not be accurately characterized as "terrorist", stating that movements classified as “terrorist” because of their rebellion against a state, can become political entities recognized by the international community.330331 The International Commission of Jurists stated that the camps used to intern nearly 300,000 Tamils after the war's end may have breached the convention against genocide.332
The Sri Lankan government denied the allegations of genocide and war crimes.333
In July 1995 Serbian forces killed more than 8,000334335 Bosniaks (Bosnian Muslims), mainly men and boys, in and around the town of Srebrenica during the Bosnian War. The killing was perpetrated by units of the Army of Republika Srpska (VRS) under the command of General Ratko Mladić. The Secretary-General of the United Nations described the mass murder as the worst crime on European soil since the Second World War.336337 A paramilitary unit from Serbia known as the Scorpions, officially part of the Serbian Interior Ministry until 1991, participated in the massacre,338339 along with several hundred Russian and Greek volunteers.340
In 1951 only two of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council (UNSC) were parties to the CPPCG: France and the Republic of China. The CPPCG was ratified by the Soviet Union in 1954, the United Kingdom in 1970, the People's Republic of China in 1983 (having replaced the Taiwan-based Republic of China on the UNSC in 1971), and the United States in 1988. In the 1990s the international law on the crime of genocide began to be enforced.
In 2001 the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) delivered its first conviction for the crime of genocide, against General Krstić for his role in the 1994 Srebrenica Genocide.341 This judgement was upheld by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in its February 2007 ruling in the case of Bosnia vs Serbia. However, contrary to the claim made by Bosnia, the ICJ did not find that genocide had been committed on the wider territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina during the war, limiting the charge to Srebrenica and Žepa. The ICJ also ruled that Serbia was not responsible for the genocide nor for "aiding and abetting it", although it ruled that Serbia could have done more to prevent the genocide and that Serbia failed to punish the perpetrators.342 Before this ruling the term Bosnian Genocide had been used by some academics.343 and human rights officials.344
In 2010, Vujadin Popović, Lieutenant Colonel and the Chief of Security of the Drina Corps of the Bosnian Serb Army, and Ljubiša Beara, Colonel and Chief of Security of the same army, were convicted of genocide, extermination, murder and persecution by the ICTY for their role in the Srebrenice massacre and sentenced to a life in prison.345
German courts handed down convictions for genocide during the Bosnian War. Novislav Djajic was indicted for participation in genocide, but the Higher Regional Court failed to find that there was sufficient certainty for a criminal conviction for genocide. Nevertheless Djajic was found guilty of 14 cases of murder and one case of attempted murder.346 At Djajic's appeal on 23 May 1997, the Bavarian Appeals Chamber found that acts of genocide were committed in June 1992, confined within the administrative district of Foca.347 The Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf, in September 1997, handed down a genocide conviction against Nikola Jorgic, a Bosnian Serb from the Doboj region who was the leader of a paramilitary group located in the Doboj region. He was sentenced to four terms of life imprisonment for his involvement in genocidal actions that took place in regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina, other than Srebrenica;348 and "On 29 November 1999, the Higher Regional Court (Oberlandesgericht) of Düsseldorf condemned Maksim Sokolovic to 9 years in prison for aiding and abetting the crime of genocide and for grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions".349
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide that occurred there during April and May 1994, commencing on April 6. The ICTR was created on November 8, 1994 by the UN Security Council to resolve claims in Rwanda, or by Rwandan citizens in nearby states, between January 1 and December 31, 1994. Over the course of approximately 100 days from the assassination of President Juvénal Habyarimana on April 6 through mid-July, at least 800,000 people were killed, according to a Human Rights Watch estimate.
As of mid-2011, the ICTR had convicted 57 people and acquitted 8. Another ten persons were still on trial while one is awaiting trial. Nine remain at large.350 The first trial, of Jean-Paul Akayesu, ended in 1998 with his conviction for genocide and crimes against humanity.351 This was the world's first conviction for genocide, as defined by the 1948 Convention. Jean Kambanda, interim Prime Minister during the genocide, pled guilty.
The Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, Ta Mok and other leaders, organized the mass killing of ideologically suspect groups, ethnic minorities such as ethnic Vietnamese, Chinese (or Sino-Khmers), Chams and Thais, former civil servants, former government soldiers, Buddhist monks, secular intellectuals and professionals, and former city dwellers. Khmer Rouge cadres defeated in factional struggles were also liquidated in purges. Man-made famine and slave labor resulted in many hundreds of thousands of deaths.352 Craig Etcheson suggested that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching 20,000 grave sites, he concluded that "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution."353 However, some scholars argued that the Khmer Rouge were not racist and had no intention of exterminating ethnic minorities or the Cambodian people; in this view, their brutality was the product of an extreme version of communist ideology.354
On 6 June 2003 the Cambodian government and the United Nations reached an agreement to set up the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) which would focus exclusively on crimes committed by the most senior Khmer Rouge officials during the period of Khmer Rouge rule from 1975 to 1979.355 The judges were sworn in in early July 2006.356
- Kang Kek Iew was formally charged with war crimes and crimes against humanity and detained by the Tribunal on 31 July 2007. He was indicted on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 12 August 2008.358 His appeal was rejected on 3 February 2012, and he continued serving a sentence of life imprisonment.359
- Nuon Chea, a former prime minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011.360361
- Khieu Samphan, a former head of state, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 19 September 2007. His trial also began on 27 June 2011.360361
- Ieng Sary, a former foreign minister, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. He was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. His trial began on 27 June 2011.360361 He died in March 2013.
- Ieng Thirith, wife of Ieng Sary and a former minister for social affairs, was indicted on charges of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and several other crimes under Cambodian law on 15 September 2010. She was transferred into the custody of the ECCC on 12 November 2007. Proceedings against her have been suspended pending a health evaluation.361362
Some of the international jurists and the Cambodian government disagreed over whether any other people should be tried by the Tribunal.357
The ICC can prosecute only crimes committed on or after 1 July 2002.363
The on-going racial364365 conflict in Darfur, Sudan, which started in 2003, was declared genocide by United States Secretary of State Colin Powell on September 9, 2004 in testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee.366 Since that time however, no other permanent member of the UN Security Council has followed suit. In January 2005, an International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur, authorized by UN Security Council Resolution 1564 of 2004, issued a report to the Secretary-General stating that "the Government of the Sudan has not pursued a policy of genocide."367 Nevertheless, the Commission cautioned that "The conclusion that no genocidal policy has been pursued and implemented in Darfur by the Government authorities, directly or through the militias under their control, should not be taken in any way as detracting from the gravity of the crimes perpetrated in that region. International offences such as the crimes against humanity and war crimes that have been committed in Darfur may be no less serious and heinous than genocide."367
In March 2005, the Security Council formally referred the situation in Darfur to the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC), taking into account the Commission report but without mentioning any specific crimes.368 Two permanent members of the Security Council, the United States and China, abstained from the vote on the referral resolution.369 As of his fourth report to the Security Council, the Prosecutor found "reasonable grounds to believe that the individuals identified [in the UN Security Council Resolution 1593 have committed crimes against humanity and war crimes", but did not find sufficient evidence to prosecute for genocide.370
In April 2007, the Judges of the ICC issued arrest warrants against the former Minister of State for the Interior, Ahmad Harun, and a Militia Janjaweed leader, Ali Kushayb, for crimes against humanity and war crimes.371
On July 14, 2008, ICC prosecutors filed ten charges of war crimes against Sudan's President Omar al-Bashir, three counts of genocide, five of crimes against humanity and two of murder. The prosecutors claimed that al-Bashir "masterminded and implemented a plan to destroy in substantial part" three tribal groups in Darfur because of their ethnicity.372 On 4 March 2009 the ICC issued a warrant for al-Bashir's arrest for crimes against humanity and war crimes, but not genocide. This is the first warrant issued by the ICC against a sitting head of state.373
- Black genocide – the notion that African Americans have been subject to genocide
- Democide – murder by government, includes historical genocide and politicide
- Command responsibility
- Crime against humanity
- Human rights
- International humanitarian law
- International law
- Mass killings under Communist regimes
- List of genocides by death toll
- Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Note: "ethnical", although unusual, is found in several dictionaries
- "Debate continues over what constitutes genocide". Blogwatch. Worldfocus. 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2012.
- M. Hassan Kakar Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979–1982 University of California press © 1995 The Regents of the University of California.
- Chalk & Jonassohn 1990.
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- Staub, Ervin. The Roots of Evil: The Origins of Genocide and Other Group Violence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-521-42214-0.
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- Jones 2006, p. 3 footnote 5 cites Helen Fein, Genocide: A Sociological Perspective, (London: Sage, 1993), p. 26
- Jones 2006, p. 3.
- Chalk & Jonassohn 1990, p. 28.
- Jones 2006, p. 3, footnote 4.
- Jones 2006, p. 5.
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- "How genocide wiped out a Native American population ". Msnbc.com. September 20, 2010.
- Jones 2006, p. 4 note 12.
- Paul Kahn (1 January 1998). The Secret History of the Mongols: The Origin of Chinghis Khan (expanded Edition) : an Adaptation of the Yüan Chʼao Pi Shih, Based Primarily on the English Translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves. Cheng & Tsui. ISBN 978-0-88727-299-8.
- The Encyclopedia of Genocide, ABC-CLIO, 1999, page 48, article "Afghanistan, Genocide of"
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- Cooper, Allan D. (3 August 2006). "Reparations for the Herero Genocide: Defining the limits of international litigation". Oxford Journals, African Affairs 106 (422): 113–126. doi:10.1093/afraf/adl005.
- Jeremy Sarkin-Hughes (30 November 2008). Colonial Genocide and Reparations Claims in the 21st Century: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904–1908: The Socio-Legal Context of Claims under International Law by the Herero against Germany for Genocide in Namibia, 1904–1908. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-36257-6.
- Schaller 2008, p. 296
- Sara Friedrichsmeyer; Sara Lennox; Susanne Zantop (1998). The Imperialist Imagination: German Colonialism and Its Legacy. University of Michigan Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-472-06682-X.
- Marie-Aude Baronian; Stephan Besser; Yolande Jansen (2007). Diaspora and Memory: Figures of Displacement in Contemporary Literature, Arts and Politics. Rodopi. p. 33. ISBN 90-420-2129-2.
- Walter Nuhn: Sturm über Südwest. Der Hereroaufstand von 1904. Bernhard & Graefe-Verlag, Koblenz 1989. ISBN 3-7637-5852-6.
- Olusoga & Erichsen 2010, p. 150–1.
- Olusoga & Erichsen 2010, p. 151.
- Whitaker Report: Page 17, Prevent Genocide International, Retrieved 2009-05-15
- Alan Taylor (2002). American colonies; Volume 1 of The Penguin history of the United States, History of the United States Series. Penguin. p. 40. ISBN 9780142002100.
- '500 Years of Brazil's Discovery'
- Brazil urged to protect Indians
- Henige, David (1998). Numbers from nowhere: the American Indian contact population debate. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-8061-3044-X.
- Jennings, p. 83; Royal's quote
- Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge
- Maddison, Angus (2001). The world economy: a millennial perspective. OECD Publishing. p. 233. ISBN 92-64-18608-5.
- The Story of... Smallpox
- Arthur C. Aufderheide, Conrado Rodríguez-Martín, Odin Langsjoen (1998). The Cambridge encyclopedia of human paleopathology. Cambridge University Press. p.205. ISBN 0-521-55203-6
- Henderson, Donald A. et al. Smallpox as a Biological Weapon. Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA 1999, 281(22):2127–2137. doi:10.1001/jama.281.22.2127
- d'Errico, Peter. Jeffrey Amherst and Smallpox Blankets.
- David Dixon (2005). Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 152–55. ISBN 978-0-8061-3656-1.
- Michael N. McConnell (1992). A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and Its Peoples, 1724–1774. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 195–96. ISBN 0-8032-8238-9.
- Gregory Evans Dowd (27 January 2004). War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-8018-7892-3.
- William R. Nester (1 January 2000). "Haughty Conquerors": Amherst and the Great Indian Uprising of 1763. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-275-96770-3.
- Francis Jennings (1990). Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America. Norton. pp. 447–48. ISBN 978-0-393-30640-8.
- Stafford Poole, quoted in Robert Royal (1992). 1492 and all that: political manipulations of history. Ethics and Public Policy Center. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-89633-174-7.
- Staff. A review of Stannard 1993
- Noble David Cook (13 February 1998). Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650. Cambridge University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-62730-6.
- "Columbus 'sparked a genocide'". BBC News. October 12, 2003. Retrieved 2006-10-21.
- Quammen, David (2003). Monster of God: the man-eating predator in the jungles of history and the mind. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 252. ISBN 0-393-05140-4.
- Carlos A. Floria and César A. García Belsunce, 1971. Historia de los Argentinos I and II; ISBN 84-599-5081-6.page needed
- Andermann, Jens. Argentine Literature and the 'Conquest of the Desert', 1872–1896, Birkbeck, University of London. "It is this sudden acceleration, this abrupt change from the discourse of 'defensive warfare' and 'merciful civilization' to that of 'offensive warfare' and of genocide, which is perhaps the most distinctive mark of the literature of the Argentine frontier."
- David Rock (2002). State Building and Political Movements in Argentina, 1860–1916. Stanford University Press. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-0-8047-4466-9.
- "Civilización o genocidio, un debate que nunca se cierra" by Cacho Fernández – Qollasuyu Tawaintisuyu Indymedia (Spanish)
- Robins & Jones 2009.
- Robins & Jones 2009, p. 50.
- James L. Haley (1981). "Apaches: A History and Culture Portrait". University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 50–51. ISBN 0806129786
- Robins & Jones 2009, p. 1.
- David Cesarani; Sarah Kavanaugh (1 January 2004). Holocaust: Critical Concepts in Historical Studies. Psychology Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-415-27510-1.
- Michno, Gregory (2003). Encyclopedia of Indian wars: western battles and skirmishes, 1850–1890. Mountain Press Publishing. p. 353. ISBN 0-87842-468-7.
- Russell Thornton (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History Since 1492. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5.
- Arthur Grenke (1 January 2005). God, Greed, and Genocide: The Holocaust Through the Centuries. New Academia Publishing, LLC. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-9767042-0-1.
- Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232.
- Francis Paul Prucha (1 January 1995). The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. U of Nebraska Press. p. 241 note 58. ISBN 0-8032-8734-8.
- John Ehle (1988). Trials of Tears: The Rise and Fall of the Cherokee Nation. Doubleday. pp. 390–92. ISBN 978-0-385-23954-7.
- Thornton, Russel (1 June 1992). "Demography of the Trail of Tears". In William L. Anderson. Cherokee Removal: Before and After. University of Georgia Press. pp. 75–93. ISBN 978-0-8203-1482-2.
- Stannard, David: American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World: Prologue pg. x
- Stannard, David: American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World: Prologue pg. xii
- Henige, David: Numbers from Nowhere:The American Indian Contact Population Debate.Norman:University of Oklahoma Press,1998.532pp.
- William Bradford on Sickness Among the Natives (1633)
- Stannard, David: American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World:
- Fenn, Elizabeth A. Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst
- Trent, William, Journal of William Trent, 1763 from Pen Pictures of Early Western Pennsylvania, John W. Harpster, ed. (University of Pittsburgh Press, 1938), pp. 99, 103-4.
- Burke, James P., Pioneers of Second Fork (pgs. 19-22)
- Ellis, F. and Hungerford, A.N.(Editors).History of that part of the Susquehanna and Juniata Valleysembraced in the counties of Mifflin, Juniata, Perry, Union and Snyder, in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania Published 1886 by Everts, Peck & Richards in Philadelphia.
- Dixon, David, Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America (pg. 155)
- E. San Juan, Jr. (2005). "We Charge Genocide: A Brief History of US in the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2008-06-24. Retrieved 2008-07-26.
- In November 1901, the Manila correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger reported: "The present war is no bloodless, opera bouffe engagement; our men have been relentless, have killed to exterminate men, women, children, prisoners and captives, active insurgents and suspected people from lads of ten up, the idea prevailing that the Filipino as such was little better than a dog" (Howard Zinn, A People's History of the United States (Harper & Row, 1980). ISBN 0-06-014803-9).
- John M. Gates, "War-Related Deaths in the Philippines",Pacific Historical Review, v. 53, No. 3 (August 1984), 367–378.
- Chapters 3–7 of Perdue 2005 describe the rise and fall of the Dzungar empire and its relations with other Mongol tribes, the Qing dynasty, and the Russian empire.
- Wei Yuan, 聖武記 Military history of the Qing Dynasty, vol.4. "計數十萬戶中，先痘死者十之四，繼竄入俄羅斯哈薩克者十之二，卒殲於大兵者十之三。"
- Perdue 2005, p. Genocides in history at Google Books.
- Clarke 2004, p. 37.
- Dr. Mark Levene, Southampton University, see "Areas where I can offer Postgraduate Supervision". Retrieved 2009-02-09.
- Levene 2008, p. Genocides in history at Google Books.
- Bonwick 1870.
- Clive Turnbull (2003). Black War: The Extermination of the Tasmanian Aborigines. Lansdowne. pp. 128–132.
- Geoffrey Blainey (1 January 1980). A Land Half Won. Macmillan. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-333-29949-4.
- Glynn & Glynn 2004, p. Genocides in history at Google Books.
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- Curthoys 2008, pp. Genocides in history at Google Books.
- Reynolds, Henry (2004). "Genocide in Tasmania?". In A. Dirk Moses. Genocide and Settler Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children in Australian History. Berghahn Books. p. Genocides in history at Google Books. ISBN 978-1-57181-410-4.
- Kiernan 2002, p. 163.
- Madley 2008, p. 77.
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- King 2000, pp. 59–60.
- King 2000.
- Diamond, Jared (1997). Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 53.
- Kopel, Gallant & Eisen 2003.
- Tommy Solomon
- Secher, Reynald. A French Genocide: The Vendée, University of Notre Dame Press, (2003), ISBN 0-268-02865-6.
- Berger, Stefan; Donovan, Mark; Passmore, Kevin (January 1999). Writing National Histories: Western Europe Since 1800. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16427-6. (Jackson biography
- François Lebrun, « La guerre de Vendée : massacre ou génocide ? », L'Histoire, Paris, n°78, May 1985, p.93 to 99 et no. 81, September 1985, p. 99 to 101.
- Paul Tallonneau (1993). Les Lucs et le génocide vendéen: comment on a manipulé les textes. Editions Hécate. ISBN 978-2-86913-051-7.
- Claude Petitfrère, La Vendée et les Vendéens, Editions Gallimard/Julliard, 1982.
- Voir Jean-Clément Martin, La Vendée et la France, Le Seuil, 1987.
- Hugh Gough, "Genocide & the Bicentenary: the French Revolution and the revenge of the Vendée", (Historical Journal, vol. 30, 4, 1987, pp. 977–88.) p. 987.
- Vovelle, Michel (1987). Bourgeoisies de province et Revolution. Presses Universitaires de Grenoble. p. quoted in Féhér.
- Price, Roger (1993). A Concise History of France. Cambridge University Press. p. 107.
- Féhér, Ferenc (1990). The French Revolution and the birth of modernity. University of California Press. p. 62.
- Claude Langlois, « Les héros quasi mythiques de la Vendée ou les dérives de l'imaginaire », in F. Lebrun, 1987, p. 426–434, et « Les dérives vendéennes de l'imaginaire révolutionnaire », AESC, n°3, 1988, p. 771–797.
- Voir l'intervention de Timothy Tackett, dans French Historical Studies, Autumn 2001, p. 572.
- "To Hell or to Connaught" Oliver Cromwell's Settlement of Irelanddead link
- genocidal or near-genocidal:
- O'Leary, Brendam; McGarry, John (24 November 1995). "Regulating nations and ethnic communities". In Albert Breton. Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge University Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-48098-7. "Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'"
- Tim Pat Coogan (5 January 2002). The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-312-29418-2. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
- Peter Berresford Ellis (9 February 2007). Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-05312-6. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
- Levene 2005 "Considered overall, an Irish population collapse from 1.5 or possibly over 2 million inhabitants at the onset of the Irish wars in 1641, to no more than 850,000 eleven years later represents an absolutely devastating demographic catastrophe. Undoubted the largest proportion of this massive death toll did not arise from direct massacre but from hunger and then bubonic plagues, especially from the outbreak between 1649 and 1652. Even so, the relationship to the worst years of the fighting is all too apparent.
[The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state. For instance, though the Act begins rather ominously by claiming that it was not its intention to extirpate the whole Irish nation, it then goes on to list five categories of people who, as participators in or alleged supporters of the 1641 rebellion and its aftermath, would automatically be forfeit of their lives. It has been suggested that as many as 100,000 people would have been liable under these headings. A further five categories—by implication an even larger body of 'passive' supporters of the rebellion—were to be spared their lives but not their property."
- Ross, David (2002). Ireland: History of a Nation. New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset. p. 226. ISBN 1-84205-164-4.
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- Kevin Kenny (2003). New directions in Irish-American history. History of Ireland and the Irish diaspora (illustrated ed.). University of Wisconsin Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-299-18714-9. "And, while few, if any, historians in Ireland today would endorse the idea of British genocide (in the sense of conscious intent to slaughter), this does not mean that government policies, whether adopted or rejected, had no impact on starvation, disease, mortality and emigration."
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- Weissman, Gary (2004), Fantasies of Witnessing: Postwar Attempts to Experience the Holocaust, Cornell University Press, p. 94, ISBN 0-8014-4253-2, "Kren illustrates his point with his reference to the Kommissararbefehl. 'Should the (strikingly unreported) systematic mass starvation of Soviet prisoners of war be included in the Holocaust?' he asks. Many scholars would answer no, maintaining that 'the Holocaust' should refer strictly to those events involving the systematic killing of the Jews'."
- "Holocaust", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007, "the systematic state-sponsored killing of six million Jewish men, women, and children and millions of others by Germany and its collaborators during World War II. The Germans called this "the final solution to the Jewish question."
- "Holocaust", Encarta, archived from the original on 2009-10-31, "Holocaust, the almost complete destruction of Jews in Europe by Germany and its collaborators during World War II (1939–1945). The leadership of Germany ordered the extermination of 5.6 million to 5.9 million Jews (see National Socialism). Jews often refer to the Holocaust as Shoah (from the Hebrew word for "catastrophe" or "total destruction")."
- Paulson, Steve, A View of the Holocaust, BBC, "The Holocaust was the Germans' assault on the Jews between 1933 and 1945. It culminated in what the Germans called the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question in Europe', in which six million Jews were murdered."
- "The Holocaust", Auschwitz, DK, "The Holocaust was the systematic annihilation of six million Jews by the Germans during World War 2."
- "Holocaust", Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (definition), Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, "(Heb., sho'ah). In the 1950s the term came to be applied primarily to the destruction of the Jews of Europe under the German regime, and it is also employed in describing the annihilation of other groups of people in World War II. The mass extermination of Jews has become the archetype of GENOCIDE, and the terms sho'ah and ‘holocaust’ have become linked to the attempt by the German state to destroy European Jewry during World War II... One of the first to use the term in the historical perspective was the Jerusalem historian BenZion Dinur (Dinaburg), who, in the spring of 1942, stated that the Holocaust was a ‘catastrophe’ that symbolized the unique situation of the Jewish people among the nations of the world."
- "Holocaust", List of definitions, The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, "A term for the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945."
- "The Holocaust", Compact Oxford English Dictionary, "the mass murder of Jews under the German regime in World War II."
- "The Holocaust", The 33rd Annual Scholars' Conference on the Holocaust and the Churches (definition), "the German attempt to annihilate European Jewry", cited in Hancock, Ian (2004), "Romanies and the Holocaust: A Reevaluation and an Overview", in Stone, Dan, The Historiography of the Holocaust, New York: Palgrave-Macmillan, pp. 383–96
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- Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin based this figure on sources published in the Soviet era.
- Российская академия наук (Russian Academy of Sciences). Людские потери СССР в период второй мировой войны: рник стсбоатей (Human Losses of the USSR in the Period of WWII: Collection of Articles). Saint-Petersburg, 1995. ISBN 978-5-86789-023-0 Pages 124-131 The Russian Academy of Science article by M.V. Philimoshin estimated 6% of the population in the occupied regions died due to war related famine and disease.
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