Harrison at the White House in 1974
25 February 1943|
|Died||29 November 2001
Los Angeles, California, US
|Genres||Rock, pop, world music, experimental|
|Occupations||Musician, singer, songwriter, music and film producer|
|Instruments||Vocals, guitar, sitar, keyboards, bass, ukulele|
|Labels||Parlophone, Capitol, Swan, Apple, Vee-Jay, Dark Horse, Gnome|
|Associated acts||The Quarrymen, the Beatles, Plastic Ono Band, Traveling Wilburys, Eric Clapton|
George Harrison,nb 1 MBE (25 February 1943 – 29 November 2001) was an English musician, singer and songwriter who achieved international fame as the lead guitarist of the Beatles. Although John Lennon and Paul McCartney were the band's primary songwriters, most of their albums included at least one Harrison composition, including "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something", which became the Beatles' second most-covered song.
Harrison's earliest musical influences included Big Bill Broonzy, George Formby and Django Reinhardt; Chet Atkins, Chuck Berry and Ry Cooder were significant later influences. By 1965 he had begun to lead the Beatles into folk rock through his interest in the Byrds and Bob Dylan, and towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)". He developed an interest in the Hare Krishna movement and became an admirer of Indian culture and mysticism, introducing them to the other members of the Beatles and their Western audience by incorporating Indian instrumentation in their music. After the band's break-up in 1970, Harrison released the triple album All Things Must Pass, from which two hit singles originated. He also organized the 1971 Concert for Bangladesh with Ravi Shankar, a precursor for later benefit concerts such as Live Aid. Harrison was a music and film producer as well as a musician; he founded Dark Horse Records in 1974 and co-founded HandMade Films in 1978.
Harrison released several best-selling singles and albums as a solo performer, and in 1988 co-founded the platinum-selling supergroup the Traveling Wilburys. A prolific recording artist, he was featured as a guest guitarist on tracks by Badfinger, Ronnie Wood and Billy Preston, and collaborated on songs and music with Bob Dylan, Eric Clapton and Tom Petty, among others. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".
Harrison's first marriage, to Pattie Boyd, ended in divorce in 1977. The following year he married Olivia Trinidad Arias, with whom he had one son, Dhani. Harrison died in 2001, aged 58, from lung cancer. He was cremated and his ashes were scattered in the Ganges and Yamuna rivers in India, in a private ceremony according to Hindu tradition. He left almost £100 million in his will.
- 1 1943–57: early years
- 2 1958–70: the Beatles
- 3 1968–87: solo career
- 4 1988–2001: later life
- 5 Death
- 6 Musicianship
- 7 Personal life
- 8 HandMade Films
- 9 Legacy
- 10 Discography
- 11 Notes
- 12 Citations
- 13 Sources
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
1943–57: early years
Born in Liverpool, Lancashire, England, on 25 February 1943, Harrison was the youngest of four children of Harold Hargreaves Harrison and his wife Louise (née French).3 He had one sister, Louise, and two brothers, Harry and Peter.4 His mother was a shop assistant from a Catholic family with Irish roots, and his father was a bus conductor who had worked as a ship's steward on the White Star Line.5 His future wife, the model Pattie Boyd, described Harrison's parents as "quite short and very Liverpudlian".6 According to Boyd, Harrison's mother was particularly supportive: "All she wanted for her children is that they should be happy, and she recognized that nothing made George quite as happy as making music."6 An enthusiastic music fan, she was known among friends for her loud singing voice, which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons' windows.7 While pregnant with George, she often listened to the weekly broadcast Radio India. Harrison's biographer Joshua Greene wrote, "Every Sunday she tuned in to mystical sounds evoked by sitars and tablas, hoping that the exotic music would bring peace and calm to the baby in the womb."8
Harrison was born and lived the first six years of his life at 12 Arnold Grove, Wavertree, Liverpool, in a terraced house in a cul-de-sac.9 The home had an outdoor toilet and its only heat came from a single coal fire. In 1949 the family was offered a council house and moved to 25 Upton Green, Speke.10 In 1948, at the age of five, Harrison enrolled at Dovedale Primary School.11 He passed his 11-plus examination and attended the prestigious Liverpool Institute from 1954 to 1959.12
Harrison's earliest musical influences included George Formby, Cab Calloway, Django Reinhardt, Hoagy Carmichael, and Big Bill Broonzy. In early 1956 he had an epiphany: while riding his bicycle, he heard Elvis Presley's "Heartbreak Hotel" playing from a nearby house, and the song piqued his interest in rock and roll.13 He often sat at the back of the class drawing guitars in his schoolbooks, and later commented, "I was totally into guitars".14
Although apprehensive about his son's interest in pursuing a music career, in late 1956 Harrison's father bought him a Dutch Egmond flat top acoustic guitar.15 A friend of his father's taught Harrison how to play "Whispering", "Sweet Sue", and "Dinah", and inspired by the music of Lonnie Donegan, Harrison formed a skiffle group called the Rebels with his brother Peter and a friend, Arthur Kelly.16 On the bus to school Harrison met Paul McCartney, who became a member of John Lennon's band the Quarrymen, and the pair bonded over their shared love of music.17
1958–70: the Beatles
In March 1958 Harrison auditioned for the Quarrymen at Rory Storm's Morgue Skiffle Club, playing "Guitar Boogie Shuffle", but Lennon felt that Harrison, then 14, was too young to join the band.18 During a second meeting, arranged by McCartney, he performed the lead guitar part for the instrumental "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus.19 Soon afterwards he began socializing with the group, filling in on guitar as needed,20 and by the time he turned 15 they had accepted him as a member.21 Although his father wanted him to continue his education, Harrison left school at 16 and worked for several months as an apprentice electrician at Blacklers, a local department store.22
In 1960 Allan Williams arranged for the band, now calling themselves the Beatles, to play at the Kaiserkeller club in Hamburg, owned by Bruno Koschmider.23 The impromptu musical education Harrison received while playing long hours with the Beatles, as well as the guitar lessons he took from Tony Sheridan while they briefly served as his backing group, laid the foundations of his sound and of his quiet, professional role within the group; he was later known as "the quiet Beatle".24 The band's first residency in Hamburg ended prematurely when Harrison was deported for being too young to work in nightclubs.25 When Brian Epstein became their manager in December 1961, he polished their image and secured them a recording contract with EMI.26 The group's first single, "Love Me Do", peaked at number seventeen on the Record Retailer chart, and by the time their debut album, Please Please Me, was released in early 1963, Beatlemania had arrived.27 Their second album, With the Beatles (1963), included "Don't Bother Me", Harrison's first solo writing credit.28
By 1965's Rubber Soul, Harrison had begun to lead the other Beatles into folk rock through his interest in the Byrds and Bob Dylan, and towards Indian classical music through his use of the sitar on "Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)".29nb 2 He later called Rubber Soul his "favourite [Beatles] album".31 Revolver (1966) included three of his compositions: "Taxman", "Love You To" and "I Want to Tell You".32 His introduction of the drone-like tambura part on Lennon's "Tomorrow Never Knows" exemplified the band's ongoing exploration of non-Western instruments.33 The tabla-driven "Love You To" was the Beatles' first genuine foray into Indian music.34 According to the ethnomusicologist David Reck, the song set a precedent in popular music as an example of Asian culture being represented by Westerners respectfully and without parody.35 Harrison continued to develop his interest in non-Western instrumentation, playing swarmandal on "Strawberry Fields Forever".36
By late 1966 Harrison's interests had moved away from the Beatles, as reflected in his choice of Eastern gurus and religious leaders for inclusion on the album cover for Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in 1967.37nb 3 His sole composition on the album was the Indian-inspired "Within You Without You", to which no other Beatle contributed.39 He played sitar and tambura on the track, backed by musicians from the London Asian Music Circle on dilruba, swarmandal and tabla.40nb 4 In 1968 his song "The Inner Light" was recorded at the EMI Studios in Bombay, featuring a group of local musicians playing traditional Indian instruments.42 Released as the B-side to McCartney's "Lady Madonna", it was the first Harrison composition to appear on a Beatles single.42 Derived from a quotation from the Tao Te Ching, the song's lyric reflected Harrison's deepening interest in Hinduism and meditation, while musically it embraced the Karnatak discipline of Indian music, rather than the Hindustani style of his previous work in the genre.43
Dylan and the Band were a major musical influence on Harrison at the end of his career with the Beatles.44 He established a friendship with Dylan and found himself drawn to the Band's sense of communal music-making and to the creative equality among the band members, in contrast with Lennon and McCartney's domination of the Beatles' songwriting and creative direction. This coincided with a prolific period in his songwriting and his growing desire to assert his independence from the band.45 During the recording of The Beatles in 1968, tensions ran high, and drummer Ringo Starr quit briefly.46 Harrison's songwriting contributions to the album included "While My Guitar Gently Weeps", which featured Eric Clapton on lead guitar, "Piggies", "Long, Long, Long", and "Savoy Truffle".47 Tensions among the Beatles surfaced again during the filming of rehearsals at Twickenham Studios in January 1969 for what became the album Let It Be.45 Frustrated by the poor working conditions in the cold and sterile film studio, as well as by what he perceived as Lennon's creative disengagement from the Beatles and a domineering attitude from McCartney, Harrison quit the group on 10 January, but agreed to return twelve days later.48
Relations among the Beatles were more cordial, though still strained, during sessions for their final recorded album, Abbey Road.49 The LP included two of Harrison's most respected Beatles compositions: "Here Comes the Sun" and "Something", which became one half of the Beatles' first double-sided number one single, Harrison's first A-side, and his first chart topper.50 In 1969 Frank Sinatra recorded "Something", and later dubbed it "the greatest love song of the past fifty years".51 Lennon considered it the best song on Abbey Road, and it became the Beatles' second most covered song after "Yesterday".52 Author Peter Lavezzoli wrote: "Harrison would finally achieve equal songwriting status … with his two classic contributions to the final Beatles' LP".53
In April 1970 when Harrison's "For You Blue" was released in America as a double A-side with McCartney's "The Long and Winding Road", it became the band's second chart-topping double A-side and "For You Blue" became Harrison's second number one hit.54 His increased productivity and the Beatles' reluctance to include his songs on their albums meant that by the time of their break-up he had amassed a stockpile of unreleased compositions.55 While Harrison grew as a songwriter, his compositional presence on Beatles albums remained limited to two or three songs, increasing his frustration, and significantly contributing to the band's break-up.56 Harrison's last recording session with the Beatles was on 4 January 1970, when he, McCartney and Starr recorded the Harrison song "I Me Mine".57
1968–87: solo career
Early solo work
Before the Beatles' break-up Harrison had already recorded and released two solo albums: Wonderwall Music and Electronic Sound, both of which include mainly instrumental compositions. Wonderwall Music, a soundtrack to the 1968 film Wonderwall, blends Indian and Western instrumentation, while Electronic Sound is an experimental album that prominently features a Moog synthesizer.58 Released in November 1968, Wonderwall Music was the first solo album by a Beatle and the first LP released by Apple Records.59 Indian musicians Aashish Khan and Shivkumar Sharma performed on the album, which contains the experimental sound collage "Dream Scene", recorded several months before Lennon's "Revolution 9".60
In December 1969 Harrison participated in a brief tour of Europe with the American group Delaney & Bonnie and Friends.61 During the tour that included Clapton, Bobby Whitlock, drummer Jim Gordon and band leaders Delaney and Bonnie Bramlett, Harrison began to write "My Sweet Lord", which became his first single as a solo artist.62 Delaney Bramlett inspired Harrison to learn slide guitar, significantly influencing his later music.63
All Things Must Pass
After years of being restricted in his songwriting contributions to the Beatles' albums, Harrison released All Things Must Pass. It was a triple album,64 with two discs of his songs and the third of recordings of Harrison jamming with friends.5565 Regarded by many as his best work, the album topped the charts on both sides of the Atlantic.6667nb 5 The LP produced the number-one hit single "My Sweet Lord" and the top-ten single "What Is Life".69 The album was co-produced by Phil Spector using his "Wall of Sound" approach,70 and the musicians included Starr, Clapton, Gary Wright, Preston, Klaus Voormann, the whole of Delaney and Bonnie's Friends band and the Apple group Badfinger.5571nb 6 Ben Gerson of Rolling Stone described All Things Must Pass as being "of classic Spectorian proportions, Wagnerian, Brucknerian, the music of mountain tops and vast horizons."73 Author and musicologist Ian Inglis considered the lyrics of the album's title track "a recognition of the impermanence of human existence ... a simple and poignant conclusion" to Harrison's former band.74 In 1971 Bright Tunes sued Harrison for copyright infringement over "My Sweet Lord" owing to its similarity to the 1963 Chiffons hit "He's So Fine".75 He denied deliberately plagiarizing the song, but lost the court case in 1976 as the judge ruled that he had done so subconsciously.76
In 2000 Apple Records released a thirtieth anniversary edition of the album and Harrison actively participated in its promotion, giving an interview during which he reflected on the work: "It's just something that was like my continuation from the Beatles, really. It was me sort of getting out of the Beatles and just going my own way ... it was a very happy occasion."77 He commented on the production: "Well, in those days it was like the reverb was kind of used a bit more than what I would do now. In fact, I don't use reverb at all. I can't stand it ... You know, it's hard to go back to anything thirty years later and expect it to be how you would want it now."78
The Concert for Bangladesh
Responding to a request from Ravi Shankar, Harrison organized a charity event, the Concert for Bangladesh, which took place on 1 August 1971, drawing over 40,000 people to two shows in New York's Madison Square Garden.79 The goal of the event was to raise money to aid starving refugees during the Bangladesh Liberation War.80 Shankar opened the show, which featured popular musicians such as Dylan, Clapton, Leon Russell, Badfinger, Preston and Starr.80
A triple album, The Concert for Bangladesh, was released by Apple Corps that year, followed by a concert film in 1972. Tax troubles and questionable expenses later tied up many of the proceeds, but Harrison commented: "Mainly the concert was to attract attention to the situation ... The money we raised was secondary, and although we had some money problems ... they still got plenty ... even though it was a drop in the ocean. The main thing was, we spread the word and helped get the war ended."81 The event has been described as an innovative precursor for the large-scale charity rock shows that followed, including Live Aid.82nb 7
Living in the Material World to George Harrison
Living in the Material World (1973) held the number one spot on the Billboard album chart for five weeks, and the album's single, "Give Me Love (Give Me Peace on Earth)", also reached number one in the US.84 In the UK, the LP achieved number two, spending 12 weeks on the charts with the single peaking at number 8.69 The album was lavishly produced and packaged, and its dominant message was Harrison's Hindu beliefs.85 In Greene's opinion it "contained many of the strongest compositions of his career".86 Rolling Stone's Stephen Holden declared the album "vastly appealing" and "profoundly seductive ... [it] stands alone as an article of faith, miraculous in its radiance."87 Other reviewers were less enthusiastic, describing the release as awkward, sanctimonious and overly sentimental, a reaction that left Harrison despondent.88
In November 1974 Harrison began his 45-date Dark Horse Tour, becoming the first ex-Beatle to tour North America.89 In addition to performances by Harrison with an ensemble of musicians such as Preston, Tom Scott, Willie Weeks, Andy Newmark and Jim Horn, the tour also included traditional and contemporary Indian music performed by "Ravi Shankar, Family and Friends".90 Despite numerous positive reviews the consensus reaction to the tour was negative, with complaints about the content, structure, and length; the show's duration of two and a half hours was seen as excessive at the time.91 Some fans found Shankar's significant presence a bizarre disappointment, having expected to see only Harrison perform, and many were affronted by what Inglis described as Harrison's "sermonizing".92 Further, he reworked the lyrics to several Beatles songs, and some of the substitutions were seen as "gratuitously offensive".92 His laryngitis-affected vocals also disappointed fans and critics, who began calling the tour "dark hoarse".93 Harrison was so deeply bothered by the caustic backlash that he did not tour again until the 1990s.92 The author Robert Rodriguez commented: "While the Dark Horse tour might be considered a noble failure, there were a number of fans who were tuned-in to what was being attempted. They went away ecstatic, conscious that they had just witnessed something so uplifting that it could never be repeated."94 Leng called the tour "groundbreaking" and "revolutionary in its presentation of Indian Music".95
In December Harrison released Dark Horse, an album that earned him the least favourable reviews of his career.96 Rolling Stone called it "the chronicle of a performer out of his element, working to a deadline, enfeebling his overtaxed talents by a rush to deliver a new 'LP product', rehearse a band, and assemble a cross-country tour, all within three weeks."97 The album reached number 4 on the Billboard chart and the single "Dark Horse" reached number 15, but they failed to make an impact in the UK.98nb 8 The music critic Mikal Gilmore described Dark Horse as "one of Harrison's most fascinating works – a record about change and loss".99
Harrison's final studio album for EMI and Apple Records was the soul music-inspired Extra Texture (Read All About It) (1975).100 He considered it the least satisfactory of the three he had recorded since All Things Must Pass.101 Leng identified "bitterness and dismay" in many of the album's tracks; his long-time friend Klaus Voormann commented: "He wasn't up for it ... It was a terrible time because I think there was a lot of cocaine going around, and that's when I got out of the picture ... I didn't like his frame of mind".102 He released two singles from the LP: "You", which reached the Billboard top 20, and "This Guitar (Can't Keep from Crying)", Apple's final original single release.103
Thirty Three & 1/3 (1976), Harrison's first album release on his own Dark Horse Records label, produced the hit singles "This Song" and "Crackerbox Palace", both of which reached the top 25 in the US.104nb 9 The surreal humour of "Crackerbox Palace" reflected Harrison's association with Monty Python's Eric Idle, who directed a comical music video for the song.107 With an emphasis on melody and musicianship, and a more subtle subject matter than the pious message of his earlier works, Thirty Three & 1/3 earned Harrison his most favourable critical notices in the US since All Things Must Pass.107nb 10
In 1979, following his second marriage and the birth of his son Dhani, he released George Harrison. The album and the single "Blow Away" both made the Billboard top 20.109 The album marked the beginning of Harrison's gradual retreat from the music business, and the fruition of ideas introduced on All Things Must Pass. In 1978 the death of his father in May and the birth of his son in August had influenced his decision to devote more time to his family than to his career.110 Leng described the album as "melodic and lush ... peaceful ... the work of a man who had lived the rock and roll dream twice over and was now embracing domestic as well as spiritual bliss."110
Somewhere in England to Cloud Nine
The murder of Lennon on 8 December 1980 disturbed Harrison and reinforced his decades-long concerns about stalkers.111 It was also a deep personal loss, although unlike McCartney and Starr, Harrison had had little contact with Lennon in the years before his death.112nb 11 Following the murder, Harrison commented: "After all we went through together I had and still have great love and respect for John Lennon. I am shocked and stunned."111
Harrison modified the lyrics of a song he had written for Starr to make it a tribute song to Lennon.113 "All Those Years Ago", which included vocal contributions from Paul and Linda McCartney, as well as Starr's original drum part, peaked at number two in the US charts.114115 The single was included on the album Somewhere in England in 1981.116 Harrison did not release any new albums for five years after 1982's Gone Troppo received little notice from critics or the public.117
During this period he made several guest appearances, including a 1985 performance at a tribute to Carl Perkins titled Blue Suede Shoes: A Rockabilly Session.118nb 12 In March 1986 he made a surprise appearance during the finale of the Birmingham Heart Beat Charity Concert, an event organized to raise money for the Birmingham Children's Hospital.120 The following year, he appeared at The Prince's Trust concert at London's Wembley Arena, performing "While My Guitar Gently Weeps" and "Here Comes the Sun".121 In February 1987 he joined Dylan, John Fogerty and Jesse Ed Davis on stage for a two-hour performance with the blues musician Taj Mahal.122 Harrison recalled: "Bob rang me up and asked if I wanted to come out for the evening and see Taj Mahal ... So we went there and had a few of these Mexican beers – and had a few more ... Bob says, 'Hey, why don't we all get up and play, and you can sing?' But every time I got near the microphone, Dylan comes up and just starts singing this rubbish in my ear, trying to throw me."123
In November 1987 Harrison released the platinum album Cloud Nine.124125 Co-produced with Jeff Lynne of Electric Light Orchestra, the LP included Harrison's rendition of James Ray's "Got My Mind Set on You", which went to number one in the US and number two in the UK.126127 The accompanying music video received substantial airplay,128 and another single, "When We Was Fab", a retrospective of the Beatles' career, earned two MTV Music Video Awards nominations in 1988.129 Recorded at his estate in Friar Park, Harrison's slide guitar playing featured prominently on the album, which included several of his long-time musical collaborators, including Clapton, Keltner, and Jim Horn, who recalled Harrison's relaxed and friendly demeanour during the sessions: "George made you feel at home, in his home ... He once had me sit on a toilet and play my soprano sax, and they miked it at the end of the hall for a distant sound. I thought they were kidding ... Another time he stopped me in the middle of a sax solo and brought me 3 p.m. tea—again I thought he was kidding."130 Cloud Nine reached number eight and number ten on the US and UK charts respectively, and several tracks from the album achieved placement on Billboard's Mainstream Rock chart – "Devil's Radio", "This Is Love" and "Cloud 9".126
1988–2001: later life
The Traveling Wilburys
In 1988 Harrison formed the Traveling Wilburys with Jeff Lynne, Roy Orbison, Bob Dylan and Tom Petty. The band had gathered in Dylan's garage to record a song for a Harrison European single release.131 Harrison's record company decided the track, "Handle with Care", was too good for its original purpose as a B-side and asked for a full album. The LP, Traveling Wilburys Vol. 1, was released in October 1988 and recorded under pseudonyms as half-brothers, supposed sons of Charles Truscott Wilbury, Sr.132 Harrison's pseudonym on the first album was "Nelson Wilbury"; he used the name "Spike Wilbury" for their second album.133
After Orbison's death in December 1988 the group recorded as a four-piece.134 Their second release, issued in October 1990, was mischievously titled Traveling Wilburys Vol. 3. According to Lynne, "That was George's idea. He said, 'Let's confuse the buggers.'"135 It reached number 14 in the UK, where it went platinum with certified sales of more than 3,000,000 units.136 The Wilburys never performed live and the group did not record together again following the release of their second album.137
In 1989 Harrison and Starr appeared in the music video for Tom Petty's song "I Won't Back Down".138 Starr is filmed playing the drums, but did not play on the track; Harrison played acoustic guitar and provided backing vocals.139nb 13 In December 1991, Harrison joined Clapton for a tour of Japan.142 It was Harrison's first since 1974 and no others followed.143nb 14 On 6 April 1992, Harrison held a benefit concert for the Natural Law Party at the Royal Albert Hall, his first London performance since the Beatles' 1969 rooftop concert.145 In October 1992 he performed at a Bob Dylan tribute concert at Madison Square Garden in New York City, playing alongside Dylan, Clapton, McGuinn, Petty and Neil Young.146
The Beatles Anthology
In 1994 Harrison began a collaboration with McCartney, Starr and producer Jeff Lynne for the Beatles Anthology project. This included the recording of two new Beatles songs built around solo vocal and piano tapes recorded by Lennon as well as lengthy interviews about the Beatles' career.147 Released in December 1995, "Free as a Bird" was the first new Beatles single since 1970.148 In March 1996, they released a second single, "Real Love". Harrison refused to participate in the completion of a third song.149 He later commented on the project: "I hope somebody does this to all my crap demos when I'm dead, make them into hit songs."150
Following the Anthology project, Harrison collaborated with Ravi Shankar on the latter's Chants of India. Harrison's final television appearance was a VH-1 special to promote the album, taped in May 1997.151 Soon after, he was diagnosed with throat cancer, and treated with radiotherapy, which was thought at the time to be successful.152 In January 1998, Harrison attended Carl Perkins's funeral in Jackson, Tennessee, performing a brief rendition of Perkins's song "Your True Love".153 In June 1998, he attended the public memorial service for Linda McCartney, and appeared on Starr's album Vertical Man, playing guitar on two tracks.154
Knife attack and illness
On 30 December 1999, 36-year-old Michael Abram broke into the Harrisons' Friar Park home and attacked Harrison with a kitchen knife, puncturing a lung and causing head injuries before Olivia Harrison incapacitated the assailant by striking him repeatedly with a poker and a lamp.152155 Following the attack, Harrison was hospitalized with more than forty stab wounds. He released a statement soon after regarding his assailant: "[he] wasn't a burglar, and he certainly wasn't auditioning for the Traveling Wilburys."156nb 15
In May 2001 it was revealed that Harrison had undergone an operation to remove a cancerous growth from one of his lungs,160 and in July, it was reported that he was being treated for a brain tumour at a clinic in Switzerland.161 While in Switzerland, Starr visited him, but had to cut his stay short to travel to Los Angeles, where his daughter was undergoing emergency brain surgery, prompting Harrison to quip: "Do you want me to come with you?"162 In November 2001, he began radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital in New York City for lung cancer that had spread to his brain.163 When the news was publicized, Harrison bemoaned his physician's breach of privacy, and his estate later claimed damages.nb 16 On 12 November, the three living former Beatles met for the last time at Harrison's hotel in New York for lunch.169
Harrison died on 29 November 2001, aged 58, from metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.170 He was cremated at Hollywood Forever Cemetery and his ashes were scattered in the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers near Varanasi, India, by his close family in a private ceremony according to Hindu tradition.171 He left almost £100 million in his will.172
His final album, the posthumously released Brainwashed (2002), was completed by his son Dhani and Jeff Lynne.173 Included in the album's liner notes is a quotation from the Bhagavad Gita: "There never was a time when you or I did not exist. Nor will there be any future when we shall cease to be."174 A media-only single, "Stuck Inside a Cloud", which Leng described as "a uniquely candid reaction to illness and mortality", achieved number 27 on Billboard's Adult Contemporary chart.175176 The single "Any Road", released in May 2003, reached number 37 on the UK Singles Chart.127 "Marwa Blues" went on to receive the 2004 Grammy Award for Best Pop Instrumental Performance, while "Any Road" was nominated for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance.177
Harrison wrote his first song, "Don't Bother Me", while sick in a hotel bed in Bournemouth during August 1963, as "an exercise to see if I could write a song", as he remembered.178 "Don't Bother Me" appeared on the band's second album, With the Beatles, later that year, then on Meet the Beatles! in the US in early 1964.179 In 1965, he contributed "I Need You" and "You Like Me Too Much" to the album Help!.180181
Harrison's songwriting ability improved through the years, but his material did not earn full respect from his fellow Beatles until near the group's break-up. In 1969, McCartney told Lennon: "Until this year, our songs have been better than George's. Now this year his songs are at least as good as ours".182 Harrison often had difficulty getting the band to record his songs.18356 Most Beatles albums contain at least two Harrison compositions, and there are three of his songs on the 1966 Revolver LP, "the album on which Harrison came of age as a songwriter", wrote Inglis.184
An audio sample of Harrison's "Within You Without You", 1967
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Of the 1967 Harrison song "Within You Without You", author Gerry Farrell claimed that Harrison had created a "new form", calling the composition: "a quintessential fusion of pop and Indian music."185 Lennon called the song one of Harrison's best: "His mind and his music are clear. There is his innate talent, he brought that sound together."186 Beatles biographer Bob Spitz described "Something" as a masterpiece: "an intensely stirring romantic ballad that would challenge 'Yesterday' and 'Michelle' as one of the most recognizable songs they ever produced."187 According to Kenneth Womack, 'Harrison comes into his own on Abbey Road ... "Here Comes the Sun" is matched—indeed, surpassed—only by "Something", his crowning achievement'.188 Inglis considered Abbey Road a turning point in Harrison's development as a songwriter and musician. He described Harrison's contributions to the LP as "exquisite", declaring them equal to any previous Beatles songs. During the album's recording, Harrison asserted more creative control than before, proactively rejecting suggestions for changes to his music or lyrics, particularly from McCartney.189
His interest in Indian music proved a strong influence on his songwriting and contributed to his innovation within the Beatles. According to Rolling Stone, "Harrison's openness to new sounds and textures cleared new paths for his rock and roll compositions. His use of dissonance on ... 'Taxman' and 'I Want to Tell You' was revolutionary in popular music – and perhaps more originally creative than the avant-garde mannerisms that Lennon and McCartney borrowed from the music of Karlheinz Stockhausen, Luciano Berio, Edgard Varèse and Igor Stravinsky".190 In 1997, author Gerry Farrell commented: "It is a mark of Harrison's sincere involvement ... that, nearly thirty years on, the Beatles' 'Indian' songs remain the most imaginative and successful examples of this type of fusion."191
Rolling Stone founder Jann Wenner described Harrison as "a guitarist who was never showy but who had an innate, eloquent melodic sense. He played exquisitely in the service of the song".193 Harrison's friend and former bandmate Tom Petty agreed: "He just had a way of getting right to the business, of finding the right thing to play."194 The guitar picking style of Chet Atkins and Carl Perkins influenced Harrison, giving a country music feel to many of the Beatles' recordings.195 He identified Chuck Berry as an early influence and Ry Cooder as an important later influence.196
In 1961 the Beatles recorded "Cry for a Shadow", a blues-inspired instrumental co-written by Lennon and Harrison, who is credited with composing the song's lead guitar part, building on unusual chord voicings and imitating the style of other English groups such as the Shadows.197 The musicologist Walter Everett noted that while early Beatles compositions typically held close to the conventional patterns in rock music at the time, he also identified significant variations in their rhythm and tonal direction.198 Harrison's liberal use of the diatonic scale in his guitar playing reveals the influence of Buddy Holly, and his interest in Berry inspired him to compose songs based on the blues scale while incorporating a rockabilly feel in the style of Perkins.199 Within this framework he often utilized syncopation, as during his guitar solos for the Beatles' covers of Berry's "Roll Over Beethoven" and "Too Much Monkey Business".200 Another of Harrison's musical techniques was the use of guitar lines written in octaves, as on "I'll Be on My Way".201 He was the first person to own a Rickenbacker 360/12, a guitar that featured twelve strings in 6 pairs, the low eight of which are tuned in pairs, one octave apart; the higher 4 being pairs tuned in unison. The Rickenbacker is also unique among 'twelve strings' in having the lower octave string of each of the first four pairs placed above the higher tuned string. This, and the naturally rich harmonics produced by a 'twelve string' guitar providing the distinctive overtones found on many of the Beatles recordings.201 His use of this guitar during the recording of A Hard Day's Night helped to popularize the model, and the jangly sound became so prominent that Melody Maker termed it the Beatles' "secret weapon".202nb 17
Harrison wrote the chord progression of his first published song, "Don't Bother Me" (1963), almost exclusively in the Dorian mode, demonstrating an interest in exotic tones that eventually culminated in his embrace of Indian music. The dark timbre of his guitar playing on the track was accentuated by his use of uncomplicated yet effective C+9 chord voicings and a solo in the minor pentatonic scale.204 By 1964 he had begun to develop a distinctive personal style as a guitarist, writing parts that featured the use of nonresolving tones, as with the ending chord arpeggios on "A Hard Day's Night".199 In 1965 he used an expression pedal to control his guitar's volume on "I Need You", creating a syncopated flautando effect with the melody resolving its dissonance through tonal displacements.205 He used the same volume-swell technique on "Yes It Is", applying what Everett described as "ghostly articulation" to the song's natural harmonics.199
Of Rubber Soul's "If I Needed Someone", Harrison said: "it's like a million other songs written around the D chord. If you move your fingers about, you get various little melodies ... it amazes me that people still find new permutations of the same notes."206 His other contribution to the album, "Think for Yourself", features what Everett described as "ambiguous tonal coloring", utilizing chromaticism in G major with a "strange" mixture of the Dorian mode and the minor pentatonic; he called it a "tour de force of altered scale degrees".207 In 1966 Harrison contributed innovative musical ideas to Revolver. He played backwards guitar on Lennon's composition "I'm Only Sleeping" and a guitar counter-melody on "And Your Bird Can Sing" that moved in parallel octaves above McCartney's bass downbeats.208 His guitar playing on "I Want to Tell You" exemplified the pairing of altered chordal colours with descending chromatic lines and his guitar part for Sgt Pepper's "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" mirrors Lennon's vocal line in much the same way that a sarangi player accompanies a khyal singer in a Hindu devotional song.209
Harrison's guitar solo from "Old Brown Shoe", April 1969
An excerpt from Harrison's guitar solo to "Something", May 1969
An excerpt from Harrison's slide guitar solo from Lennon's "How Do You Sleep?", 1971
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Everett described Harrison's guitar solo from "Old Brown Shoe" as "stinging [and] highly Claptonesque".210 He identified two of the composition's significant motifs: a bluesy trichord and a diminished triad with roots in A and E.211 Huntley called the song "a sizzling rocker with a ferocious ... solo."212 In Greene's opinion, Harrison's demo for the song contains "one of the most complex lead guitar solos on any Beatles song."213
Harrison's playing on Abbey Road, and in particular on "Something", marked a significant moment in his development as a guitarist. The song's guitar solo shows a varied range of influences, incorporating the blues guitar style of Clapton and the styles of Indian gamakas.214 According to author and musicologist Kenneth Womack: "'Something' meanders toward the most unforgettable of Harrison's guitar solos ... A masterpiece in simplicity, [it] reaches toward the sublime".188 Harrison received an Ivor Novello award in July 1970 for "Something", as "The Best Song Musically and Lyrically of the Year".215
After Delaney Bramlett inspired him to learn slide guitar, Harrison began to incorporate it into his solo work, which allowed him to mimic many traditional Indian instruments, including the sarangi and the dilruba.216 Leng described Harrison's slide guitar solo on Lennon's "How Do You Sleep?" as a departure for "the sweet soloist of 'Something'", calling his playing "rightly famed ... one of Harrison's greatest guitar statements."217 Lennon commented: "That's the best he's ever fucking played in his life."217
A Hawaiian influence is notable in much of Harrison's music, ranging from his slide guitar work on Gone Troppo (1982) to his televised performance of the Cab Calloway standard "Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea" on ukulele in 1992.218 Lavezzoli described Harrison's slide playing on the Grammy-winning instrumental "Marwa Blues" (2002) as demonstrating Hawaiian influences while comparing the melody to an Indian sarod or veena, calling it "yet another demonstration of Harrison's unique slide approach".219 Harrison was an admirer of George Formby and a member of the Ukulele Society of Great Britain, and played a ukulele solo in the style of Formby at the end of "Free as a Bird".220 He performed at a Formby convention in 1991, and served as the honorary president of the George Formby Appreciation Society.221 Harrison played bass guitar on numerous tracks, including the Beatles' songs "Drive My Car", "She Said She Said", "Golden Slumbers", "Birthday" and "Honey Pie".222 He also played bass on several solo recordings, including "Faster", "Wake Up My Love" and "Bye Bye Love".223
When Harrison joined the Quarrymen in 1958 his main guitar was a Höfner President Acoustic, which he soon traded for a Höfner Club 40 model.224 His first solid-body electric guitar was a Czech-built Jolana Futurama/Grazioso.225 The guitars he used on early recordings were mainly Gretsch models, played through a Vox amplifier, including a Gretsch Duo Jet that he bought secondhand in 1961, and posed with on the album cover for Cloud Nine (1987).226 He also bought a Gretsch Tennessean and a Gretsch Country Gentleman, which he played on "She Loves You", and during the Beatles' 1964 appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show.227228 In 1963 he bought a Rickenbacker 425 Fireglo, and in 1964 he acquired a Rickenbacker 360/12 guitar, which was the second of its kind to be manufactured.229 Harrison obtained his first Fender Stratocaster in 1965 and used it in recording Rubber Soul, notably on the song "Nowhere Man".230
In early 1966 Harrison, Lennon, and McCartney each purchased Epiphone Casinos, which they used on Revolver.231 Harrison also used a Gibson J-160E and a Gibson SG Standard while recording the album.232 He later painted his Stratocaster in a psychedelic design that included the word "Bebopalula" above the pickguard and the guitar's nickname, "Rocky", on the headstock.233 He played this guitar in the Magical Mystery Tour film and throughout his solo career.234 In mid-1968 he acquired a Gibson Les Paul that he nicknamed "Lucy".235 Around this time, he obtained a Gibson Jumbo J-200, which he used for early demos of "While My Guitar Gently Weeps".236 In late 1968 Fender Musical Instruments Corporation gave Harrison a custom-made Fender Telecaster Rosewood prototype, made especially for him by a Fender master builder who also crafted a prototype Stratocaster for Jimi Hendrix.237
Harrison's music projects during the final years of the Beatles included producing Apple Records artists Doris Troy, Jackie Lomax and Billy Preston.238 Throughout his solo career, he benefited from the inclusion of guest musicians on his albums, and he made efforts to reciprocate the favours by participating in their recordings. He was featured as a guitarist on tracks by Dave Mason, Nicky Hopkins, Alvin Lee, Ronnie Wood, Billy Preston and Tom Scott.239 Harrison co-wrote songs and music with Dylan, Clapton, Preston, Doris Troy, David Bromberg, Gary Wright, Wood, Jeff Lynne, and Tom Petty, among others.240
Harrison co-wrote the song "Badge" with Clapton, which was included on Cream's 1969 album, Goodbye.241 Harrison played rhythm guitar on the track, using the pseudonym "L'Angelo Misterioso" for contractual reasons.242 He used the same pseudonym when he recorded a guitar part for "Never Tell Your Mother She's Out of Tune", a song from Jack Bruce's 1969 solo album, Songs for a Tailor.243 In May 1970 he played guitar on several songs during a recording session for Dylan's album New Morning.244 In addition to his own work, between 1971 and 1973 he co-wrote and/or produced three top ten hits for Starr: "It Don't Come Easy", "Back Off Boogaloo" and "Photograph".245 In 1971 he played electric slide guitar on "How Do You Sleep?" and a dobro on "Crippled Inside", both from Lennon's Imagine album.246 Also that year, he produced and played slide guitar on Badfinger's top ten hit "Day After Day", and a dobro on Preston's "I Wrote a Simple Song".247nb 18 He worked with Harry Nilsson on "You're Breakin' My Heart" (1972) and with Cheech & Chong on "Basketball Jones" (1973).249 In 1973 he produced and made a guest appearance on the album Shankar Family & Friends.250
In 1974 Harrison founded Dark Horse Records. In addition to eventually releasing his own albums on the label, he initially used the company as an avenue for collaboration with other musicians.251 He wanted Dark Horse to serve as a creative outlet for artists, as Apple Records had for the Beatles.252 Harrison explained: "Most of the stuff will be what I produce".253 Eric Idle commented: "He's extremely generous, and he backs and supports all sorts of people that you'll never, ever hear of."254 The first acts signed to the new label were Ravi Shankar and Splinter, whose album Harrison produced, which provided Dark Horse with their first hit, "Costafine Town".255 Other artists signed by Dark Horse include Attitudes, Henry McCullough, Jiva, and Stairsteps.256
Harrison collaborated with Tom Scott on Scott's album New York Connection (1976), and in 1981 he played guitar on "Walk a Thin Line", from Mick Fleetwood's The Visitor.257 In 1996 he recorded "Distance Makes No Difference With Love" with Carl Perkins, and played slide guitar on the title track of Dylan's Under the Red Sky album.258 In 2001 he performed as a guest musician on Jeff Lynne and Electric Light Orchestra's comeback album Zoom, and on the song "Love Letters" for Bill Wyman's Rhythm Kings.259 He also co-wrote a new song with his son Dhani, "Horse to the Water", which was recorded on 1 October, eight weeks before his death. It appeared on Jools Holland's album Small World, Big Band.260
Sitar and Indian music
During the Beatles' American tour in August 1965, Harrison's friend David Crosby of the Byrds introduced him to Indian classical music and the work of sitar maestro Ravi Shankar.261262 Harrison described Shankar as "the first person who ever impressed me in my life ... and he was the only person who didn't try to impress me."263 Harrison became fascinated with the sitar and immersed himself in Indian music.264 According to Lavezzoli, Harrison's introduction of the instrument on the Beatles' song "Norwegian Wood" "opened the floodgates for Indian instrumentation in rock music, triggering what Shankar would call 'The Great Sitar Explosion' of 1966–67."265 Lavezzoli described Harrison as "the man most responsible for this phenomenon".266nb 19
In June 1966 Harrison met Shankar at the home of Mrs Angadi of the Asian Music Circle, asked to be his student, and was accepted.268 On 6 July, Harrison travelled to India to buy a sitar from Rikhi Ram & Sons in New Delhi.268 Lavezzoli described Harrison's sitar playing on the Revolver track "Love You To" as an "astonishing improvement" over "Norwegian Wood" and "the most accomplished performance on sitar by any rock musician."269 In September, he returned to India to study sitar with Shankar.268 He initially stayed in Bombay, then moved to a houseboat on a remote lake where Shankar taught him for six weeks.268 After Shankar, he received tutelage from Shambhu Das.270
Harrison studied the instrument until 1968, when an encounter with Clapton and Hendrix at a hotel in New York convinced him to put down the instrument and return to guitar playing. He commented: "I decided ... I should get back to the guitar because I'm not getting any better at it, and I'm not going to be a great sitar player ... because I should have started at least fifteen years earlier."271
By the mid-1960s Harrison had become an admirer of Indian culture and mysticism, introducing it to the other Beatles.272 During the filming of Help! in the Bahamas, they met the founder of Sivananda Yoga, Swami Vishnu-devananda, who gave each of them a signed copy of his book, The Complete Illustrated Book of Yoga.273 Between the end of the last Beatles tour in 1966 and the beginning of the Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band recording sessions, he made a pilgrimage to Bombay with his wife Pattie, where he studied sitar, met several gurus, and visited various holy places.274 In 1968 he travelled to Rishikesh in northern India with the other Beatles to study meditation with Maharishi Mahesh Yogi.274 Harrison's use of psychedelic drugs encouraged his path to meditation and Hinduism. He commented: "For me, it was like a flash. The first time I had acid, it just opened up something in my head that was inside of me, and I realized a lot of things. I didn't learn them because I already knew them, but that happened to be the key that opened the door to reveal them. From the moment I had that, I wanted to have it all the time—these thoughts about the yogis and the Himalayas, and Ravi's music."108
Harrison became a vegetarian in the late 1960s, and a devotee of the Indian mystic Paramahansa Yogananda.275 In mid-1969, he produced the single "Hare Krishna Mantra", performed by members of the London Radha Krishna Temple. Soon after, Harrison embraced the Hare Krishna tradition, particularly japa-yoga chanting with beads, and became a lifelong devotee.276nb 20 He respected people of other faiths and once remarked: "All religions are branches of one big tree. It doesn't matter what you call Him just as long as you call."278 He commented on his beliefs:
Krishna actually was in a body as a person ... What makes it complicated is, if he's God, what's he doing fighting on a battlefield? It took me ages to try to figure that out, and again it was Yogananda's spiritual interpretation of the Bhagavad Gita that made me realise what it was. Our idea of Krishna and Arjuna on the battlefield in the chariot. So this is the point—that we're in these bodies, which is like a kind of chariot, and we're going through this incarnation, this life, which is kind of a battlefield. The senses of the body ... are the horses pulling the chariot, and we have to get control over the chariot by getting control over the reins. And Arjuna in the end says, 'Please Krishna, you drive the chariot' because unless we bring Christ or Krishna or Buddha or whichever of our spiritual guides ... we're going to crash our chariot, and we're going to turn over, and we're going to get killed in the battlefield. That's why we say 'Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna', asking Krishna to come and take over the chariot.279
Before his religious conversion, the only British performer known for similar activities had been Cliff Richard, whose conversion to Christianity in 1966 had gone largely unnoticed by the public. "By contrast," wrote Inglis, "Harrison's spiritual journey was seen as a serious and important development that reflected popular music's increasing maturity ... what he, and the Beatles had managed to overturn was the paternalistic assumption that popular musicians had no role other than to stand on stage and sing their hit songs."280
Family and interests
Harrison married the model Pattie Boyd on 21 January 1966, with McCartney as best man.281 Harrison and Boyd had met in 1964 during the production of the film A Hard Day's Night, in which the 19-year-old Boyd had been cast as a schoolgirl.282 They separated in 1974 and their divorce was finalized in 1977.283 Boyd said her decision to end their marriage and leave Harrison was due largely to his repeated infidelities, culminating in an affair with Starr's wife Maureen, which Boyd called "the final straw".284 She characterized the last year of their marriage as "fuelled by alcohol and cocaine", and she stated: "George used coke excessively, and I think it changed him ... it froze his emotions and hardened his heart."285 She subsequently moved in with Clapton, and they married in 1979.286nb 21
Harrison married Dark Horse Records' secretary Olivia Trinidad Arias on 2 September 1978. They had met at the Dark Horse offices in Los Angeles in 1974, and together had one son, Dhani Harrison, born on 1 August 1978.288
He restored the English manor house and grounds of Friar Park, his home in Henley-on-Thames, where several of his music videos were filmed including "Crackerbox Palace"; the grounds also served as the background for the cover of All Things Must Pass.289nb 22 He employed ten workers to maintain the 36-acre (150,000 m2) garden.292 Harrison commented on gardening as a form of escapism: "Sometimes I feel like I'm actually on the wrong planet, and it's great when I'm in my garden, but the minute I go out the gate I think: 'What the hell am I doing here?'"293 His autobiography, I, Me, Mine, is dedicated "to gardeners everywhere".294 The former Beatles publicist Derek Taylor helped Harrison write the book, which said little about the Beatles, focusing instead on Harrison's hobbies, music and lyrics.295 Taylor commented: "George is not disowning the Beatles ... but it was a long time ago and actually a short part of his life."296
Harrison had an interest in sports cars and motor racing; he was one of the 100 people who purchased the McLaren F1 road car.297 He had collected photos of racing drivers and their cars since he was young; at 12 he had attended his first race, the 1955 British Grand Prix at Aintree.297298 He wrote "Faster" as a tribute to the Formula One racing drivers Jackie Stewart and Ronnie Peterson. Proceeds from its release went to the Gunnar Nilsson cancer charity, set up after the Swedish driver's death from the disease in 1978.299 Harrison's first extravagant car, a 1964 Aston Martin DB5, was sold at auction on 7 December 2011 in London. An anonymous Beatles collector paid £350,000 for the vehicle that Harrison had bought new in January 1965.300
Relationships with the other Beatles
For most of the Beatles' career the relationships in the group were close. According to Hunter Davies, "the Beatles spent their lives not living a communal life, but communally living the same life. They were each other's greatest friends." Harrison's ex-wife Pattie Boyd described how the Beatles "all belonged to each other" and admitted, "George has a lot with the others that I can never know about. Nobody, not even the wives, can break through or even comprehend it."301
Starr said, "We really looked out for each other and we had so many laughs together. In the old days we'd have the biggest hotel suites, the whole floor of the hotel, and the four of us would end up in the bathroom, just to be with each other". He added, "there were some really loving, caring moments between four people: a hotel room here and there – a really amazing closeness. Just four guys who loved each other. It was pretty sensational."302
Lennon stated that his relationship with Harrison was "one of young follower and older guy ... [he] was like a disciple of mine when we started."303 The two later bonded over their LSD experiences, finding common ground as seekers of spirituality. They took radically different paths thereafter, Harrison finding God and Lennon coming to the conclusion that people are the creators of their own lives.304 Harrison said that Lennon "was both a saint and a bastard".305
McCartney and Harrison were the first of the Beatles to meet, having shared a school bus, and often learned and rehearsed new guitar chords together.306 McCartney stated that he and Harrison usually shared a bedroom while touring.307 McCartney was best man at Harrison's wedding in 1966, and was the only Beatle in attendance.308 McCartney has referred to Harrison as his "baby brother".309 In a 1974 BBC radio interview with Alan Freeman, Harrison stated: "[McCartney] ruined me as a guitar player".310 Perhaps the most significant obstacle to a Beatles reunion after the death of Lennon was Harrison and McCartney's personal relationship, as both men admitted that they often got on each other's nerves.311 Rodriguez commented: "even to the end of George's days, theirs was a volatile relationship".312
Harrison was involved in humanitarian and political activism throughout his life. In the 1960s, the Beatles supported the civil rights movement and protested against the Vietnam War. After the band's break-up, Ravi Shankar consulted Harrison about how to provide aid to the people of Bangladesh after the 1970 Bhola cyclone and the Bangladesh Liberation War.313 Harrison recorded the song "Bangla Desh", and pushed Apple Records to release his song alongside Shankar's "Joy Bangla" in an effort to raise funds.314 Shankar then asked for Harrison's advice about planning a small charity event in the US. Harrison responded by organizing the Concert for Bangladesh, which raised more than $240,000.315 In June 1972, UNICEF honoured Harrison and Shankar with the "Child Is the Father of Man" award at an annual ceremony in recognition of their fundraising efforts for Bangladesh.316
The George Harrison Humanitarian Fund for UNICEF, a joint effort between the Harrison family and the US Fund for UNICEF, aims to support programmes that help children caught in humanitarian emergencies.317 In December 2007, they donated $450,000 to help the victims of Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh.317 On 13 October 2009, the first George Harrison Humanitarian Award went to Ravi Shankar for his efforts in saving the lives of children, and his involvement with the Concert for Bangladesh.318
In 1973 Peter Sellers introduced Harrison to Denis O'Brien. Soon after, the two went into business together.319 In 1978, in an effort to produce Monty Python's Life of Brian, they formed the film production and distribution company HandMade Films.320 Harrison explained: "The name of the company came about as a bit of a joke. I'd been to Wooky Hole in Somerset ... [near] an old paper mill where they show you how to make old underpants into paper. So I bought a few rolls, and they had this watermark 'British Handmade Paper' ... So we said ... we'll call it Handmade Films."319
Their opportunity for investment came after EMI Films withdrew funding at the demand of their Chief Executive, Bernard Delfont.321 Harrison financed the production of Life of Brian in part by mortgaging his home, which Idle later called "the most anybody's ever paid for a cinema ticket in history."254 The film grossed $21 million at the box office in the US.319 The first film distributed by HandMade Films was The Long Good Friday (1980), and the first they produced was Time Bandits (1981), a co-scripted project by Monty Python's Terry Gilliam and Michael Palin.322 The film featured a new song by Harrison, "Dream Away", in the closing credits.323 Time Bandits became one of HandMade's most successful and acclaimed efforts; with a budget of $5 million, it earned $35 million in the US within ten weeks of its release.323
Harrison served as executive producer for 23 films with HandMade, including Mona Lisa, Shanghai Surprise and Withnail and I. He made several cameo appearances in these films, including a role as a nightclub singer in Shanghai Surprise, for which he recorded five new songs.324 According to author and musicologist Ian Inglis, Harrison's "executive role in HandMade Films helped to sustain British cinema at a time of crisis, producing some of the country's most memorable movies of the 1980s."325 A series of box office bombs in the late 1980s caused HandMade to cease operations in 1991; three years later, the company was sold.326
In 1965 Harrison and the other Beatles were appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBE). They received their insignia from the Queen at an investiture at Buckingham Palace on 26 October.327 In 1971 the Beatles received an Academy Award for the best Original Song Score for the film Let It Be.328 The minor planet 4149 Harrison, discovered in 1984, was named after him.329 In December 1992 he became the first recipient of the Billboard Century Award, an honour presented to music artists for significant bodies of work.330 Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 11 in their list of the "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time".194
In 2002, on the first anniversary of his death, the Concert for George was held at the Royal Albert Hall. Clapton organized the event, which included performances by many of Harrison's friends and musical collaborators, including McCartney and Starr.331 Eric Idle, who described Harrison as "one of the few morally good people that rock and roll has produced", performed Monty Python's "Lumberjack Song".332 The profits from the concert went to Harrison's charity, the Material World Charitable Foundation.331
In 2004 Harrison was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a solo artist by his former bandmates Lynne and Petty, and into the Madison Square Garden Walk of Fame in 2006 for the Concert for Bangladesh.333 On 14 April 2009, the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce awarded Harrison a star on the Walk of Fame in front of the Capitol Records Building. McCartney, Lynne and Petty were present when the star was unveiled. Harrison's widow Olivia, the actor Tom Hanks and Idle made speeches at the ceremony, and Harrison's son Dhani spoke the Hare Krishna mantra.334
The documentary film, George Harrison: Living in the Material World, was directed by Martin Scorsese and released in October 2011. The film features interviews with Olivia and Dhani Harrison, Klaus Voormann, Terry Gilliam, Starr, Clapton, McCartney, Jim Keltner and Astrid Kirchherr.335
- Wonderwall Music (1968)
- Electronic Sound (1969)
- All Things Must Pass (1970)
- Living in the Material World (1973)
- Dark Horse (1974)
- Extra Texture (Read All About It) (1975)
- Thirty Three & 1/3 (1976)
- George Harrison (1979)
- Somewhere in England (1981)
- Gone Troppo (1982)
- Cloud Nine (1987)
- Brainwashed (2002)
- Some published sources give Harold as Harrison's middle name.1 Others dispute that, based on the absence of any middle name on his birth certificate.2
- Harrison also contributed the songs "If I Needed Someone" and "Think for Yourself" to Rubber Soul.30
- The Self-Realization Fellowship gurus Mahavatar Babaji, Lahiri Mahasaya, Sri Yukteswar and Paramahansa Yogananda appear on the Sgt Pepper cover at his request.38
- Further examples of Indian instrumentation from Harrison during his Beatles years include his tambura parts on McCartney's "Getting Better" (1967) and Lennon's "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds" (1967), and sitar and tambura on Lennon's "Across the Universe" (1968).41
- In July 2006, it was determined that All Things Must Pass should have been credited as a number one album in the United Kingdom when first released in 1970–71. Because some sales were not properly counted, the album originally peaked at number four in Britain.68
- Early in the sessions, Clapton, Whitlock, Gordon and Carl Radle formed the short-lived band Derek and the Dominos.72
- In November 1971 Harrison appeared on The Dick Cavett Show, performing "Two-Faced Man" with Gary Wright.83
- In December 1974 the single, "Ding Dong, Ding Dong", reached number 38 in the UK.69
- Released during the same month, The Best of George Harrison (1976) combined several of his Beatles songs with a selection of his solo Apple work.105 After Harrison's departure from the label, Capitol was able to license releases featuring Beatles and post-Beatles work on the same album.106
- Tom Scott provided production assistance on "Thirty Three & 1/3".104 In November 1976, Harrison appeared on Saturday Night Live with Paul Simon.108
- Their estrangement had been marked by Harrison's longstanding dislike of Lennon's wife Yoko Ono, his refusal to allow her to participate in the Concert for Bangladesh, and, during the last year of Lennon's life, by Harrison's scant mention of Lennon in his autobiography, I, Me, Mine.112
- Harrison's set included "That's Alright Mama", "Glad All Over" and "Blue Suede Shoes".119
- In October 1989, Harrison assembled and released Best of Dark Horse 1976–1989, a compilation of his later solo work.140 The release also included two new songs, "Poor Little Girl" and "Cockamamie Business", as well as "Cheer Down".141
- In 1992, Dark Horse Records released an album of recorded material from the shows titled Live in Japan.144
- Abram, who believed he was possessed by Harrison and that he was on a mission from God to kill him,157158 was later acquitted of attempted murder on grounds of insanity and was detained for treatment in a secure hospital. He was released in 2002.159
- Harrison's estate later complained that during a round of experimental radiotherapy at Staten Island University Hospital, the oncologist Dr. Gilbert Lederman repeatedly revealed Harrison's confidential medical information during television interviews and forced him to autograph a guitar.164165166167 The suit was ultimately settled out of court under the condition that the guitar be "disposed of".168
- Roger McGuinn liked the effect so much that it became his signature guitar sound with the Byrds.203
- Musician David Bromberg introduced Harrison to the dobro, an instrument that soon became one of his favourites.248
- Harrison was influential in the decision to have Shankar included on the bill at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and at Woodstock in 1969.267
- In 1972 he bequeathed to the International Society for Krishna Consciousness his Letchmore Heath mansion north of London. It was later converted to a temple and renamed Bhaktivedanta Manor.277
- Harrison had formed a close friendship with Clapton in the late 1960s, and he wrote one of his compositions for the Abbey Road album, "Here Comes the Sun", in Clapton's back garden.287
- The house had once belonged to the Victorian eccentric Sir Frank Crisp. Purchased in 1970, it is the basis for the song "Ballad of Sir Frankie Crisp (Let It Roll)".290 Harrison also owned homes on Hamilton Island, Australia, and in Nahiku, Hawaii.291
- Everett 2001, p. 36; Giuliano & Giuliano 1998, p. 246
- "George Harrison biography". Shawstar.com. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- Miles 2001, p. 6.
- Harry 2000, p. 492.
- Harry 2000, p. 492; Leng 2006, p. 24.
- Boyd 2007, p. 82.
- Spitz 2005, p. 120.
- Greene 2006, p. 2.
- Harrison 2002, pp. 20–21.
- Miles 2001, p. 7.
- Inglis 2010, p. xiii.
- Everett 2001, p. 36: Harrison attending the Liverpool Institute from 1954 to 1959;Greene 2006, p. 7: Harrison passed his 11-plus examination, gaining acceptance into the Liverpool Institute.
- Laing, Dave (30 November 2001). "George Harrison, 1943–2001: Former Beatle George Harrison dies from cancer aged 58". The Guardian. Retrieved 25 December 2012.; Leng 2006, pp. 302–304: Harrison's earliest musical influences.
- Lange 2001, p. 6.
- Babiuk 2002, p. 17: Dutch Egmond; Boyd 2007, p. 82: His father was apprehensive about his interest in pursuing a music career.
- Babiuk 2002, p. 17; Everett 2001, p. 36: A friend of his father's taught Harrison some chords; Spitz 2005, p. 120; Gray, Sadie (20 July 2007). "Lives in Brief: Peter Harrison". The Times. Retrieved 22 July 2007. (subscription required)
- Inglis 2010, pp. xiii–xiv; Miles 2001, p. 13.
- Spitz 2005, pp. 125–126.
- Miles 1997, p. 47; Spitz 2005, p. 127.
- Davies 2009, pp. 44–45.
- Lewisohn 1992, p. 13.
- Boyd 2007, p. 82: (secondary source); Davies 2009, p. 55: (secondary source); Harrison 2002, p. 29: (primary source).
- Miles 1997, pp. 57–58.
- Leng 2006, pp. 2–6; "George Harrison: The quiet Beatle". BBC News. 30 November 2001. Retrieved 1 January 2013..
- Miles 2001, p. 27.
- Babiuk 2002, p. 59; Miles 1997, pp. 84–88.
- Greene 2006, p. 34; Lewisohn 1992, pp. 59–60.
- Everett 2001, p. 193.
- Unterberger 2002, pp. 180–181; Leng 2006, p. 19; Everett 2001, pp. 313–315.
- Womack 2007, pp. 124–125.
- The Beatles 2000, p. 194.
- Leng 2006, p. 19; Schaffner 1980, pp. 75–78.
- Everett 1999, pp. 35–36.
- Everett 1999, pp. 40–42.
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- Harry 2003, p. 72.
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- Inglis 2010, p. 49.
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- Greene 2006, p. 213.
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- Greene 2006, p. 213: failed to reach the UK top 30; Harry 2003, pp. 142–143: Peak US chart positions, failure to impact UK charts.
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- "RIAA – Gold & Platinum Searchable Database". Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Retrieved 31 December 2012.
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- Harry 2003, p. 150; Leng 2006, pp. 273–274.
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- Doggett 2009, p. 319: Harrison refusing to record a third song; Roberts 2005, p. 54: release date for "Real Love".
- Huntley 2006, p. 259.
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- "Beatle's attacker says sorry". BBC News. 16 November 2000. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
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- "Harrison leaves £99m will". BBC News. 29 November 2002. Retrieved 19 September 2009. "Harrison left £99,226,700, reduced to £98,916,400 after expenses, a High Court spokeswoman confirmed."
- Inglis 2010, p. 118; Leng 2006, p. 293.
- Inglis 2010, p. 118.
- Leng 2006, p. 300.
- "Brainwashed – George Harrison: Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
- "Grammy Award Winners". The New York Times. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
- Harrison 2002, p. 84.
- Harry 2003, pp. 159–160.
- Harry 2000, pp. 551: "I Need You", 1190: "You Like Me Too Much".
- Inglis 2010, p. xv.
- Miles 1997, p. 554: (primary source); Fawcett 1977, p. 96: (secondary source).
- Schinder & Schwartz 2008, p. 174.
- Inglis 2010, pp. xv: most Beatles albums contain at least two Harrison compositions, 7:Revolver.
- Leng 2006, p. 31.
- The Beatles 2000, p. 243.
- Spitz 2005, p. 837.
- Womack 2006, p. 89.
- Inglis 2010, p. 15.
- Gilmore 2002, p. 37.
- Leng 2006, p. 316.
- Harrison 2011, p. 194.
- Harrison 2002, p. 15.
- Petty 2011, p. 58.
- Kitts 2002, p. 17.
- Harry 2003, pp. 294–295: Perkins; Harry 2000, pp. 140–141: Berry; Keltner 2002, p. 231: Cooder.
- Leng 2006, pp. 4–5.
- Everett 2001, p. 48.
- Everett 1999, p. 13.
- Everett 2001, pp. 62–63, 136.
- Everett 2001, pp. 134–135.
- Babiuk 2002, p. 120: "secret weapon"; Leng 2006, p. 14: Harrison helped to popularize the model.
- Doggett & Hodgson 2004, p. 82.
- Everett 2001, pp. 193–195.
- Everett 2001, pp. 284–285.
- Everett 2001, p. 318.
- Everett 1999, p. 19: "altered scale degrees"; Everett 2001, p. 331: "ambiguous tonal coloring".
- Everett 1999, pp. 47, 49–51.
- Everett 1999, p. 58: "I Want to Tell You"; Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 179–180: Harrison's guitar part for "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds",
- Everett 1999, p. 243.
- Everett 1999, p. 244.
- Huntley 2006, p. 35.
- Greene 2006, p. 140.
- Leng 2006, p. 42.
- Badman 2001, p. 12.
- Leng 2006, pp. 84–85.
- Leng 2006, p. 109.
- Harry 2003, pp. 29–30: Performing "Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea" with Holland; Leng 2006, p. 232: Hawaiian influence on Gone Troppo.
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- Leng 2006, p. 279.
- Huntley 2006, pp. 149, 232.
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- Babiuk 2002, pp. 18–19: Höfner President Acoustic, 22: Höfner Club 40 model.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 25–27.
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- Bacon 2005, p. 65.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 52–55: Gretsch 6128 Duo Jet; 89–91, 99–101: Gretsch 6122 Country Gentleman; 105–106: Gretsch 6119–62 Tennessee Rose.
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- Babiuk 2002, p. 157.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 180–182, 198: Epiphone Casino.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 72–75: Gibson J-160E, 180–183: Fender Stratocaster and Gibson SG.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 156–157, 206–207: Fender Stratocaster "Rocky".
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 224–225.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 224–225: Gibson Les Paul "Lucy".
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 223–224: Gibson Jumbo J-200.
- Babiuk 2002, pp. 237–239: Fender Telecaster.
- Leng 2006, p. 55: Lomax; 59: Preston; 60–62: Troy.
- Inglis 2010, p. 55.
- Harry 2003, pp. 162–163: Dylan, 121–125: Eric Clapton, 303–304: Billy Preston, 381–382: Doris Troy, 41: David Bromberg, 171: Ronnie Wood, 395: Gary Wright, 257–258: Jeff Lynne, 295–296: Tom Petty.
- Leng 2006, p. 53.
- Winn 2009, p. 229.
- Winn 2009, p. 289.
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- Leng 2006, p. 108: "I Wrote a Simple Song"; Matovina 2000, p. 136.
- Leng 2006, pp. 73, 108.
- Leng 2006, p. 140.
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- Harry 2003, p. 147.
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- Harry 2003, p. 146.
- Doggett 2009, p. 262.
- Harry 2003, p. 147; Huntley 2006, p. 106.
- Harry 2003, pp. 146, 149.
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- Harry 2003, pp. 109: "Distance Makes No Difference With Love" 384: Under the Red Sky.
- Huntley 2006, pp. 303–304.
- Harry 2003, p. 119.
- Leng 2006, p. 20.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 147.
- Harrison 2011, p. 216.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 172.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 171.
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 171–172.
- Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 106, 172.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 176.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 175.
- Everett 1999, p. 71.
- Harrison 2002, p. 57: (primary source); Lavezzoli 2006, p. 185: (secondary source).
- Schaffner 1980, pp. 77–78.
- Lavezzoli 2006, p. 173.
- Doggett 2009, p. 33.
- Greene 2006, p. 158: Harrison became a vegetarian in the late 1960s; Tillery 2011, p. 56: Harrison became a devotee of Paramahansa Yogananda.
- Partridge 2004, p. 153.
- Huntley 2006, p. 87; Tillery 2011, p. 111.
- Tillery 2011, p. 78.
- Glazer 1977, pp. 39–40.
- Inglis 2010, p. 11.
- Miles 2007, p. 210.
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- Boyd 2007, p. 181.
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- For Hamilton Island, Australia see: Tillery 2011, p. 128; for Nahiku, Hawaii see: Huntley 2006, p. 283
- Davies 2009, p. 360.
- Harrison 2011, p. 357.
- Huntley 2006, p. 170; Tillery 2011, p. 121.
- Doggett 2009, pp. 265–266: I, Me, Mine said little about the Beatles; Huntley 2006, p. 170: Derek Taylor helped Harrison write the book; Tillery 2011, p. 121: I, Me, Mine included the lyrics, with comments by Harrison.
- Doggett 2009, p. 266.
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- Davies 2009, p. 325.
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- Sheff 1981, p. 148.
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- Inglis 2010, pp. xiii–xiv.
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- Huntley 2006, p. 86.
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- Harry 2003, pp. 211–212.
- Harry 2003, p. 212.
- Inglis 2010, p. 83.
- Leng 2006, p. 244.
- Inglis 2010, p. xvi.
- Harry 2003, pp. 211–213.
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|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: George Harrison|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to George Harrison.|
- GeorgeHarrison.com – Official site
- RollingStone.com – George Harrison's Greatest Musical Moments
- George Harrison at The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
- George Harrison – Daily Telegraph obituary
- George Harrison at the Internet Movie Database
- Works by or about George Harrison in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Genesis Publications – Concert for George – Limited Edition Book
- Interview with Paul Cashmere
- BBC News article on Harrison's death, George Harrison: Life in pictures and UK version with different pictures