Georgians

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Georgians
ქართველები
Kartvelebi
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Total population
5–7 million
Regions with significant populations
 Georgia 3,956,0001
 Russia 160,803-900,00023
European Union European Union ~250,000
 United States 95,0004
 Iran 60,000-100,00056
 Israel 72,0007
 Turkey 91,500-1,500,00089
 Ukraine 34,19910
 Greece 23,159-300,0001112
 United Kingdom 12,00013
 Azerbaijan 9,90014
 Kazakhstan 4,99015
 Canada 2,20016
 Belarus 2,40017
 Latvia 1,17218
 Argentina 1,050192021
 Armenia 97422
 Australia ~50023
Languages
Georgian and other Kartvelian languages
Religion
Predominantly Eastern Orthodox Christianity since 324 AD
(Georgian Orthodox Church)
Minority: Catholicism, Islam
Part of a series on
Georgians
ქართველები
Mingrelian traditional costumes (1881).jpg
The
Kartvelian
people
Nation
Georgia
Ancient Kartvelian people
Subgroups
Culture
Language
Religion
Symbols
History of Georgia

Georgians (Georgian: ქართველები, kartvelebi) are an indigenous Caucasian nation and ethnic group.

Georgians constitute a majority of the population in Georgia. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, the Post-Soviet states, Iran, United States and Europe.

The majority of Georgians are Eastern Orthodox Christian and most follow the national autocephalous Georgian Orthodox Church, which originated in the 4th century. There are also Georgian Catholic and Muslim communities in Tbilisi and Adjara.

A complex process of nation formation has resulted in a diverse set of geographic subgroups, each with its characteristic traditions, manners, dialects and, in the case of Svans and Mingrelians, language. The Georgian language, with its own unique writing system and extensive written tradition going back to the 5th century, is the official language of Georgia as well as the language of literacy and education of all Georgians living in the country. Georgian, Svan and Mingrelian, together with Laz spoken by the related Laz people form the Kartvelian language family.

Located in Caucasia at the southeastern edge of Europe, the Georgian people have fought to protect their Christian identity in the face of immense pressure from the neighboring Muslim empires. By the early 11th century they formed a unified kingdom which emerged as a dominant regional power until it was weakened by the invasions of the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur and by internal divisions following the death of George V the Brilliant, the last of the great kings of Georgia. To ensure its survival as a Christian kingdom, the country forged an alliance with the Russian Empire, which was viewed as a replacement for the fallen Byzantine Empire, Georgia's traditional ally. Eventually being annexed by Russia in 1801, Georgians briefly regained national independence from 1918 to 1921, and finally, in 1991 from the Soviet Union.

Etymology

Georgians call themselves Kartvelebi (ქართველები), their land Sakartvelo (საქართველო), and their language Kartuli (ქართული). According to The Georgian Chronicles, the ancestor of the Kartvelian people was Kartlos, the great grandson of the Biblical Japheth. Ancient Greeks (Strabo, Herodotus, Plutarch, Homer, etc.) and Romans (Titus Livius, Cornelius Tacitus, etc.) referred to western Georgians as Colchians and eastern Georgians as Iberians.24

Origins

Most historians and scholars of Georgia as well as anthropologists, archaeologists and linguists tend to agree that the ancestors of modern Georgians inhabited the southern Caucasus and northern Anatolia since the Neolithic period.25 Scholars usually refer to them as Proto-Kartvelian (Proto-Georgians such as Colchians and Iberians) tribes.26 Some European historians of the 19th century (e.g., Wilhelm von Humboldt and Paul Kretschmer) as well as Georgian scholars (R. Gordeziani, S. Kaukhchishvili and Z. Gamsakhurdia) came to the conclusion that Proto-Kartvelians might be related linguistically and culturally to the indigenous (pre-Indo-European) peoples of ancient Europe including the Pelasgians, Etruscans and Proto-Basques.

The Georgian people in antiquity have been known to the ancient Greeks and Romans as Colchians and Iberians.2728 East Georgian tribes of Tibarenians-Iberians formed their kingdom in 7th century BCE. However, western Georgian tribes (Moschians, Suanians, Mingrelians and others) established the first Georgian state of Colchis (circa 1350 BCE) before the foundation of the Iberian Kingdom in the east.29 According to the numerous scholars of Georgia, the formations of these two early Georgian kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia, resulted in the consolidation and uniformity of the Georgian nation.30

Proto-Georgian Kingdoms/peoples:

  • The ancient Jewish chronicle by Josephus mentions Georgians as Iberes who were also called Thobel (Tubal).31
  • Diauehi in Assyrian sources and Taochi in Greek. Lived in the northeastern part of Anatolia, a region that was part of Georgia. This ancient tribe is considered by many scholars as ancestors of the Georgians. The Georgians of today still refer to this region, which now belongs to present-day Turkey, as Tao-Klarjeti, an ancient Georgian kingdom. Some people there still speak the Georgian language.32
  • Iberians also known as Tiberians or Tiberanians, in the eastern Georgian Kingdom of Iberia.29

Both Colchians and Iberians played an important role in the ethnic and cultural formation of the modern Georgian nation.3435

According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff:

Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian (West Georgian) kingdom ... It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the earliest Georgian formation.36

Appearance

Alpine type of Georgian, Svan. Mestia (1888 -1900)

Georgians are of Caucasian race37 and often have brown hair and brown eyes.38

The Georgian skull the German anthropologist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach discovered in 1795, he used to hypothesize origination of Europeans from the Caucasus. He wrote:

Caucasian variety - I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, and especially its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian; and because all physiological reasons converge to this, that in that region, if anywhere, it seems we ought with the greatest probability to place the autochthones (birth place) of mankind.394041

Georgians who have historically lived in alpine areas of less sunny western Georgia, especially Svans and Mingrelians tend to have lighter features, with higher frequency of blond hair and light blue or green eyes.

Studies of human genetics suggest that Georgians have the highest percentage of Haplogroup G among the general population recorded in any country.42 Georgians' Y-DNA also belongs to Haplogroup J2, also found in Greece and Italy.43

Culture

Language and linguistic subdivisions

Georgian is the primary language for Georgians of all provenance, including those who speak other Kartvelian languages: Svans, Mingrelians and the Laz. The language known today as Georgian is a traditional language of the eastern part of the country which has spread to most of the present-day Georgia after the post-Christianization centralization in the first millennium AD, today Georgians regardless of their ancestral region use Georgian as their official language. The regional languages Svan and Mingrelian are languages of the west that were traditionally spoken in the pre-Christian Kingdom of Colchis, but later lost importance as the unified Kingdom of Georgia emerged. Their decline is largely due to the capital of the unified kingdom, Tbilisi, being in the eastern part of the country known as Kingdom of Iberia effectively making the language of the east an official language of the Georgian monarch.

All of these languages comprise the Kartvelian language family along with the related language of the Laz people, which has speakers in both Turkey and Georgia.

Georgian dialects include Imeretian, Racha-Lechkhumian, Gurian, Adjarian, Imerkhevian (in Turkey), Kartlian, Kakhetian, Ingilo (in Azerbaijan), Tush, Khevsur, Mokhevian, Pshavian, Fereydan dialect in Iran in Fereydunshahr and Fereydan, Mtiuletian, Meskhetian and Javakhetian dialect.

Religion

The Bagrati Cathedral, The Cathedral of the Dormition, built during the reign of King Bagrat III, one of Georgia's most significant medieval religious buildings returned to its original state in 2012.

According to Orthodox tradition, Christianity was first preached in Georgia by the Apostles Simon and Andrew in the 1st century. It became the state religion of Kartli (Iberia) in 337.4445 The conversion of Kartli to Christianity is credited to St. Nino of Cappadocia. The Georgians' new faith, which replaced pagan and Zoroastrian beliefs, allied them permanently with the Eastern Roman Empire, while placing them on the front line of conflict between the Christian and Islamic worlds. As was true elsewhere, the Christian church in Georgia was crucial to the development of a written language, and most of the earliest written works were religious texts. Medieval Georgian culture was greatly influenced by Eastern Orthodoxy and the Georgian Orthodox Church, which promoted and often sponsored the creation of many works of religious devotion. These included churches and monasteries, works of art such as icons, and hagiographies of Georgian saints.

Today, 83.9% of the Georgian population, most of whom are ethnic Georgian, follow Eastern Orthodox Christianity.46 However, many Georgians nominally identify themselves with Orthodox Christianity for traditional, cultural and historical reasons, with an estimated quarter of the population stating that religion does not necessarily play an important role in their day-to-day life.47 Additionally, as of 2010, only 32% of the country's population attended religious services, suggesting strong secular influences.48

A sizable Georgian Muslim population exists in Adjara. This autonomous Republic borders Turkey, and was part of the Ottoman Empire for a longer amount of time than other parts of the country. Those Georgian Muslims practice the Sunni Hanafi form of Islam. Islam has however declined in Adjara during the 20th century, due to Soviet anti-religious policies, cultural integration with the national Orthodox majority, and strong missionary efforts by the Georgian Orthodox Church.49 Islam remains a dominant identity only in the eastern, rural parts of the Republic. In the early modern period, converted Georgian recruits were often used by the Persian and Ottoman Empires for elite military units such as the Mameluks and Kizilbash. The small Georgian minority in Turkey is also Sunni Muslim.

Cuisine

Georgians having a feast at Supra and Tamada making a toast. Painting by Niko Pirosmani.

The Georgian cuisine is specific to the country, but also contains some influences from other European culinary traditions, as well as those from the surrounding Western Asia. Each historical province of Georgia has its own distinct culinary tradition, such as Megrelian, Kakhetian, and Imeretian cuisines. In addition to various meat dishes, Georgian cuisine also offers a variety of vegetarian meals.

The importance of both food and drink to Georgian culture is best observed during a Caucasian feast, or supra, when a huge assortment of dishes is prepared, always accompanied by large amounts of wine, and dinner can last for hours. In a Georgian feast, the role of the tamada (toastmaster) is an important and honoured position.

In countries of the former Soviet Union, Georgian food is popular due to the immigration of Georgians to other Soviet republics, in particular Russia. In Russia all major cities have many Georgian restaurants and Russian restaurants often feature Georgian food items on their menu.50

Geographic subdivisions and subethnic groups

Geographical subdivisions

Megrelian
Gurian
Imeretian
Adjarian
Khevsurian

The Georgians have historically been classified into various subgroups based on the geographic region which their ancestors traditionally inhabited.

Even if a member of any of these subgroups moves to a different region, they will still be known by the name of their ancestral region. For example, if a Gurian moves to Tbilisi (part of the Kartli region) he will not automatically identify himself as Kartlian despite actually living in Kartli. This may, however, change if substantial amount of time passes. For example, there are some Mingrelians who have lived in the Imereti region for centuries and are now identified as Imeretian or Imeretian-Mingrelians.

Last names from mountainous eastern Georgian provinces (such as Kakheti, etc.) can be distinguished by the suffix –uri (ური), or –uli (ული). Most Svan last names typically end in –ani (ანი), Mingrelian in –ia (ია), -ua (უა), or -ava (ავა), and Laz in –shi (ში).

Name Name in Georgian Geographical region Dialect or Language
Imeretians იმერელი imereli Imereti Imeretian dialect
Kartlians ქართლელი kartleli Kartli Kartlian dialect
Megrelians მეგრელი megreli Samegrelo Megrelian language
Svans სვანი svani Svaneti Svan language
Gurians გურული guruli Guria Gurian dialect
Adjarians აჭარელი achareli Adjara Adjarian dialect
Meskhetians მესხი meskhi Meskheti (Samtskhe) Meskhian dialect
Lechkhumians ლეჩხუმელი lechkhumeli Lechkhumi Lechkhumian dialect
Rachians რაჭველი rachveli Racha Rachian dialect
Kakhetians კახელი kakheli Kakheti Kakhetian dialcet
Khevsurians ხევსური khevsuri Khevsureti Khevsurian dialect
Tushs თუში tushi Tusheti Tushetian dialect
Pshavians ფშაველი pshaveli Pshavi Pshavian dialect
Mokhevians მოხევე mokheve Khevi Mokhevian dialect
Javakhians ჯავახი javakhi Javakheti Javakhian dialect

The 1897 Russian census (which accounted people by language), had Imeretian, Svan and Mingrelian languages separate from Georgian.51 During the 1926 Soviet census, Svans and Mingrelians were accounted separately from Georgian.52 Svan and Mingrelian languages are both Kartvelian languages and are closely related to the national Georgian language.

Outside of modern Georgia

Laz people also may be considered Georgian based on their geographic location and religion. According to the London School of Economics' anthropologist Mathijs Pelkmans,53 Lazs residing in Georgia frequently identify themselves as "first-class Georgians" to show pride, while considering their Muslim counterparts in Turkey as "Turkified Lazs".54

Subethnic groups Georgian name Settlement area Language
(dialect)
Number Difference(s) from mainstream Georgians
(other than location)
Laz people ლაზი lazi Chaneti (Lazistan) Laz language 50,000 (1970 est.)55 Religion: Muslim
Chveneburi ჩვენებური chveneburi Black Sea coast (northwestern Turkey) 60,000 (1979)56 Religion: Muslim
Ingiloy people ინგილო ingilo Saingilo (Azerbaijan) Ingiloan dialect 12,000 Religion: Muslim majority,57 Orthodox minority58
Shavshians შავში shavshi Shavsheti (Turkey) Imerkhevian dialect
Klarjians კლარჯი klarji Klarjeti (Turkey) Imerkhevian dialect

Notes

  1. ^ Central Intelligence Agency of United States (May 17, 2011). "CIA World Factbook:Georgia". The World Factbook (CIA). Retrieved May 27, 2011. 
  2. ^ (Russian) Тома официальной публикации итогов Всероссийской переписи населения 2010 года
  3. ^ (Georgian) ქართულ დიასპორათა განსახლება რუსეთის ფედერაციაში State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia
  4. ^ (Georgian) ქართული დიასპორა ამერიკის შეერთებულ შტატებში State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia
  5. ^ (Georgian) ქართველთა განსახლება ირანში State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia
  6. ^ The Ethnogenesis and Islamization of Fereydani Georgians
  7. ^ Ethnic Groups of Israel
  8. ^ Ethnologue: Georgian
  9. ^ Ethnic groups in Turkey: Georgians
  10. ^ Ukrainian Census 2001
  11. ^ 2001 Greek census
  12. ^ (Georgian) საბერძნეთის ქართული დიასპორა State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia
  13. ^ (Georgian) ქართული დიასპორა დიდ ბრიტანეთში State Ministry on Diaspora Issues of Georgia
  14. ^ Azerbaijan Census 2009
  15. ^ Kazakhstan Census 2009
  16. ^ Statistics Canada: Georgian
  17. ^ (Russian) Белстат. Предварительные итоги переписи населения Беларуси 2009 г.
  18. ^ (Latvian) Latvijas iedzīvotāju sadalījums pēc nacionālā sastāva un valstiskās piederības
  19. ^ [La migración reciente de Europa central y oriental a la Argentina. ¿Un tratamiento "especial"? por María José Marcogliese http://redalyc.uaemex.mx/pdf/269/26900104.pdf Revista Argentina de Sociología, 2003.
  20. ^ Brisa Varela en "Geografías de la memoria: lugares, desarraigos y reconstitución identitaria en situación de genocidio"(EDULP, 2008)
  21. ^ [Los migrantes de Europa del Este y Central en el área metropolitana http://www.caref.org.ar/texto/europa_del_este.pdfINVESTIGACIÓN CAREF-OIM 1999-2002
  22. ^ 2011 Armenian Census
  23. ^ 2006 Census Tables: Australia (Georgian)
  24. ^ Braund, David. Georgia in Antiquity: A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia, 550 BC-AD 562, pp. 17-18
  25. ^ The Georgians, David Marshal Lang, p 19
  26. ^ The Georgians, David Marshal Lang, p 66
  27. ^ Georgia A Sovereign Country of the Caucasus, Roger Rosen, p 18
  28. ^ The Making of the Georgian Nation, Ronald Grigor Suny, p.4
  29. ^ a b c Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 80
  30. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 58
  31. ^ The Complete Works, Jewish Antiquities, Josephus, Book 1, p 57
  32. ^ The Georgians, David Marshal Lang, p 58
  33. ^ The Georgians, David Marshal Lang, p 59
  34. ^ Charles Burney and David Marshal Lang, The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus, p. 38
  35. ^ Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 57
  36. ^ CToumanoff. Cyril Toumanoff, Studies in Christian Caucasian History, p 69,84
  37. ^ Blumenbach , De generis humani varietate nativa (3rd ed. 1795), trans. Bendyshe (1865). Quoted e.g. in Arthur Keith, Blumenbach's Centenary, Man, Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1940).
  38. ^ The New Book of Knowledge — Grolier, Encyclopedia G. Article: GEORGIA, Republic of, By Alec Rasizade
  39. ^ Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, translated by Thomas Bendyshe. 1865. November 2, 2006.
  40. ^ The concept of adaptation
  41. ^ 18 th and 19 th Century Pre-Darwinian views on variation
  42. ^ Battaglia V, Fornarino S, Al-Zahery N, et al. (June 2009). "Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe". European Journal of Human Genetics 17 (6): 820–30. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.249. PMC 2947100. PMID 19107149. 
  43. ^ Sajantila, Aantti "DNA Diversity in Europe" Department of Human Molecular Genetics, National Public Health Institute. Helsinki, Finland:2009
  44. ^ Toumanoff, Cyril, "Iberia between Chosroid and Bagratid Rule", in Studies in Christian Caucasian History, Georgetown, 1963, pp. 374-377. Accessible online at [1]
  45. ^ Rapp, Stephen H., Jr (2007). "7 - Georgian Christianity". The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. John Wiley & Sons. p. 138. ISBN 978-1-4443-3361-9. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  46. ^ 2002 census results - p. 132
  47. ^ Gallup Public Opinion Research, 2008 Gallup World Poll, Question:"Does religion occupy an important place in your life?" with possible answers of "Yes" and "No".
  48. ^ Gallup Public Opinion Research, 2010 Gallup World Poll, Question:"Have you attended a place of worship or religious service within the past 7 days?" with possible answers of "Yes" and "No".
  49. ^ Thomas Liles, "Islam and religious transformation in Adjara", ECMI Working Paper, February 2012, [2], accessed June 4, 2012
  50. ^ Mack, Glenn R.; Surina, Asele (2005). Food Culture In Russia And Central Asia. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-313-32773-4. 
  51. ^ (Russian) Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г.
  52. ^ (Russian) ССР ГРУЗИЯ (1926 г.)
  53. ^ Dr Mathijs Pelkmans
  54. ^ Pelkmans,Mathijs. Defending the border: identity, religion, and modernity in the Republic of Georgia. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2006, pg. 80
  55. ^ Hewsen, Robert H.. "Laz - Orientation". World Culture Encyclopedia. "The census of 1945 cited 46,987 Laz speakers but did not count Turkish-speaking Laz and is certainly an undercount. The Soviet census of 1926—the last one in which the Laz are mentioned—listed 643 ethnic Laz in Ajaria and 730 Laz speakers. Catford (1970) estimated the total number of Laz at about 50,000, but there is no question that they are gradually becoming assimilated to the Turkish population at large." 
  56. ^ Peter A. Andrews & Rüdiger Benninghaus (1989), Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey, Vol. 1, p. 174. Reichert, ISBN 3-88226-418-7.
  57. ^ Ramet, Sabrina P. (1989). Religion and Nationalism in Soviet and East European Politics. Durham: Duke University Press. p. 187. ISBN 9780822308911. 
  58. ^ Friedrich, Paul (1994). Encyclopedia of World Cultures: Russia and Eurasia, China (1. publ. ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: G.K. Hall. p. 150. ISBN 9780816118106. "A part of the Ingilo population still retains the (Orthodox) Christian faith, but another, larger segment adheres to the Sunni sect of Islam." 

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