Geothermal power in Turkey
In 2010 the installed geothermal electricity generation capacity was 100 MWe while direct use installations were approximately 795 MWt.1
As of 2005, Turkey had the 5th highest direct usage and capacity of geothermal energy in the world. Turkey's capacity as of 2005 is 1495 MWt with a usage of 24,839.9 TJ/year or 6900.5 GWh/year at a capacity factor of 0.53. Most of this is in the form of direct-use heating however geothermal electricity is currently produced at the Kizildere plant in the province of Denizli producing 120,000 tons of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice. The Kizildere plant has 20 MW capacity and runs at an average capacity of 12-15 MW annually.2 As of 2006 and 2010 there are two plants generating 8.5 and 11.5 MWe respectively, in Aydin.3
The direct-use heating has been mostly district heating serving 103,000 residences (827MWt and 7712.7 TJ/year). There is also individual space heating (74MWt and 816.8 TJ/year); 800,000 m2 of heated greenhouses (192MWt and 3633 TJ/year); and 215 balneological facilities, 54 spas, bathing and swimming pools (402MWt and 12,677.4 TJ/year).2 It is stated that at least 1.5 million houses currently heated by natural gas can switch to being heated by thermal waters.4
As of 2005 170 future geothermal prospects had been identified with 95% in the low-to medium enthalpy range suitable for direct-use applications (Simsek et al., 2005).5 The proven potential is 3293 MWt and the total geothermal potential is approximately 31,500 MWt indicating that 30% of Turkish residences could be heated geothermally. By 2010 Turkey plans to produce 500MWe geothermal electricity and 3500MWt through space heating.2
- Serpen, Umran; Aksoy, Niyazi; Öngür, Tahir (February 1–2, 2010). "2010 Present Status of Geothermal Energy in Turkey". Proceedings of the Thirty-fifth Workship on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford, California: Stanford University.
- Lund, John W.; Freeston, Derek H.; Boyd, Tonya L. (December 2005). "Direct application of geothermal energy: 2005 Worldwide review". Geothermics 34 (6): 691. doi:10.1016/j.geothermics.2005.09.003.
- "Geothermal power plant starts generation". Hurriyet Daily News. Anatolia News Agency. April 5, 2010.
- "CAN TURKEY BE A "GEOTHERMAL POWER"?". Diplomatic Observer. 19 January 2009.
- Simsek, Sakir; Mertoglu, Orhan; Bakir, Nilgün; Akkus, Ibrahim; Aydogdu, Onder (24–29 April 2005). "Geothermal energy utilization, development and projections--country update report (2000–2004) of Turkey". Proceedings of the World Geothermal Conference 2005. Antalya, Turkey.