Great Wall Motors
|Traded as||SEHK: 2333|
|Headquarters||Baoding, Hebei, China1|
|Key people||Wei Jianjun (Chairman of the Executive Directors)|
|Great Wall Motors|
Great Wall Motors Company Limited2 is a Chinese automobile manufacturer formed in 1976. The company is named after the Great Wall of China. As of 2010, it is China's largest sport utility vehicle (SUV) producer.3
In the 2012 market beset by lower demand and curbs on road-going city cars,4 Great Wall performed well. It rose one spot and ranked as the 9th largest Chinese automaker by making 807,000 units.5 The export of cars for 2012 stood at 96,500 units.6
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Products
- 4 Sales outside China
- 5 Motorsport
- 6 Copying claims
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Established in 1976, Great Wall initially manufactured only truckscitation needed not producing a saloon car until 2008 due to lack of a government license.7 The company has been a very successful producer of pickup trucks first reaching top position in the Chinese pickup market in 1998. By 2010, cumulative production of Great Wall pickups had reached 700,000.8
Making an initial public offering on the Hong Kong stock exchange on 15 December 2003,9 Great Wall was the first private Chinese auto manufacturer to become a public company.10 The company is considering listing on the Shanghai Stock Exchange as well.11
Sales in 2010 were measured at less than 400,000 (near 2% market share) with exports a small portion of that figure at little more than 50,000,12 no increase from 2009 figures.13 That same year saw the Great Wall Haval H series as the 2nd most-purchased SUV in China14 although this figure may technically include two discrete models, the Great Wall Haval H3 and the Great Wall Haval H5.
Manufacturing for 2011 resulted in 486,800 units, and output this year was the tenth largest of any vehicle maker in China.15 In 2012 it was reported that the company only allows workers one day off per week and new hires undergo months-long, military-style training.16
Great Wall started selling in Europe in 2006, offering small vans.17 A lot of 500 SUVs were shipped to Italy in 2006 as well.18 Great Wall products were first available in the Australian market in 2009,19 and the company was, as of 2010, the only Chinese car manufacturer to sell in the EU.13 European sales continue, with the 2011 opening of a factory in Bulgaria that assembles three different models from knock-down kits.20
Planned production bases include a site in Tianjin, a direct-controlled municipality, that will see completion in 2013 or 2015.22 The first phase of this facility may become operational in August 2011 adding 250,000 units/year capacity, and when the project reaches completion total capacity will be twice that.23 Another 500,000 units/year base is also planned and will be built in Baoding. This second Baoding base is intended to become operational by 2013 and is located in Xushui county.221
There have been at least eight overseas knock-down factories that produce Great Wall models from knock-down kits. Factories exist in Bulgaria,224 Egypt,25 Ethiopia,25 Indonesia,25 Iran,25 Nigeria,26 Russia,25 Senegal,25 Ukraine,2 and Vietnam.25 It is possible that there are now more than ten such factories.2
These small workshops are not necessarily affiliated with or owned by Great Wall. Both the Iranian motor company Diar27 and the Indonesian WICM,citation needed an Indomobil Group subsidiary, have assembled Great Wall vehicles from knock-down kits.
A new such factory will become operational in 2013 in Brazil,25 and by 2015 Great Wall plans for the existence of 24 such facilities.25 These may appear in places such as Malaysia,28 the Philippines,28 South Africa28 and Venezuela.28
Together with the Bulgarian company Litex Motors, Great Wall has a production base in Bahovitsa,24 near the town of Lovech, Bulgaria, that became operational in February 2012.29 As of 2012, the factory has the capacity to assemble 2,000 cars per year30 from knock-down kits,20 but by 2014 that number may increase to 50,000.30 Initially only making the Voleex C10, the factory plans to later add production of a SUV and a pick-up truck, the Hover 6 and Steed 5, respectively.20 Plans for a trial run of electric cars were discussed in late 2011.31
While R&D activities commenced in 1998,2 in 2010 the company began construction of a technical center in Baoding, Hebei province.32 Part of an effort to increase R&D investment,33 the center may become fully operational in 2013, as Great Wall states it will obtain "world-leading R&D... and technical ability" by that year.2
Currently, component design may rely heavily on foreign technical assistance, and some hard-to-source parts may be provisioned from overseas;citation needed the company states it has cooperative agreements with companies such as Autoliv, Delphi Automotive, BorgWarner, Robert Bosch GmbH, the German company Brose, Ricardo plc, TRW Automotive, and Valeo in regards to specific parts such as engines, transmissions, door locks, and airbags, etc.2 As of 2009, some models used Mitsubishi engines and Siemens electronic systems—both sourced in China.34
GWM plans to boost its R&D work force to 10,000 professional technicians by 2015. This plan is supported by an investment of USD 800 Million, in order to achieve a leading position in the automobiles R&D division around the world. In 2010, the company filed around 90 patent and utility model applications.35
A wide model range can be had from Great Wall—from light trucks and SUVs to urban runabouts. While its entire model line carries the same badge, the company differentiates its SUV, passenger car, and pickup truck lines naming them Haval, Voleex, and Wingle, respectively.2 This may be reflective of the fact that older models continue to be produced alongside their newer counterparts.
Great Wall planned to sell electric vehicles domestically beginning in 2011,3 and in that year the company stated it had "made quite a huge investment in exploring technologies for new energy autos".2 An all-electric SUV was showcased at the 2010 Guangzhou Auto Show,36 and the company is considering a tie-up with electric car maker Coda Automotive.37
China subsidizes oil38 and wants its domestic automakers to begin selling electric vehicles for this reason. Some Chinese automakers also see opportunities in less mature electric vehicles because Western companies have yet to develop much of a lead in the technology.39
The GW4D20 engine is a 2.0 turbodiesel four-cylinder engine and is the company's flagship diesel engine, replacing the older and less powerful 2.5TCi. it produces 110kw at 3600rpm and 310Nm at 1800-2400rpm. below is a table of specs taken from the company's store site on alibaba.com:
Type Diesel Engine No. of Cylinders 4 Cylinder Power (kw) 110 Displacement 1.996 Torque 310/1800-2800 Place of Origin Hebei, China (Mainland) Brand Name GREAT WALL Model Number GW4D20 Start Electric Start Cold Style Water-cooled Bore*stroke 83.1*92 Stroke 4 Stroke Compression ratio 16.7:1 Idle speed (r/min) 750 Min. fuel consumption ratio (g/kWh) ≤210 Net weight (kg) ≤ 195 (A/C and power steering pump excluded) Overall dimensions 651*685*751 Emission standard Euro IV (GB 18352.3-2005), upgradable to Euro V
Great Wall products have been available in many places across the globe. These include Africa,40 Australia,41 Europe, where an assembly plant in Bulgaria gives duty free access to the European Union,2442 Melanesia,citation needed the Middle East,43 Russia,40 South America,7 South Asia,44 and the South Pacific.
While Great Wall is engaged in export, nearly 70 percent of sales in 2009 came from central and western China.1
The company offers an after-sales service training course for employees of overseas distributors.45
It is important to note that cars sold in the European Union, the Hover and Deer, may be marketed as commercial vehicles exempting them from EU safety standards. As of 2010, some Great Wall products including passenger vehicles and the new Hover (Haval H5) and Deer (Wingle 5) have obtained an EU whole vehicle type approval, an EU regime that tests road vehicles and approves them for production and sale in Europe.46 In 2012, the Haval H6 is planned to receive EU certification.47
An Australian importer recalled Chinese-made cars of several brands including Great Wall due to discoveries of asbestos in gaskets.48
The company made appearances at the 2010, 2011, and 2012 Dakar Rally editions, racing with Haval models.49 Its best ranking was achieved in 2012, when the team finished 6th.50 It plans to attend subsequent editions.13
Italian automaker Fiat has claimed that a Great Wall A-segment car, the Peri (Jing Ling in China), is a copy of its popular second generation Fiat Panda.51 A 2008 Turin court ruling substantiated the claim stating that the Great Wall Peri, “doesn’t look like a different car but is a [Fiat] Panda with a different front end.”52 A copyright infringement case in China did not arrive at the same conclusion.53
Other Great Wall models may have been copied from those of foreign automakers, too. The Great Wall Florid looks like a Toyota ist, the Great Wall Sailor/SA220 looks like an Isuzu Rodeo, and some older Great Wall Hover models may look like Isuzu Axioms, etc.citation needed
- "Chinese Stimulus Winners at Great Wall Best Shanghai (Update1)". Bloomberg. 2009-09-29.
- "Company Profile". Great Wall Motor.
- "Great Wall Motor in green car push in 2011". Reuters. 2010-09-16.
- "RPT-UPDATE 1-China vehicle sales seen up a lacklustre 7 pct this year". reuters.com. Thompson Reuters. Fri Jan 11, 2013. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- Rose Yu and Yajun Zhang (January 11, 2013). "China Car Sales Set to Surge in 2013". wsj.com. Dow Jones & Company Inc. Retrieved January 12, 2013.
- For 2012 production and 9th-place ranking, see "2012年12月分车型前十家生产企业销量排名". China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM). 14 January 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2013.
- For 10th place ranking as of 2011, see "2011年前十家乘用车生产企业销量排名". China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM). 2012-01-20.
- "Great Wall comes to Thailand". Investvine.com. 2013-04-03. Retrieved 2013-04-03.
- "The new Motor City". CNNMoney. 2008-10-21.
- "Milestone". Great Wall Motors. Retrieved 2011-05-21.
- China Stock Market Handbook. Javin Press. p. 195.
- McGarvie, Blythe. Shaking the Globe: Courageous Decision-Making in a Changing World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 140.
- "Great Wall, Lifan eye Shanghai listing". Global Times. 2010-10-14.
- "Great Wall sales up 78.7% in first 11 months". Global Times. 2010-12-10.
- "With EU greenlight, Great Wall looks to expand". Global Times. 2010-03-15.
- "Top 10 Best-Selling Sedans and SUVs in 2010". ChinaAutoWeb. 2011-01-14.
- "2011年前十家乘用车生产企业销量排名". China Association of Automobile Manufacturers (CAAM). 2012-01-20.
- Liang Dongmei (May 23, 2013). "Great Wall Motor Hit Cruise Control in 2012 With founder Wei Jianjun in the driver's seat, the domestic automaker had great success, and experts say he is the key to continued prosperity". Caixin. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- Sperling, Daniel; Gordon, Deborah (Oxford University Press). Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability. 2009. p. 213.
- Dyer, Geoff. (06 Sep 2006). "Great Wall ships SUVs to Europe". Financial Times. Pearson. p. 31.
- "First look: Great Wall’s 2009 wares". GoAuto. 2009-04-01.
- Bursa, Mark (2011-04-04). "EMERGING MARKETS ANALYSIS: Chinese exports finally start to gain traction". Just-Auto. Bromsgrove. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
- "Great Wall targets growth". Global Times. 2010-12-08.
- "Great Wall Motor to increase production capability fourfold by 2015". Global Times. 2010-12-08.
- "Greatwall’s Tianjin factory to come online soon and will focus on export market". China Car Times. 2011-06-03.
- Boryana Dzhambazova (2012-05-22). "Made in China, but Assembled in Bulgaria". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Great Wall Motor to build factory in Brazil by 2013". Global Times. 2010-08-19.
- "Great Wall Plans More KD Assembly Plants Overseas". ChinaAutoWeb. 2010-08-20.
- "History". DIAR Automobile. 2010-09-06. Retrieved 2009-10-25.
- "Great Wall Motor sets sights on US". People's Daily Online. 2010-09-13.
- Vladov, Andrey (2012-04-24). "Chinese carmakers eye European markets". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- Toshkov, Veselin (2012-02-21). "Chinese carmaker opens plant in Bulgaria". Bloomberg Businessweek. The Associated Press. Retrieved 2012-07-10.
- "1st Bulgarian Electric Cars to Be Made in Lovech in 2012". Novinite.com. 2011-10-11.
- "New Technology Center Kicks off to Build Global Competitiveness". Great Wall Motor. 2010-10-29.
- "China Great Wall Motor to invest $751 mln in R&D in 5 yrs". Reuters. 2010-10-27.
- Chang, Crystal (2009-08-13). "Developmental Strategies in a Global Economy: The Unexpected Emergence of China’s Independent Auto Industry". p. 18.
- "Great Wall to unveil first new energy vehicle". Global Times. 2010-11-11.
- "Not yet: Look before you leapfrog". The Economist. 2012-05-05. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- "China's fuel subsidy costs the world". Reuters. 2008-06-04.
"A rounder world threatens Asia's economies". Reuters. 2008-07-04.
"China to raise the price of fuel". BBC. 2008-06-19.
- "Mr. Heyi Xu，the president of Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Co., Ltd. delivered a speech at the 2009 China (Changchun) International Automobile Forum". BAIC Group. 2009-07-20.
"Big bet on better battery-run cars". China Daily. 2011-01-03.
- "Great Wall Motor exports 300 M1s to Mali". Global Times. 2010-07-22.
- "Great Wall Motors Launches First Chinese-Made Cars Into Australian Market". The Motor Report. 2009-06-24.
- "Great Wall Exports Haval H5 to Italy". ChinaAutoWeb.com. 2009-06-10.
- "Great Wall Motor to expand its overseas market". Global Times. 2010-07-16.
- "Great Wall Motor's vehicles hit Cambodian market". Gasgoo. 2010-01-15.
"Great Wall Motor to promote sales in Brunei this year". Gasgoo. 2010-03-12.
- "Great Wall Motor Overseas Distributors Training". Great Wall Motor. 2010-09-24.
- "Great Wall Motor boosts brand image with quality products". China Economic Net. 2010-09-06.
- "2 нови модела на Great Wall за 2012 година" (in Bulgarian). Litex Motors. 2011-12-23.
- Nenov, Stoyan. "Thousands of China-made cars recalled in Australia". ABC. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Great Wall participates in Dakar Rally again". Global Times. 2010-11-01.
- "Haval Racing Team Ranked Seventh, Taking a Lead among Chinese Racing Teams and Hitting a Record in History". Great Wall Motor. 2012-01-17.
- "Fiat Is Considering Taking Legal Action To Stop Great Wall'S Panda Clone Being Sold In Europe". Italiaspeed. 2006-12-31.
- "Great Wall banned from importing GWPeri minicar". Automotive News. 2008-07-18.
- "IN BRIEF (Page 9): Fiat's copycat suit rejected". China Daily. 2008-09-22.
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