Habsburg Monarchy

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Habsburg Monarchy1
Habsburgermonarchie
Habsburgische Erblande
Part of Holy Roman Empire
1526–1804
Flag Imperial Coat of arms
Motto
Fiat iustitia, et pereat mundus
"Let justice be done, though the world perish"
Anthem
Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser
"God Save Emperor Francis"
The Habsburg Monarchy in 1789.
Capital Vienna
(1526–1583)
Prague
(1583–1611)
Vienna
(1611–1804)
Languages Official languages:
Latin, Germanb
Other languages:
Hungarian, Czech, Croatian, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Dutch, Italian, Polish, Ruthenian, Bosnian, Serbian, French
Religion Official religion:
Roman Catholic
Recognized religions:
Calvinism, Lutheranism, Orthodox Christianity, Judaism, Utraquisma
Government Feudal Monarchy
Monarch
 -  1526–1564 Ferdinand I (first)
 -  1792–1804 Francis II (last)
State Chancellor
 -  1753–1793 Wenzel Anton
Historical era Medieval / Napoleonic
 -  Battle of Mohács 29 August 1526
 -  Battle of Vienna 14 July 1683
 -  War of Succession 1740–1748
 -  Austro–Turkish War 1787–1791
 -  Treaty of Sistova 4 August 1791
 -  Empire proclaimed 11 August 1804
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Archduchy of Austria
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Bohemia
CoA of the Kingdom of Croatia.svg Kingdom of Croatia
Principality of Transylvania
Austrian Empire
Today part of  Austria
 Belgium
 Bosnia-Herzegovina
 Croatia
 Czech Republic
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Italy
 Liechtenstein
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
 Poland
 Romania
 Serbia
 Slovakia
 Slovenia
  Switzerland
 Ukraine
^a Main Czech Church, in the Kingdom of Bohemia recognized until 1627 when it was forbidden.
^b German replaced Latin as the official language of the Empire in 1784.2
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The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces, which were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780, and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918. The Monarchy was a composite state composed of territories within and outside the Holy Roman Empire, united only in the person of the monarch. The dynastic capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611,3 when it was moved to Prague. From 1804 to 1867 the Habsburg Monarchy was formally unified as the Austrian Empire, and from 1867 to 1918 as the Austro-Hungarian Empire.45

The head of the House of Habsburg was often elected Holy Roman Emperor until the Empire's dissolution in 1806.67 The two entities were never coterminous, as the Habsburg Monarchy covered many lands beyond the Holy Roman Empire, and most of the Empire was ruled by other dynasties. The Habsburg Monarchy did not usually include all the territories ruled by the Habsburgs. The senior branch ruled Spain until 1700, but it is not usually included in the definition of "Habsburg Monarchy" after the reign of Charles V, who divided the dynasty between its Austrian and Spanish branches upon his abdication in 1556.

Origins and expansion

The Habsburg family originated with the Habsburg Castle in modern Switzerland, and after 1279 came to rule in Austria ("the Habsburg Hereditary Lands"). The Habsburg family grew to European prominence with the marriage and adoption treaty by Emperor Maximilian I at the First Congress of Vienna in 1515, and the subsequent death of adopted Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in 1526.3

Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, the younger brother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was elected the next King of Bohemia and Hungary8 following the death of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia in the Battle of Mohács against the Turks.

Terminology

Names of the territory that (with some exceptions) finally became Austria-Hungary:

  • Habsburg monarchy or Austrian monarchy (1526–1867): This was an unofficial, but very frequent name – even at that time. The entity had no official name. Note that technically the term "Habsburg monarchy" can also refer to the period 1276–1918 when the Habsburgs ruled in the monarchy (archduchy) centred in present-day Austria and "Austrian monarchy" can refer to the monarchy centered in present-day Austria 1156–1867, but both terms are usually not used this way.
  • Austrian Empire (1804–1867): This was the official name. Note that the German version is Kaisertum Österreich, i.e. the English translation empire refers to a territory ruled by an emperor, not just to a "widespreading domain", more accurately the "Emperordom of Austria".
  • Austria-Hungary or Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867–1918): This was the official name.citation needed An unofficial popular name was the Danubian Monarchy (German: Donaumonarchie) also often used was the term Doppel-Monarchie ("Double Monarchy") meaning two states under one crowned ruler.
  • Crownlands or crown lands (Kronländer) (1849–1918): This is the name of all the individual parts of the Austrian Empire (since 1849) and then of Austria-Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary (more exactly the Lands of the Hungarian Crown) was not considered a "crownland" after the establishment of Austria-Hungary 1867, so that the "crownlands" became identical with what was called the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council (Die im Reichsrate vertretenen Königreiche und Länder).

The Hungarian parts of the Empire were called "Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of Saint Stephen" or "Lands of Holy (St.) Stephen's Crown" (Länder der Heiligen Stephans Krone). The Bohemian (Czech) Lands were called "Lands of the St. Wenceslaus' Crown" (Länder der Wenzels-Krone).

Names of some smaller territories:

  • Austrian lands (Österreichische Länder) or "Archduchies of Austria" (Erzherzogtümer von Österreich) - Lands up and below the Enns (ober und unter der Enns) (996–1918): This is the historical name of the parts of the Archduchy of Austria that became the present-day Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich) on 12 November 1918 (after Emperor Charles I had abdicated the throne). Modern day Austria is a semi-federal republic of nine states (Bundesländer) that are: Lower Austria, Upper Austria, Tyrol, Styria, Salzburg, Carinthia, Vorarlberg and Burgenland and the Capital of Vienna that is a state of its own. Burgenland came to Austria in 1921 from Hungary. Salzburg finally became Austrian in 1816 after Napoleonic wars (before it was ruled by prince-archbishops of Salzburg as a sovereign territory).
Vienna, Austria's capital became a state January 1, 1922, after being residence and capital of the Austrian Empire (Reichshaupt und Residenzstadt Wien) for the Habsburg monarchs for centuries. Upper and Lower Austria, historically, were split into "Austria above the Enns" and "Austria below the Enns" (the Enns river is the state-border between Upper- and Lower Austria). Upper Austria was enlarged after the Treaty of Teschen (1779) following the "War of the Bavarian Succession" by the so-called Innviertel ("Inn Quarter"), formerly part of Bavaria.
  • Hereditary Lands (Erblande or Erbländer; mostly used Österreichische Erblande) or German Hereditary Lands (in the Austrian monarchy) or Austrian Hereditary Lands (Middle Ages – 1849/1918): In a narrower sense these were the "original" Habsburg Austrian territories, i.e. basically the Austrian lands and Carniola (not Galicia, Italian territories or the Austrian Netherlands).
    In a wider sense the Lands of the Bohemian Crown were also included in (from 1526; definitely from 1620/27) the Hereditary lands. The term was replaced by the term "Crownlands" (see above) in the 1849 March Constitution, but it was also used afterwards.
    The Erblande also included lots of small and smallest territories that were principalities, duchies or counties etc. some of them can namely be found in the reigning titles of the Habsburg monarchs like Graf (Earl/Count of) von Tyrol etc.

Territories

Growth of the Habsburg Monarchy

The territories ruled by the branch changed over the centuries, but the core always consisted of four blocs:

Europa regina, symbolizing a Habsburg-dominated Europe.
Soldiers of the Military Frontier against the incursions of the Ottoman Turks, 1756

Over the course of its history, other lands were, at times, under Austrian Habsburg rule (some of these territories were secundogenitures, i.e. ruled by other lines of Habsburg dynasty):

The boundaries of some of these territories varied over the period indicated, and others were ruled by a subordinate (secundogeniture) Habsburg line. The Habsburgs also held the title of Holy Roman Emperor between 1438 and 1740, and again from 1745 to 1806.

Characteristics

The various Habsburg possessions never really formed a single country—each province was governed according to its own particular customs. Until the mid 17th century, all of the provinces were not even necessarily ruled by the same person—junior members of the family often ruled portions of the Hereditary Lands as private apanages. Serious attempts at centralization began under Maria Theresa and especially her son Joseph II in the mid to late 18th century, but many of these were abandoned following large scale resistance to Joseph's more radical reform attempts, although a more cautious policy of centralization continued during the revolutionary period and the long Metternichian period which followed.

An even greater attempt at centralization began in 1849 following the suppression of the various revolutions of 1848. For the first time, ministers tried to transform the monarchy into a centralized bureaucratic state ruled from Vienna. The Kingdom of Hungary, in particular, ceased to exist as a separate entity, being divided into a series of districts. Following the Habsburg defeats in the Wars of 1859 and 1866, this policy was abandoned, and after several years of experimentation in the early 1860s, the famous Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was arrived at, by which the so-called Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary was set up. In this system, the Kingdom of Hungary was given sovereignty and a parliament, with only a personal union and a joint foreign and military policy connecting it to the other Habsburg lands. Although the non-Hungarian Habsburg lands, often, but erroneously, referred to as "Austria," received their own central parliament (the Reichsrat, or Imperial Council) and ministries, as their official name – the "Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council" – shows that they remained something less than a genuine unitary state. When Bosnia and Herzegovina were annexed (after a long period of occupation and administration), they were not incorporated into either half of the monarchy. Instead, they were governed by the joint ministry of finance.

Austria-Hungary collapsed under the weight of the various unsolved ethnic problems that came to a head with its defeat in World War I. In the peace settlement that followed, significant territories were ceded to Romania and Italy, new republics of Austria (the German-Austrian territories of the Hereditary lands) and Hungary (the Magyar core of the old kingdom) were created, and the remainder of the monarchy's territory was shared out among the new states of Poland, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and Czechoslovakia.

Habsburg territories outside the Habsburg Monarchy

Habsburg territories in 1700. The Habsburg Monarchy is shown in yellow, while the territories of the senior Spanish Habsburgs are shown in red.

The Habsburg monarchy should not be confused with various other territories ruled at different times by members of the Habsburg dynasty. The senior Spanish line of the Habsburgs ruled over Habsburg Spain and various other territories from 1516 until it became extinct in 1700. A junior line ruled over Tuscany between 1765 and 1801, and again from 1814 to 1859. While exiled from Tuscany, this line ruled at Salzburg from 1803 to 1805, and in Würzburg from 1805 to 1814. Another line ruled the Vorlande from 1803 to 1805, and Modena from 1814 to 1859, while Empress Marie Louise, Napoleon's second wife and the daughter of Austrian Emperor Francis, ruled over the Duchy of Parma between 1814 and 1847. Also, the Second Mexican Empire, from 1863 to 1867, was headed by Maximilian I of Mexico, the brother of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria.

History

For a historical account, see:

Rulers of the Habsburg Monarchy, 1526–1918

Habsburg

Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor and his wife Infanta Maria of Spain with their children.

Habsburg-Lorraine

  • Joseph II 1780–1790 known as "the great Reformer"
  • Leopold II 1790–1792 from 1765 to 1790 "Grandduke of Tuscany"
  • Francis II 1792–1835 correctly written "Franz" (became Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804, at which point numbering starts anew)
  • Ferdinand I 1835–1848 known as "Ferdinand the Good" German: "Ferdinand der Gütige"
  • Francis Joseph I 1848–1916 Brother of Emperor Maximilian of Mexico (ruled 1864–1867)
  • Charles I 1916–1918 last reigning Monarch of Austria-Hungary
  • Otto von Habsburg-Lothringen or sometimes called Otto von Österreich Crown Prince of Austria to be found as Otto von Habsburg

Family tree

Habsbourgs' family tree

In literature

The most famous novel on the decline of the Habsburg Empire is Stefan Zweig's The World of Yesterday.9

Notes

  1. ^ The monarchy had no official name. Various names were:
    • Habsburg Empire
    • Habsburg Monarchy
    • Habsburg Hereditary Lands
    • Austrian Monarchy
  2. ^ "Smoldering Embers: Czech-German Cultural Competition, 1848–1948" by C. Brandon Hone. Utah State University.
  3. ^ a b "Czech Republic - Historic Centre of Prague (1992)" Heindorffhus, August 2007, HeindorffHus-Czech.
  4. ^ Vienna website; http://www.wien-vienna.com/austrohungary.php
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica online article Austria-Hungary; http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/44386/Austria-Hungary
  6. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art; http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/habs/hd_habs.htm
  7. ^ University of Wisconsin; http://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/351/holy%20roman%20empire.htm
  8. ^ Britannica 2009
  9. ^ Giorgio Manacorda (2010) Nota bibliografica in Roth La Marcia di Radetzky, Newton Classici quotation:

    Stefan Zweig, l'autore del più famoso libro sull'Impero asburgico, Die Welt von Gestern

Further reading

External links








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