Hankyu Railway

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Hankyu Railway
Hankyu-logo.svg
HankyuNakatsuSta.jpg
Six-track section near Umeda terminal
Nakatsu Station in the center
Locale Kansai region, Japan
Dates of operation 1910–
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Length 138.4 km
Headquarters Osaka, Japan
Website http://rail.hankyu.co.jp/

Hankyu Railway (阪急電鉄株式会社 Hankyū Dentetsu Kabushiki Kaisha?), commonly known as Hankyū Dentetsu (阪急電鉄?), is a Japanese private railway that provides commuter and interurban service to the northern Kansai region and is one of major businesses operated by Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc. The railway's main terminal is at Umeda Station in Osaka. The signature color of Hankyu cars is maroon.1

The Hankyu network serves 1,950,000 people every weekday and offers several types of express service with no extra charge.

The head office of Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc. and Hankyu Railway (Hankyu Corporation) is at 1-16-1, Shibata, Kita-ku, Osaka; its registered headquarters are at 1-1, Sakaemachi, Ikeda, Osaka Prefecture.

History

Umeda Station on the day of inauguration

Foundation

In 1907, Minoo Arima Electric Tramway Company (箕面有馬電気軌道株式会社 Minoo Arima Denki Kidō Kabushiki Gaisha?), a forerunner of Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc., was established by Ichizō Kobayashi. On 10 March 1910, Minoo Arima Tramway opened the rail lines from Umeda to Takarazuka (the Takarazuka Main Line) and from Ishibashi to Minoo (the Minoo Line).

Expansion to Kobe

On February 4, 1918, Minoo Arima Tramway was renamed Hanshin Kyūkō Railway Company (阪神急行電鉄株式会社 Hanshin Kyūkō Dentetsu Kabushiki Gaisha?, referred to as "Hankyū", 阪急). On July 16, 1920, the Kobe Main Line from Jūsō to Kobe (later, renamed Kamitsutsui) and the Itami Line from Tsukaguchi to Itami were opened. On April 1, 1936, the Kobe Main Line was extended from Nishi-Nada (present: Ōji-kōen) to the new terminal in Kobe (present: Kobe-sannomiya Station), and the Kobe Main Line from Nishi-Nada to Kamitsutsui was named the Kamitsutsui Line, which was abandoned on May 20, 1940.

In 1936, Hankyu established a professional baseball team and in 1937 the Nishinomiya Stadium as the team's home field was completed near Nishinomiya-Kitaguchi Station. The Hankyu Braves (named in 1947) played until the 1988 season and became the predecessors of the present-day Orix Buffaloes.

Merger and separation with Keihan

On October 1, 1943, under the order of the government, Hanshin Kyūkō and Keihan Electric Railway were merged, and renamed Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway Company (京阪神急行電鉄株式会社 Keihanshin Kyūkō Dentetsu Kabushiki Gaisha?, referred to as "Keihanshin", 京阪神). The merged lines included the Keihan Main Line, the Uji Line, the Shinkeihan Line (present-day Kyoto Main Line), the Senriyama Line (present-day Senri Line), the Jūsō Line (part of Kyoto Main Line), the Arashiyama Line, the Keishin Line and the Ishiyama Sakamoto Line. The Katano Line was also added in 1945.

On December 1, 1949, the Keihan Main Line, the Katano Line, the Uji Line, the Keishin Line, and the Ishiyama-Sakamoto Line were split off to become part of the newly established Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd. Although this revived the former Keihan Electric Railway, Keihan was now smaller than before the 1943 merger, because the Shinkeihan Line and its branches were not given up by Keihanshin. The present structure of the Hankyu network with the three main lines was fixed by this transaction. The abbreviation of Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway was changed from "Keihanshin" to "Hankyū".

Postwar development

610 Series car, built 1953-56

On April 7, 1968, the Kobe Main Line started through service to the Kobe Rapid Transit Railway Tozai Line and the Sanyo Electric Railway Main Line. On December 6, 1969, the Kyoto Main Line and the Senri Line started through service to the Osaka Municipal Subway Sakaisuji Line. In 1970, the Senri Line was one of access routes to the Expo '70 held in Senri area.

On April 1, 1973, Keihanshin Kyūkō Railway Company was renamed Hankyu Corporation (阪急電鉄株式会社 Hankyū Dentetsu Kabushiki Gaisha?).

On April 1, 2005, former Hankyu Corporation became a holding company and was renamed Hankyu Holdings, Inc. (阪急ホールディングス株式会社 Hankyū Hōrudhingusu Kabushiki Gaisha?). The railway business was ceded to a subsidiary, now named Hankyu Corporation (before the restructuring, the new company which reused a dormant company founded on December 7, 1989 was called "Act Systems" (株式会社アクトシステムズ) until March 28, 2004, then "Hankyū Dentetsu Bunkatsu Junbi K.K." (阪急電鉄分割準備株式会社) from the next day).

On October 1, 2006, Hankyu Holdings became the wholly owning parent company of Hanshin Electric Railway Co., Ltd. and the holdings were renamed Hankyu Hanshin Holdings, Inc.. Hankyu's stock purchase of Hanshin shares was completed on June 20, 2006.2

Rail Lines

Map of Hankyu lines

Hankyu operates three main trunk lines, connecting Osaka with Kobe, Takarazuka and Kyoto respectively, and their branches.

                     Kōbe Main Line (神戸本線) (Category-1: Umeda - Kobe-sannomiya)

                     Itami Line (伊丹線) (Category-1: Tsukaguchi - Itami)
                     Imazu Line (今津線) (Category-1: Imazu - Nishinomiya-kitaguchi - Takarazuka)
                     Kōyō Line (甲陽線) (Category-1: Shukugawa - Kōyōen)
                     Kōbe Kōsoku Line (神戸高速線) (Category-2: Kobe-sannomiya - Shinkaichi, Trains are operated between Kobe-sannomiya and Shinkaichi on the Kōbe Rapid Transit Railway Tōzai Line)

                     Takarazuka Main Line (宝塚本線) (Category-1: Umeda - Takarazuka)

                     Minoo Line (箕面線) (Category-1: Ishibashi - Minoo)

                     Kyoto Main Line (京都本線) (Category-1: Umeda - Kawaramachi)

                     Senri Line (千里線) (Category-1: Tenjimbashisuji Roku-chome - Awaji - Kita-Senri)
                     Arashiyama Line (嵐山線) (Category-1: Katsura - Arashiyama)

The three groups of the lines, the Kobe Lines, the Takarazuka Lines and the Kyoto Lines, can be further grouped into two, the Kobe-Takarazuka Lines and the Kyoto Lines from a historical reason. Hankyu has two groups of rolling stock, one for the Kobe-Takarazuka Lines and the other for the Kyoto Lines.

                     Nose Electric Railway (Category-1: Kawanishi-Noseguchi - Myōkenguchi/Nissei-Chūō) works as a feeder of the Takarazuka Main Line although it is a separate railway company under control of Hankyu.

Former lines

Abandoned lines

  • Kitano Line (Umeda - Kitano)
  • Kamitsutsui Line (Nishi-Nada (Ōji-kōen) - Kamitsutsui)

Transferred lines

The Keihan and Ōtsu Lines were transferred to Keihan Electric Railway Co., Ltd. which separated from Keihanshin Kyūkō (now Hankyu) on December 1, 1949.

Rolling stock

3100 series
5100 series
9000 series
9300 series

As of March 31, 2010, Hankyu has 1,319 cars for passenger service.3 Standard cars have three pairs of doors per side and bench seating facing the center of the train (exceptions are noted below). The Kobe Line and Takarazuka Line use the same fleet. Some former Hankyu trains, such as the 2000 series and 3100 series, have been transferred to the Nose Electric Railway.

Kobe Line/Takarazuka Line

Kyoto Line

Fare

Single fare (adult) in Japanese Yen by travel distance is as follows.

Fare of Hankyu
Distance (km) Fare (JPY)
1–4 150
5–9 180
10–14 220
15–19 260
20–26 270
27–33 310
34–42 360
43–51 390
52–60 450
61–70 510
71–76 600

For fare collection, IC cards (PiTaPa and ICOCA) are accepted.

Etymology

The name Hankyu stands for Keihanshin Kyūkō (京阪神急行). Keihanshin (京阪神) means the cities of Kyoto (京都), Osaka (大阪), Kobe (神戸), and the suburbs of theirs. Kyūkō (急行) means express train.

In popular culture

A 2-car Hankyu train was featured in the 1988 Japanese animated war drama Grave of the Fireflies.4

The 2011 film Hankyu Railway: a 15-Minute Miracle is set on the Hankyu Imazu line.

See also

References

  1. ^ "会社概要" [Company Overview] (in Japanese). Osaka, Japan: Hankyu Corporation. 2002. Retrieved Nov 9, 2012. 
  2. ^ "UPDATE 2-Hankyu takes over fellow railway operator Hanshin". Reuters. 2006-06-20. Retrieved 2006-06-20. 
  3. ^ Hankyu Corporation Toshikōtsū-jigyō-honbu Gijutsu-bu. "車両総説" [General information on rolling stock]. The Railway Pictorial (in Japanese) (Tokyo: Denkisha Kenkyūkai Tetsudōtosho Kankōkai) 837 (August 2010 Extra): p. 50. 
  4. ^ http://my.opera.com/opera%20kanta/blog/2008/08/13/grave-of-the-fireflies-hankyu-train. 2008-08-13. Retrieved 2010-12-25.

External links








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