Haplogroup K-M526

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Haplogroup K(xLT)
Possible time of origin 35,000-45,000 years BP
Possible place of origin South or Central Asia
Ancestor K
Descendants K1, K2, K3, K4, M, NO, P, S
Defining mutations rs2033003 (M526)

In population genetics, Haplogroup K(xLT) is a human Y-DNA Haplogroup (formerly MNOPS).1 A haplogroup (from the Greek: ἁπλούς, haploûs, "onefold, single, simple") is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor having the same single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation in all haplotypes. Haplogroup K(xLT) shares a common ancestor with Paragroup K* and Haplogroup LT, and together they form a macrohaplogroup called Haplogroup K.

Haplogroup K(xLT) is the ancestral haplogroup to haplogroups K1, K2, K3, K4, M, NO, P (which contains haplogroups Q and R), and S.2

The naming of K(xLT) was a "revolution" in haplogroup designation, because prior to that the formula "K(xLT)" never designated a single haplogroup, but instead "everything that belongs to K, but does not belong to LT". The traditional way would have been to rename haplogroups K1, K2, K3 and K4 into U, V, W and X, and to rename MNOPS into MNOPSUVWX, but the YCC decided otherwise. This poses a great problem, because there is no way to disambiguate between "K(xLT)" in the traditional and in the new meaning. It also creates a confusion whence haplogroups K1, K2, K3, K4 do not belong directly to haplogroup K, but instead to haplogroup K(xLT).citation needed

Subclades

Tree

The basic structure is as follows:

Macro-haplogroup K(xLT)

Haplogroup M. New Guinea, Indonesia, Melanesia and Polynesia.


Macro-haplogroup NO

Haplogroup N. Mainly found in Northern Asia, Northern East Europe and parts of Polynesia.



Haplogroup O. Mainly found in East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania including Polynesia.



Macro-haplogroup P

Haplogroup Q. Mainly found in Northern Asia and the Americas.


Macro-haplogroup R
Macro-haplogroup R1

Haplogroup R1a. Mainly found in Eastern Europe, South Asia and Central Asia.



Haplogroup R1b. Mainly found in Western Europe, Central Africa and Central Asia.




Haplogroup R2. Mainly found in South Asia.





Haplogroup S. New Guinea, Indonesia Polynesia and Melanesia.



In more detail, the following phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the YCC 2008 tree3 and subsequent published research.

Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MP X S
M P NO
Q R N O
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2013). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809. 

References

  1. ^ Jacques Chiaroni, Peter A. Underhill, and Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift, and cultural evolution," PNAS published online before print November 17, 2009, doi:10.1073/pnas.0910803106 PMID 19920170
  2. ^ ISOGG Haplogroup Y-DNA tree
  3. ^ Karafet et al. (2008), Abstract New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree, Genome Research, doi:10.1101/gr.7172008 PMID 18385274
  4. ^ Yali Xue, Tatiana Zerjal, Weidong Bao, Suling Zhu, Qunfang Shu, Jiujin Xu, Ruofu Du, Songbin Fu, Pu Li, Matthew E. Hurles, Huanming Yang, and Chris Tyler-Smith, "Male Demography in East Asia: A North–South Contrast in Human Population Expansion Times," Genetics 2006 April; 172(4): 2431–2439.
  5. ^ Supplementary Table 2: NRY haplogroup distribution in Han populations, from the online supplementary material for the article by Bo Wen et al., "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture," Nature 431, 302-305 (16 September 2004)
  6. ^ a b Table 1: Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies in 49 Eurasian populations, listed according to geographic region, from the article by R. Spencer Wells et al., "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (August 28, 2001)
  7. ^ "Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas," Maria-Catira Bortolini et al., American Journal of Human Genetics 73:524-539, 2003







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