Henry Morgenthau, Sr.
|4th United States Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire|
|Preceded by||William Woodville Rockhill|
|Succeeded by||Abram I. Elkus|
April 26, 1856|
|Died||November 25, 1946
New York City
|Children||Henry Morgenthau Jr.|
|Alma mater||City College of New York (B.A.)
Columbia Law School (J.D.)
Henry Morgenthau (//, with a /t/; April 26, 1856 – November 25, 1946) was a lawyer, businessman and United States ambassador, most famous as the American ambassador to the Ottoman Empire during the First World War. As ambassador to the Ottoman Empire, Morgenthau has come to be identified as the most prominent American to speak out against the Armenian Genocide.1
Morgenthau was father of the politician Henry Morgenthau, Jr.. His grandchildren included Robert M. Morgenthau, District Attorney of Manhattan for 35 years, and Barbara Tuchman, noted author and historian.
Morgenthau was born, the 9th of 11 living children, in Mannheim, Grand Duchy of Baden in 1856 into an Ashkenazi Jewish family of twelve children. He was the son of Lazarus and Babette Morgenthau. His father was a successful cigar manufacturer who had cigar factories at Mannheim, Lorsch and Heppenheim, employing as many as 1,000 people (Mannheim had a population of 21,000 during this period). Having suffered a severe financial setback during the American Civil War, due to an 1862 tobacco tariff on imports, which closed German tobacco exports to the US forever, the family emigrated to New York in 1866. There, despite a considerable "nest egg" of cash, his father was unsuccessful in re-establishing himself in business, as his development and marketing of various inventions and his investments in other enterprises failed. Lazarus Morgenthau was able to stave off failure and stabilize his income by becoming a fundraiser for Jewish houses of worship. Henry attended City College of New York, where he received a BA, and later graduated from Columbia Law School. He began his career as a lawyer, but he made a substantial fortune in real estate investments.2 He married Josephine Sykes in 1882 and had four children: Helen, Alma, Henry Jr. and Ruth.3 Morgenthau built a successful career as a lawyer and served as the leader of the Reform Jewish community in New York.4
Morgenthau's career enabled him to contribute handsomely to President Woodrow Wilson's election campaign in 1912. He had first met Wilson in 1911 at a dinner celebrating the fourth anniversary of the founding of the Free Synagogue society and the two "seem to have bonded", marking the "turning point in Morgenthau's political career".5 His role in American politics grew more pronounced in later months and though his desire to be designated the financial chairman of the campaign finance committee went unfulfilled, Wilson offered him the position of ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. He had hoped for a cabinet post as well, but was not successful in gaining one.
As an early Wilson supporter, Morgenthau assumed he would be named to a cabinet-level position, but the new President had other plans; like other prominent Jewish Americans, Oscar Straus and Solomon Hirsch before him, Morgenthau would be posted as the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. Wilson's assumption that Jews somehow represented a bridge between Muslim Turks and Christian Americans rankled Morgenthau; in reply Wilson assured him that the Porte in Istanbul "was the point at which the interest of American Jews in the welfare of the Jews of Palestine is focused, and it is almost indispensable that I have a Jew in that post." Though no Zionist himself, he cared fervidly about the plight of his coreligionists.6 Morgenthau initially rejected the position, but following a trip to Europe and the Holy Land, and with the encouragement of his pro-Zionist friend Rabbi Stephen Wise, he reconsidered his decision and accepted Wilson's offer.7 He was appointed as U.S. Ambassador to the Ottoman Empire in 1913 and served in this position until 1916.
Although the safety of American citizens, mostly Christian missionaries and Jews, was a major concern in the Ottoman Empire early in his ambassadorship, Morgenthau stated that the one issue he was most preoccupied was the Armenian Question.8 After the outbreak of war, the U.S. remained neutral so the American Embassy – and by extension Morgenthau – additionally represented many of the Allies' interests in Constantinople, since they had withdrawn their diplomatic missions due to the hostilities. As Ottoman authorities began the extermination campaign of the Armenians in 1914-1915, Morgenthau's desk was flooded with reports nearly every hour by the American consuls residing in different parts of the Empire, documenting the massacres and deportation marches that were taking place. Faced with the accumulating evidence, he officially informed the U.S. government of the activities of the Ottoman government and asked for it to intervene.9
The American government however, not wanting to get dragged in, remained a neutral power in the conflict at the time and voiced little official reaction. Morgenthau held high-level meetings with the leaders of the Ottoman Empire to help alleviate the position of the Armenians but his protestations were waived and ignored. He famously admonished the country's Interior Minister Talaat Pasha, stating that "Our people will never forget these massacres."10 As the massacres continued unabated, Morgenthau and several other Americans decided to form a public fund raising committee that would assist the Armenians, the Committee on Armenian Atrocities (later renamed the Near East Relief), raising over $100 million in aid, the equivalent of $1 billion today. Through his friendship with Adolph Ochs, publisher of the New York Times he also ensured that the massacres continued to receive prominent coverage, with 145 articles in 1915 alone.11 Exasperated with his relationship with the Ottoman government, he resigned from the ambassadorship in 1916. Looking back on that decision in his The Murder of a Nation, he wrote he had come to see Turkey as “a place of horror. I had reached the end of my resources. I found intolerable my further daily association with men, however gracious and accommodating…who were still reeking with the blood of nearly a million human beings.”12 His conversations with Ottoman leaders and his account of the Armenian Genocide was later published in 1918 under the title Ambassador Morgenthau's Story.13
In 1918, Ambassador Morgenthau gave public speeches in the United States warning that the Greeks and Assyrians were being subjected to the "same methods" of deportation and "wholesale massacre" as the Armenians, and that two million Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians had already perished.14 In June 1917, Felix Frankfurter accompanied him, as a representative of the War Department, on a secret mission to persuade Turkey to abandon the Central Powers in the war effort, the stated purpose for the mission was to "ameliorate the condition of the Jewish communities in Palestine."15
Following the war, there was much interest and preparation within the Jewish community for the upcoming Paris Peace Conference, by groups both supportive and opposed to the concept of a Jewish homeland in Palestine. In March 1919, as President Woodrow Wilson was leaving for the Conference, Morgenthau was among 31 prominent Jewish Americans to sign an anti-Zionist petition presented by U.S. Congressman Julius Kahn;16 he and many other prominent Jewish representatives attended the Conference. Morgenthau served as an advisor regarding Eastern Europe and the Middle East, and later worked with war-related charitable bodies, including the Relief Committee for the Middle East, the Greek Refugee Settlement Commission and the American Red Cross. In 1919 he headed the United States government fact-finding mission to Poland resulting in the Morgenthau Report. In 1933, he was the American representative at the Geneva Conference
He died in 1946 following a cerebral hemorrhage, in New York City, and was buried in Hawthorne, NY. His son, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., was a Secretary of the Treasury. His daughter, Alma Wertheim, was the mother of historian Barbara Tuchman.
He published several books. The Library of Congress holds some 30,000 documents from his personal papers.
- Ambassador Morgenthau's Story (1918). Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
- The Secrets of the Bosphorus (1918) also covers this period.
- The Morgenthau Report (October 3, 1919) concerning alleged mistreatment of Jews by the Poles.
- "All In a Lifetime" (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1925), 454 pages, 7 illustrations.
- I was sent to Athens (1929) deals with his time working with Greek refugees.
- The Murder of a Nation (1974). With preface by W. N. Medlicott. New York: Armenian General Benevolent Union of America.
- Ara Sarafian (ed.): United States Official Records On The Armenian Genocide. 1915-1917, Gomidas Institute, Princeton & London 2004 ISBN 1-903656-39-7
- Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 219–221. ISBN 0-06-055870-9.
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 219.
- Oren, Michael B (2007). Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. pp. 332–333. ISBN 0-393-33030-3.
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 220.
- Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, p. 333.
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 222.
- Balakian. The Burning Tigris, p. 223.
- Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, pp. 333-336.
- Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, p. 335.
- Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, p. 336.
- Oren. Power, Faith, and Fantasy, p. 337.
- Morgenthau, Henry (1918). Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.
- Travis, Hannibal. "Native Christians Massacred: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians during World War I." Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 1, No. 3, December 2006, p. 327.
- Hirsch, H. N. (1981). The Enigma of Felix Frankfurter. New York: Basic Books. p. 53. ISBN 0-465-01979-X.
- Alfred M. Lilienthal, The Zionist Connection II: What Price Peace? (New Brunswick, New Jersey: North American, 1982), pp. 768-769. Cited in Edward C. Corrigan, Jewish Criticism of Zionism, Middle East Policy Council, Journal, Winter 1990-91, Number 35
- Balakian, Peter (2003). The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America's Response. New York: HarperCollins.
- Morgenthau III, Henry (1991). Mostly Morgenthaus: A Family History. New York: Ticknor & Fields.
- Oren, Michael B. (2007). Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East 1776 to the Present. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.
- Power, Samantha (2002). A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. New York: Basic Books.
- Tuchman, Barbara. "The Assimilationist Dilemma: Ambassador Morgenthau's Story." Commentary. No. 5, 63, May 1977.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry Morgenthau, Sr..|
- Henry Morgenthau, Sr. at Flickr Commons
- Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. An electronic copy of his most contentious book, at the World War I Document Archive.
- Ambassador Morgenthau's Story. With translations in French, German and Turkish.
- I was sent to Athens. An electronic copy of Morgenthau's book on the treatment of Greek refugees by the Ottoman Empire from 1913-1929.
- Native Christians Massacred: The Ottoman Genocide of the Assyrians during World War I. Describes Ambassador Morgenthau's attempts to educate the American public about the genocide of the Armenians, Greeks, and Assyrians of Anatolia and Mesopotamia.