History of North Carolina

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Map of the coast of Virginia and North Carolina, drawn 1585–1586 by Theodor de Bry, based on map by John White of the Roanoke Colony

The history of North Carolina from prehistory to the present covers the experiences of the people who have lived in the territory that now comprises the U.S. state of North Carolina.

Before 200 AD, residents were building earthwork mounds, which were used for ceremonial and religious purposes. Succeeding peoples, including those of the ancient Mississippian culture established by 1000 AD in the Piedmont, continued to build or add onto such mounds. In the 500–700 years preceding European contact, the Mississippian culture built large, complex cities and maintained far flung regional trading networks. Historically documented tribes in the North Carolina region included the Carolina Algonquian-speaking tribes of the coastal areas, such as the Chowanoke, Roanoke, Pamlico, Machapunga, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, and others, who were the first encountered by the English; Iroquoian-speaking Meherrin, Cherokee and Tuscarora of the interior; and Southeastern Siouan tribes, such as the Cheraw, Waxhaw, Saponi, Waccamaw, and Catawba.

Following the destruction of Spanish forts left by the Juan Pardo expedition in the 1560s in the interior, England began to settle the coastal areas, starting with a charter in 1584. Sir Walter Raleigh began two small settlements in the late 1580s, but they failed. Some mystery remains as to what happened to the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, but most historians think they starved to death. By 1640 colonists from Virginia moved into the area of Albemarle Sound. In 1663 the king granted a charter for a new colony named Carolina in honor of his father Charles I.1 He gave ownership to the Lords Proprietors.2

Reconstructed royal governor's mansion, Tryon Palace, in New Bern

North Carolina had developed a system of representative government and local control by the early 18th century. Many of its colonists resented British attempts after 1765 to levy taxes without representation in Parliament. The colony was a Patriot base during the American Revolution, and its legislature issued the Halifax Resolves, which authorized North Carolina delegates to the Second Continental Congress to vote for independence from Britain. Loyalist elements were suppressed, and there was relatively little military activity until late in the war.

During the first half of the nineteenth century, North Carolina remained a rural state, with no cities and few villages. Most whites operated small subsistence farms, but the eastern part of the state had a growing class of planters, especially after 1800 when cotton became highly profitable when using slave labor. Politically the state was highly democratic, as heated elections (among adult white men) pitted the Democratic east versus the Whiggish west. After the firing on Fort Sumter in April 1861 North Carolina seceded from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America. More soldiers from North Carolina fought for the Confederacy during the American Civil War, than any other state, but few major battles were fought there. During the early years of Reconstruction, strides were made at integrating the newly freed slaves into society, however these were quickly overturned and North Carolina became a firm part of the Jim Crow South.

The Civil Rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s had many connections to North Carolina. Events such as the sit-in protest at the F.W. Woolworth's store in Greensboro would become a touchstone for the movement, and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, a central organization in the movement, was founded at Shaw University in Raleigh. In 1973, Clarence Lightner was elected in Raleigh as the first African-American mayor of a major southern city.

Pre-colonial history

Town Creek Indian Mound, an example of a Mississippian-style ceremonial mound in North Carolina.

The earliest discovered human settlements in what eventually became North Carolina are found at the Hardaway Site near the town of Badin in the south-central part of the state. Radiocarbon dating of the site has not been possible. But, based on other dating methods, such as rock strata and the existence of Dalton-type spear points, the site has been dated to approximately 8000 BC, or 10,000 years old.3

Spearpoints of the Dalton type continued to change and evolve slowly for the next 7000 years, suggesting a continuity of culture for most of that time. During this time, settlement was scattered and likely existed solely on the hunter-gatherer level. Toward the end of this period, there is evidence of settled agriculture, such as plant domestication and the development of pottery.4

From 1000 BC until the time of European settlement, the time period is known as the "Woodland period". Permanent villages, based on settled agriculture, were developed throughout the present-day state. By about 800 AD, towns were fortified throughout the Piedmont region, suggesting the existence of organized tribal warfare.5 An important site of this late-Woodland period is the Town Creek Indian Mound, an archaeologically rich site occupied from about 1100 to 1450 AD by the Pee Dee culture of the Mississippian tradition.678

Earliest European explorations

Map of North America by Vesconte Maggiolo after an earlier map made on the Verrazzano expedition of 1524. The narrow isthmus of land separating "Tera Florida" from "Francesca" is the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Cape Fear is labeled "C. de la Foresto".

The earliest exploration of North Carolina by a European expedition is likely that of Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524. An Italian from Florence, Verrazzano was hired by French merchants in order to procure a sea route to bring silk to the city of Lyon. With the tacit support of King Francis I, Verrazzano sailed west on January 1, 1524 aboard his ship La Dauphine ahead of a flotilla that numbered three ships.9 The expedition made landfall at Cape Fear, and Verrazzano reported of his explorations to the King of France,

"The seashore is completely covered with fine sand [15 feet] deep, which rises in the shape of small hills about fifty paces wide... Nearby we could see a stretch of country much higher than the sandy shore, with many beautiful fields and planes[sic] full of great forests, some sparse and some dense; and the trees have so many colors, and are so beautiful and delightful that they defy description."10

Verrazzano continued north along the Outer Banks, making periodic explorations as he sought a route further west towards China. When he viewed the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds opposite the Outer Banks, he believed them to be the Pacific Ocean; his reports of such helped fuel the belief that the westward route to Asia was much closer than previously believed.911

Just two years later, in 1526, a group of Spanish colonists from Hispaniola led by Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón landed at the mouth of a river they called the "Rio Jordan", which may have been the Cape Fear River. The party consisted of 500 men and women, their slaves, and horses. One of their ships wrecked off the shore, and valuable supplies were lost; this coupled with illness and rebellion doomed the colony. Ayllón died on October 18, 1526 and the 150 or so survivors of that first year abandoned the colony and attempted to return to Hispaniola. Later explorers reported finding their remains along the coast; as the dead were cast off during the return trip.12

DeSoto Map HRoe 2008.jpg

Hernando de Soto first explored west-central North Carolina during his 1539-1540 expedition. His first encounter with a native settlement in North Carolina may have been at Guaquilli near modern Hickory. In 1567, Captain Juan Pardo led an expedition from Santa Elena at Parris Island, South Carolina, then the capital of the Spanish colony in the Southeast, into the interior of North Carolina, largely following De Soto's earlier route. His journey was ordered to claim the area as a Spanish colony, pacify and convert the natives, as well as establish another route to protect silver mines in Mexico (the Spanish did not realize the distances involved). Pardo went toward the northwest to be able to get food supplies from natives.1314

Pardo and his team made a winter base at Joara (near Morganton, in Burke County), which he renamed Cuenca. They built Fort San Juan and left 30 men, while Pardo traveled further, establishing five other forts. In 1567, Pardo's expedition established a mission called Salamanca in what is now Rowan County. Pardo returned by a different route to Santa Elena. After 18 months, in the spring of 1568, natives killed all the soldiers and burned the six forts, including the one at Fort San Juan. The Spanish never returned to the interior to press their colonial claim, but this marked the first European attempt at colonization of the interior. Translation in the 1980s of a journal by Pardo's scribe Bandera have confirmed the expedition and settlement. Archaeological finds at Joara indicate that it was a Mississippian culture settlement and also indicate Spanish settlement at Fort San Juan in 1567-1568. Joara was the largest mound builder settlement in the region. Records of Hernando de Soto's expedition attested to his meeting with them in 1540.131415

British colonization

Roanoke

Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of the ill-fated Roanoke Colony

The earliest English attempt at colonization in North America was Roanoke Colony of 1584–1587, the famed "Lost Colony" of Sir Walter Raleigh. The colony was established at Roanoke Island in the Croatan Sound on the leeward side of the Outer Banks. The first attempt at a settlement consisted of 100 or so men led by Ralph Lane. They built a fort, and waited for supplies from a second voyage. While waiting for supplies to return, Lane and his men antagonized the local Croatan peoples, killing several of them in armed skirmishes.1617 The interactions were not all negative, as the local people did teach the colonists some survival skills, such as the construction of dugout canoes.18

When the relief was long in coming, the colonists began to give up hope; after a chance encounter with Sir Francis Drake, the colonists elected to accept transport back to England with him. When the supply ships did arrive, only a few days later, they found the colony abandoned. The ship's captain, Richard Grenville, left a small force of 15 men to hold the fort and supplies and wait for a new stock of colonists.1920

In 1587 a third ship arrived carrying 110 men, 17 women, and 9 children, some of whom had been part of the first group of colonists that had earlier abandoned Roanoke. This group was led by John White. Among them was a pregnant woman; she gave birth to the first English subject born in North America, Virginia Dare. The colonists found the remains of the garrison left behind, likely killed by the Croatan who had been so antagonized by Lane's aggressiveness.21 White had intended to pick up the remains of the garrison, abandon Roanoke Island, and settle in the Chesapeake Bay. White's Portuguese pilot, Simon Fernandez, refused to carry on further; rather than risk mutiny, White agreed to resettle the former colony.22

The Spanish War prevented any further contact between the colony and England until a 1590 expedition, which found no remains of any colonists, just an abandoned colony and the letters "CROATOAN" carved into a tree, and "CRO" carved into another. Despite many investigations, no one knows what happened to the colony.232425 Historians widely believe that the colonists died of starvation and illness; they do not support the myth of their being taken in and assimilated by Native Americans.

Development of North Carolina Colony

The Province of North Carolina developed differently from South Carolina almost from the beginning. The Spanish experienced trouble colonizing North Carolina because it had a dangerous coastline, a lack of ports, and few inland rivers by which to navigate. In the 1650s and 1660s, settlers (mostly English) moved south from Virginia, in addition to runaway servants and fur trappers. They settled chiefly in the Albemarle Borderlands region.26

In 1665, the Crown issued a second charter to resolve territorial questions. As early as 1689, the Carolina proprietors named a separate deputy-governor for the region of the colony that lay to the north and east of Cape Fear. The division of the colony into North and South was completed at a meeting of the Lords Proprietors held at Craven House in London on December 7, 1710, although the same proprietors continued to control both colonies. The first colonial Governor of North Carolina was Edward Hyde who served from 1711 until 1712. North Carolina became a crown colony in 1729. Smallpox took a heavy toll in the region among Native Americans, who had no immunity to the disease, which had become endemic in Asia and Europe. The 1738 epidemic was said to have killed one-half of the Cherokee, with other tribes of the area suffering equally.27 Historians estimate there were about 5,000 settlers in 1700 and 11,000 in 1715.28

While the voluntary settlers were mostly British, some had brought Africans as laborers; most were enslaved. In the ensuing years, the settlers imported and purchased more slaves to develop plantations in the lowland areas, and the African proportion of the population rose rapidly. A colony at New Bern was composed of Swiss and German settlers.28 In the late eighteenth century, more German immigrants migrated south after entry into Pennsylvania.

By 1712, the term "North Carolina" was in common use. In 1728, the dividing line between North Carolina and Virginia was surveyed. In 1730, the population in North Carolina was 30,000.28 By 1729, the Crown bought out seven of the eight original proprietors and made the region a royal colony. John Carteret, 2nd Earl Granville refused to sell; in 1744 he received rights to the vast Granville Tract, constituting the northern half of North Carolina.

Bath the oldest town in North Carolina was the first nominal capital from 1705 until 1722, when Edenton took over the role, but the colony had no permanent institutions of government until their establishment at the new capital New Bern in 1743. Raleigh became capital of North Carolina in 1792.

Immigration from north

The colony grew rapidly from a population of 100,000 in 1752 to 200,000 in 1765.28 By 1760, enslaved Africans constituted one quarter of the population and were concentrated along the coast.

In the late eighteenth century, the tide of immigration to North Carolina from Virginia and Pennsylvania began to swell.28 The Scots-Irish (Ulster Protestants) from what is today Northern Ireland were the largest immigrant group from the British Isles to the colonies before the Revolution.29303130 In total, English indentured servants, who arrived mostly in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, comprised the majority of English settlers prior to the Revolution.3132 On the eve of the American Revolution, North Carolina was the fastest-growing British colony in North America. The small family farms of the Piedmont contrasted sharply with the plantation economy of the coastal region, where wealthy planters had established a slave society, growing tobacco and rice with slave labor.

Differences in the settlement patterns of eastern and western North Carolina, or the low country and uplands, affected the political, economic, and social life of the state from the eighteenth until the twentieth century. The Tidewater in eastern North Carolina was settled chiefly by immigrants from rural England and the Scottish Highlands. The upcountry of western North Carolina was settled chiefly by Scots-Irish, English and German Protestants, the so-called "cohee". During the Revolutionary War, the English and Highland Scots of eastern North Carolina tended to remain loyal to the British Crown, because of longstanding business and personal connections with Great Britain. The English, Welsh, Scots-Irish and German settlers of western North Carolina tended to favor American independence from Britain.

With no cities and very few towns or villages, the colony was rural and thinly populated. Local taverns provided multiple services ranging from strong drink, beds for travelers, and meeting rooms for politicians and businessmen. In a world sharply divided along lines of ethnicity, gender, race, and class, the tavern keepers' rum proved a solvent that mixed together all sorts of locals, as well as travelers. The increasing variety of drinks on offer, and the emergence of private clubs meeting in the taverns, showed that genteel culture was spreading from London to the periphery of the English world.33

The courthouse was usually the most imposing building in a county. Jails were often an important part of the courthouse but were sometimes built separately. Some county governments built tobacco warehouses to provide a common service for their most important export crop.34

Slaves

In the early years the line between white indentured servants and African laborers was vague, as some Africans also arrived under indenture, before more were transported as slaves. Some Africans were allowed to earn their freedom before slavery became a lifelong racial caste. Most of the free colored families found in North Carolina in the censuses of 1790-1810 were descended from unions or marriages between free white women and enslaved or free African or African-American men in colonial Virginia. Because the mothers were free, their children were born free. Such mixed-race families migrated along with their European-American neighbors into the frontier of North Carolina.35 As the flow of indentured laborers slackened because of improving economic conditions in Britain, the colony was short on labor and imported more slaves. It followed Virginia in increasing its controls on slavery, which became a racial caste of the foreign Africans.

The economy's growth and prosperity was based on slave labor, devoted first to the production of tobacco. The oppressive and brutal experiences of slaves and poor whites led to their using escape, violent resistance, and theft of food and other goods in order to survive.36

Politics

In the late 1760s, tensions between Piedmont farmers and coastal planters developed into the Regulator movement. With specie scarce, many inland farmers found themselves unable to pay their taxes and resented the consequent seizure of their property. Local sheriffs sometimes kept taxes for their own gain and sometimes charged twice for the same tax. Governor William Tryon's conspicuous consumption in the construction of a new governor's mansion at New Bern fuelled the resentment of yeoman farmers. As the western districts were under-represented in the colonial legislature, the farmers could not obtain redress by legislative means. The frustrated farmers took to arms and closed the court in Hillsborough, North Carolina. Tryon sent troops to the region and defeated the Regulators at the Battle of Alamance in May 1771.

New nation

American Revolution

The demand for independence came from local grassroots organizations called "Committees of Safety". The First Continental Congress had urged their creation in 1774. By 1775 they had become counter-governments that gradually replaced royal authority and took control of local governments. They regulated the economy, politics, morality, and militia of their individual communities, but many local feuds were played out under ostensibly political affiliations. After December 1776 they came under the control of a more powerful central authority, the Council of Safety.37

In the spring of 1776, North Carolinians, meeting in the fourth of their Provincial Congresses, drafted the Halifax Resolves, a set of resolutions that empowered the state's delegates to the Second Continental Congress to concur in a declaration of independence from Great Britain. In July 1776, the new state became part of the new nation, the United States of America.

In 1775 the Patriots easily expelled the Royal governor and suppressed the Loyalists. In November 1776, elected representatives gathered in Halifax to write a new state constitution, which remained in effect until 1835.38 One of the most prominent Loyalists was John Legett, a rich planter in Bladen County. He organized and led one of the few loyalist brigades in the South (the North Carolina Volunteers, later known as the Royal North Carolina Regiment). After the war, Colonel Legett and some of his men moved to Nova Scotia; the British gave them free land grants in County Harbour as compensation for their losses in the colony. The great majority of Loyalists remained in North Carolina and became citizens of the new nation.39

Local militia units proved important in the guerrilla war of 1780-81. Soldiers who enlisted in George Washington's Continental Army fought in numerous battles up and down the land.40

Struggling with a weak tax base, state officials used impressment to seize food and supplies needed for the war effort, paying the farmers with promissory notes. To raise soldiers, state officials tried a draft law. Both policies created significant discontent that undermined support for the new nation.41 The state's large German population, concentrated in the central counties, tried to remain neutral; the Moravians were pacifist because of strong religious beliefs, while Lutheran and Reformed Germans were passively neutral. All peace groups paid triple taxes in lieu of military service.42

The British were punctual in paying their regulars and their Loyalist forces, American soldiers went month after month in threadbare uniforms with no pay and scanty supplies. Belatedly, the state tried to make amends. After 1780 soldiers received cash bounties, a slave "or the value thereof," clothing, food, and land (after 1782 they received from 640 to 1,200 acres depending on rank). Since the money supply, based on the Continental currency was subject to high inflation and loss of value, state officials valued compensation in relation to gold and silver.43

Military campaigns of 1780-81

After 1780 the British tried to rouse and arm the Loyalists, believing they were numerous enough to make a difference. The result was fierce guerrilla warfare between units of Patriots and Loyalists. Often the opportunity was seized to settle private grudges and feuds. A major American victory took place at King's Mountain along the North Carolina–South Carolina border. On October 7, 1780 a force of 1000 mountain men from western North Carolina (including what is today part of Tennessee) overwhelmed a force of some 1000 Loyalist and British troops led by Major Patrick Ferguson. The victory essentially ended British efforts to recruit more Loyalists.

1st Maryland Regiment holding the line at the Battle of Guilford.

The road to American victory at Yorktown led through North Carolina. As the British army moved north toward Virginia, the Southern Division of the Continental Army and local militia prepared to meet them. Following General Daniel Morgan's victory over the British under Banastre Tarleton at the Battle of Cowpens on January 17, 1781, the southern commander Nathanael Greene led British Lord Charles Cornwallis across the heartland of North Carolina, and away from Cornwallis's base of supply in Charleston, South Carolina. This campaign is known as "The Race to the Dan" or "The Race for the River."2

Generals Greene and Cornwallis finally met at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in present-day Greensboro on March 15, 1781. Although the British troops held the field at the end of the battle, their casualties at the hands of the numerically superior Continental Army were crippling. Cornwallis has a poor strategic plan which had failed in holding his heavily garrisoned positions in South Carolina and Georgia, and had failed to subdue North Carolina. By contrast, Greene used a more flexible adaptive approach that negated the British advantages and built an adequate logistical foundation for the American campaigns. Greene's defensive operations provided his forces the opportunity to later seize the strategic offensive from Comwallis and eventually reclaim the Carolinas. The weakened Cornwallis headed to the Virginia coastline to be rescued by the Royal Navy.44 Continental forces repulsed the Navy and Cornwallis, surrounded by American and French units, surrendered to George Washington, effectively ending the fighting.

By 1786, the population of North Carolina had increased to 350,000.28

Early Republic

The United States Constitution drafted in 1787 was controversial in North Carolina. Delegate meetings at Hillsboro in July 1788 initially voted to reject it for anti-federalist reasons. They were persuaded to change their minds partly by the strenuous efforts of James Iredell and William Daviesdisambiguation needed and partly by the prospect of a Bill of Rights. Meanwhile, residents in the wealthy northeastern part of the state, who generally supported the proposed Constitution, threatened to secede if the rest of the state did not fall into line. A second ratifying convention was held in Fayetteville in November 1789, and on November 21, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the U.S. Constitution.

North Carolina adopted a new state constitution in 1835. One of the major changes was the introduction of direct election of the governor, for a term of two years; prior to 1835, the legislature elected the governor for a term of one year. North Carolina's current capitol building was completed in 1840.

Transportation

In mid-century, the state's rural and commercial areas were connected by the construction of a 129–mile (208 km) wooden plank road, known as a "farmer's railroad", from Fayetteville in the east to Bethania (northwest of Winston-Salem).2

Map of the roads and railroads of North Carolina, 1854

On October 25, 1836 construction began on the Wilmington and Raleigh Railroad45 to connect the port city of Wilmington with the state capital of Raleigh. In 1849 the North Carolina Railroad was created by act of the legislature to extend that railroad west to Greensboro, High Point, and Charlotte. During the Civil War the Wilmington-to-Raleigh stretch of the railroad would be vital to the Confederate war effort; supplies shipped into Wilmington would be moved by rail through Raleigh to the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia.

Rural life

During the antebellum period, North Carolina was an overwhelmingly rural state, even by Southern standards. In 1860 only one North Carolina town, the port city of Wilmington, had a population of more than 10,000. Raleigh, the state capital, had barely more than 5,000 residents.

The majority of white families comprised the Plain Folk of the Old South, or "yeoman farmers." They owned their own small farms, and occasionally had a slave or two. Most of their efforts were to build up the farm, and feed their families, with a little surplus sold on the market in order to pay taxes and buy necessities.46

Plantations, slavery and free blacks

Most of North Carolina's slave owners and large plantations were located in the eastern portion of the state. Although North Carolina's plantation system was smaller and less cohesive than those of Virginia, Georgia or South Carolina, there were significant numbers of planters concentrated in the counties around the port cities of Wilmington and Edenton, as well as suburban planters around the cities of Raleigh, Charlotte and Durham. Planters owning large estates wielded significant political and socio-economic power in antebellum North Carolina, placing their interests above those of the generally non-slave holding "yeoman" farmers of Western North Carolina.

While slaveholding was slightly less concentrated than in some Southern states, according to the 1860 census, more than 330,000 people, or 33% of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African-Americans. They lived and worked chiefly on plantations in the eastern Tidewater. In addition, 30,463 free people of color lived in the state. Most were descended from free African Americans who had migrated along with neighbors from Virginia during the eighteenth century. They were also concentrated in the eastern coastal plain, especially at port cities such as Wilmington and New Bern where they had access to a variety of jobs. Free African Americans were allowed to vote until 1835, when the state rescinded their suffrage.

After the Revolution, Quakers and Mennonites worked to persuade slaveholders to free their slaves. Some were inspired by their efforts and the language of men's rights, to arrange for manumission of their slaves. The number of free people of color rose markedly in the first couple of decades after the Revolution.47

Civil War to 1900

Civil War

In 1860, North Carolina was a slave state, in which about one-third of the population of 992,622 were enslaved African Americans. This was a smaller proportion than many Southern states. In addition, the state had just over 30,000 Free Negroes.48 there were relatively few large plantations or old aristocratic families. North Carolina was reluctant to secede from the Union when it became clear that Republican Abraham Lincoln had won the presidential election. With the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861, in Lincoln's call for troops to march to South Carolina, the unionist element virtually collapsed in both of the state, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy.

North Carolina was the site of few battles, but it provided at least 125,000 troops to the Confederacy— far more than any other state. Approximately 40,000 of those troops never returned home, dying of disease, battlefield wounds, and starvation. North Carolina also supplied about 15,000 Union troops.49 Confederate troops from all parts of North Carolina served in virtually all the major battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, the Confederacy's most famous army. The largest battle fought in North Carolina was at Bentonville, which was a futile attempt by Confederate General Joseph Johnston to slow Union General William Tecumseh Sherman's advance through the Carolinas in the spring of 1865.2 In April 1865 after losing the Battle of Morrisville, Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Bennett Place, in what is today Durham, North Carolina. This was the next to last major Confederate Army to surrender. North Carolina's port city of Wilmington was the last major Confederate port for blockade runners; it fell in the spring of 1865 after the nearby Second Battle of Fort Fisher.

Elected in 1862, Governor Zebulon Baird Vance tried to maintain state autonomy against Confederate President Jefferson Davis.

The Union's naval blockade of Southern ports and the breakdown of the Confederate transportation system took a heavy toll on North Carolina residents, as did the runaway inflation of the war years. In the spring of 1863, there were food riots in North Carolina as town dwellers found it hard to buy food. On the other hand, blockade runners brought prosperity several port cities, until they were shut down by the Union Navy in 1864-65.

Union captures Fort Fisher, 1865.

Even after secession, some North Carolinians refused to support the Confederacy. This was particularly true of non-slave-owning farmers in the state's mountains and western Piedmont region. Some of these farmers remained neutral during the war, while some covertly supported the Union cause during the conflict. Approximately 2,000 white North Carolinians from western North Carolina enlisted in the Union Army and fought for the North in the war, and two additional black Union regiments were raised in the coastal areas of the state that were occupied by Union forces in 1862 and 1863.

Bennett Place, historic site of major Confederate surrender in Durham, North Carolina.

Reconstruction

During Reconstruction, African American leaders came both from those free before the war, from men who had escaped to the North and decided to return, and from migrants from the North who wanted to help in the postwar years. Many of these had escaped from slavery and got some education before they came back to the state. In general, however, illiteracy was a problem shared by most African Americans and about one-third of the whites in the state.

A number of white northerners migrated to North Carolina to work and invest. While feelings in the state were high against carpetbaggers, of the 133 persons at the constitutional convention, only 18 were Northern carpetbaggers and 15 were African American. North Carolina was readmitted to the Union in 1868, after ratifying a new state constitution. It included provisions to establish public education, prohibit slavery, and adopt universal suffrage. It also provided for orphanages, public charities and a penitentiary.50 The legislature also ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.

In 1870 the Democratic Party regained power in the state. Governor William W. Holden had used civil powers and spoken out to try to combat the Ku Klux Klan's increasing violence. Conservatives accused him of being head of the Union League, of believing in social equality between the races, and of being corrupt. When the legislature voted to impeach him, it charged him only with using and paying troops to put down insurrection (Ku Klux Klan activity) in the state. Holden was impeached and turned over his duties to Lieutenant Governor Tod R. Caldwell on December 20, 1870. The trial began on January 30, 1871, and lasted nearly three months. On March 22, the North Carolina Senate found Holden guilty and ordered him removed from office.

After the Ku Klux Klan Act of 1871 went into effect, the U.S. Attorney General, Amos T. Akerman, vigorously prosecuted Klan members in North Carolina. During the late 1870s, there was increased violence in the Piedmont area, where whites tried to suppress minority black voting in elections. Beginning in 1875, the Red Shirts, a paramilitary group, openly worked for the Democrats to suppress black voting.

Disfranchisement

As in other Southern states, after white Democrats regained power, they worked to re-establish white supremacy politically and socially. Paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts beginning in 1875 worked openly to disrupt black political meetings, intimidate leaders and directly challenge voters in campaigns and elections, especially in the Piedmont area. They sometimes physically attacked black voters and community leaders.

Despite this, in the 1880s, black officeholders were at a peak in local offices, where much business was done, elected from black-majority districts.51 White Democrats regained power on the state level.

Post-Civil War racial politics encouraged efforts to divide and co-opt groups. In the drive to regain power, Democrats supported an effort by state representative Harold McMillan to create separate school districts in 1885 for "Croatan Indians" to gain their support. Of mixed race and claiming Native American heritage, the families had been classified as free people of color in the antebellum years and did not want to send their children to public school classes with former slaves. After having voted with the Republicans, they switched to the Democrats.52 (In 1913 the group changed their name to "Cherokee Indians of Robeson County", "Siouan Indians of Lumber River" in 1934-1935, and were given limited recognition as Indians by the U.S. Congress as Lumbee in 1956.53 The Lumbee are one of several Native American tribes that have been officially recognized by the state in the 21st century.)

In 1894 after years of agricultural problems, an interracial coalition of Republicans and Populists won a majority of seats in the state legislature and elected the governor, Republican Daniel L. Russell. North Carolina's 2nd congressional district elected George Henry White, an educated African-American attorney, as its third black representative to Congress since the Civil War.

White Democrats worked to break up the coalition, and reduce voting by blacks and poor whites. In 1896 North Carolina passed a statute that made voter registration more complicated and reduced the number of blacks on voter registration rolls.

In 1898, in an election characterized by violence, fraud and intimidation of black voters by Red Shirts, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature. 54 Two days after the election, a small group of whites in Wilmington implemented their plan to take over the city government if the Democrats were not elected. The cadre led 1500 whites against the black newspaper and neighborhood in what is known as the Wilmington Insurrection of 1898; the mob and other whites killed up to 90 blacks. The cadre forced the resignation of Republican officeholders, including the white mayor, and mostly white aldermen, and ran them out of town. They replaced them with their own slate and that day elected Alfred M. Waddell as mayor, in the only coup d'etat in United States history.

Country store in Gordonton, North Carolina, 1939

The state legislature ratified a new constitution in 1899 with a suffrage amendment, whose requirements for poll taxes, literacy tests (administered by white officials) and similar mechanisms disfranchised most blacks and many poor whites.

Congressman White, an African American Republican said, "I cannot live in North Carolina and be a man and be treated as a man."55 He had been re-elected in 1898, but after passage of the new constitution, announced his decision not to seek a third term, saying he would leave the state.55 He moved his law practice to Washington, DC and later to Philadelphia, where he founded a commercial bank.55 By 1904, black voter turnout had been utterly reduced in North Carolina. Contemporary accounts estimated that 75,000 black male citizens lost the vote.5456 In 1900 blacks numbered 630,207 citizens, about 33% of the state's total population.57

With control of the legislature, white Democrats passed Jim Crow laws establishing racial segregation in public facilities and transportation. African Americans worked for more than 60 years to gain federal support and regain full power to exercise the suffrage and other constitutional rights of citizens. Without the ability to vote, they were excluded from juries and lost all chance at local offices: sheriffs, justices of the peace, jurors, county commissioners and school board members, which were the active site of government around the start of the 20th century.58 Suppression of the black vote and re-establishment of white supremacy quickly overwhelmed people's memory and knowledge of the thriving black middle class in the state.56 The Republicans were no longer competitive in state politics.

Post-war economy and society

The work patterns of elite white women changed radically after the Civil War, depending on their stage in the life cycle. Women over age 50 changed least, insisting that they needed servants and continuing their traditional managerial roles. The next generation, comprising the young wives and mothers during the Civil War, depended much less on black servants, and displayed greater flexibility toward household work. The youngest generation, which matured during the war and Reconstruction, did many of their own domestic chores. Some sought paid jobs outside the household, especially in teaching, which allowed an escape from domestic chores and obligatory marriage.59

During the late 19th century, North Carolina's Piedmont region developed an industrial economy: the cotton textile industry turned raw cotton into thread and cloth, which was sold to women to make into clothing. It employed white workers in close-knit company towns, hiring people from subsistence farming; and timber-based industries for furniture manufacture and building supplies developed in villages such as High Point and Thomasville. The introduction of manufacturing helped to diversify North Carolina's chiefly agricultural economy. For decades in the textile industry, African Americans were rejected for jobs because of segregation.

Reacting to segregation, disfranchisement and difficulties in agriculture in the early twentieth century, tens of thousands of African Americans left the state (and hundreds of thousands left the rest of the South) for the North and Midwest - for better opportunities in the Great Migration, whose first wave was from 1910-1940. They went to Washington, Baltimore, and Philadelphia; and sometimes further north, to industrial cities where there was work, usually taking the trains to connecting cities.

20th century

On December 17, 1903, the Wright brothers made the first successful airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.60 In the early 20th century, North Carolina launched both a major education initiative and a major road-building initiative to enhance the state's economy. The educational initiative was launched by Governor Charles Aycock in 1901. Supposedly, North Carolina built one school per day while Aycock was in office. In addition, North Carolina was helped by the Julius Rosenwald Fund, which contributed matching funds to local communities for the construction of thousands of schools for African Americans in rural areas throughout the South in the 1920s and 1930s. Black parents organized to raise the money and donated land and labor to build the schools for their children.

World War I

In 1917-1919 the state's Democrats were in powerful positions in Congress, holding two of 23 major committee chairmanships in the Senate and four of 18 in the House, as well as the post of House majority leader. Southerners controlled a block of votes and important chairmanship in Congress, controlling all the seats due them by their total population, although whites had disfranchised the blacks. President Woodrow Wilson, a fellow Democrat from the South, remained highly popular during World War I and was generally supported by the delegation.

During the war, the decrepit ship building industry was suddenly revived with large-scale federal contracts. Nine new shipyards opened in North Carolina to build ships under contracts from the Emergency Fleet Corporation. Four steamships were made of concrete, but most were made of wood or steel. Thousands of workers rushed to high-paying jobs, as the managers found a shortage of highly skilled mechanics, as well as a housing shortage. Although unions were weak, labor unrest and managerial inexperience caused the delays. The shipyards closed at the end of the war.61

During the early decades of the 20th century, several major U.S. military installations, notably Fort Bragg, were located in North Carolina. There were many usable trains in the town.

An important state government agency was the North Carolina Woman's Committee, headed by Laura Holmes Reilly of Charlotte. Motivated by the public service ideals of the Progressive Movement, it registered women for many volunteer services, promoted increased food production, and the elimination of wasteful cooking practices, helped maintain social services, worked to bolster moral well-being of white and black soldiers, improved public health and public schools, encouraged black participation in its programs, and helped with the devastating Spanish flu epidemic that struck worldwide in late 1918, with very high fatalities. The committee was generally successful in reaching middle-class white and black women, but it was handicapped by the condescension of male lawmakers, limited funding, and tepid responses from women on the farms and working-class districts.62

The state's road-building initiative began in the 1920s, after the automobile became a popular mode of transportation.

Great Depression and World War II

The state's farmers were badly hurt in the early years of the Great Depression, but benefited greatly by the New Deal programs, especially the tobacco program which guaranteed a steady flow of relatively high income to farmers,63 and the cotton program, which raised the prices farmers received for their crops (though it did have a correspondingly negative effect on consumers of those products, who saw prices rise during the Depression).64 The textile industry in the Piedmont region continued to attract cotton mills relocating from the high-wage North.

Prosperity largely returned during World War II, as the state sent hundreds of thousands of young men and a few hundred young women into the military, and supplied the armed forces with more textiles than any other state in the nation. Remote mountain places joined the national economy and had their first taste of prosperity.65

Political scientist V. O. Key analyzed the state political culture in depth in the late 1940s, and concluded it was exceptional in the South for its "progressive outlook and action in many phases of life", especially in the realm of industrial development, commitment to public education, and a moderate pattern segregation that was relatively free of the rigid racism found in the Deep South.66

Education and the economy

North Carolina invested heavily in its system of higher education, and also became known for its excellent universities. Three major institutions compose the state's Research Triangle: the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (chartered in 1789 and greatly expanded from the 1930s on), North Carolina State University, and Duke University (rechartered in 1924). conditions and the public elementary and high schools were not as noteworthy, however. In the 1960s Governor Terry Sanford, a racial moderate, called for more spending on the schools, but Sanford's program featured regressive taxation that fell disproportionately on the workers. In the 1970s Governor James B. Hunt Jr., another racial moderate, championed educational reform.

Reformers have stressed the central role of education in the modernization of the state and economic growth. They have also aggressively pursued economic development, attracting out-of-state, and international corporations with special tax deals and infrastructure development. Charlotte became the nation's number two banking center, after New York.

Race relations

In 1931 the Negro Voters League was formed in Raleigh to press for voter registration. The city had an educated and politically sophisticated black middle class; by 1946 the League had succeeded in registering 7,000 black voters, an achievement in the segregated South, since North Carolina had essentially disfranchised blacks with provisions of a new constitution in 1899.67 The work of racial desegregation and enforcement of constitutional civil rights for African Americans continued throughout the state.

Durham's Black newspaper, Carolina Times, edited by Louis Austin, took the lead in promoting the "Double V" strategy during World War II among civil rights activists. The strategy was to energize blacks to fight victory abroad against the Germans and Japanese, while fighting for victory at home against white supremacy and racial oppression. Activists demanded an end to racial inequality in education, politics, economics, and the armed forces.68

In 1960 nearly 25% of the state residents were African American: 1,114,907 citizens who had been living without full rights.69 African-American college students began the sit-in at the Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro on February 1, 1960, sparking a wave of copycat sit-ins across the American South. They continued the Greensboro sit-in sporadically for several months until, on July 25, African Americans were at last allowed to eat at Woolworth's. Integration of public facilities followed.

Together with continued activism in states throughout the South, African Americans' moral leadership gained the passage of the federal Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 under President Lyndon B. Johnson. Throughout the state, African Americans began to participate fully in political life. In October 1973, Clarence Lightner was elected mayor of Raleigh, making history as the first popularly elected mayor of the city, the first African American to be elected mayor, and the first African American to be elected mayor in a white-majority city of the South.67 In 1992 the state elected its first African-American congressman since George Henry White in 1898.

In 1979 North Carolina ended the state eugenics program. Since 1929 ,the state Eugenics Board had deemed thousands of individuals "feeble minded" and had them forcibly sterilized.70 In 2011 the state legislature debated whether the estimated 2,900 living victims of North Carolina's sterilization regime would be compensated for the harm inflicted upon them by the state. The victims of the program were disproportionately minorities and the poor.

Recent changes

In 1971, North Carolina ratified its third state constitution. A 1997 amendment to this constitution granted the governor veto power over most legislation. The majority of state residents began to support Republican national candidates in elections starting in 1968 with [[Richard M. Nixon].

During the last 25 years, North Carolina's population has increased as its economy has grown, especially in finance and knowledge-based industries, attracting people from the North and Midwest. The number of workers in agriculture has declined sharply because of mechanization, and the textile industry has steadily declined because of globalization and movement of jobs in this industry out of the country.71 Most of the growth in jobs and residents has taken place in metropolitan areas of the Piedmont, in Charlotte, Raleigh-Durham, Greensboro.72

See also

Sources

  1. ^ North Carolina State Library - North Carolina History
  2. ^ a b c d Lefler and Newsome, (1973)
  3. ^ Ward (1999), pp. 35-46
  4. ^ Ward (1999), pp. 51-75
  5. ^ Ward (1999), pp. 98-99
  6. ^ Ward (1999), pp. 123-133
  7. ^ "Town Creek Indian Mound". North Carolina Historic Sites. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  8. ^ Cunningham, Sarah L. "Biological and Cultural Stress in a South Appalachian Mississippian Settlement: Town Creek Indian Mound, Mt. Gilead, NC". North Carolina State University. Retrieved 2012-04-12. 
  9. ^ a b "Giovanni da Verrazzano". Exploration Through The Ages. The Mariner's Museum. Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  10. ^ Mobley (2003), p 16
  11. ^ Powell (1977), pp 9-10
  12. ^ Powell (1977), pp 10-11. Ready (2005), pp 18. Some sources, notably David Weber in The Spanish Frontier in North America, believe the location of the colony to be farther south; either the Waccamaw River in South Carolina or Sapelo Island in Georgia.
  13. ^ a b Richards, Constance E. "Contact and Conflict". American Archaeologist (Spring 2008). 
  14. ^ a b Ward (1999), pp. 229-231
  15. ^ Moore, David G.; Beck, Jr., Robin A.; Rodning, Christopher B. (March 2004). "Joara and Fort San Juan: culture contact at the edge of the world". Antiquity 78 (229). Retrieved 2009-07-21. 
  16. ^ Ward (1999), pp 231-232
  17. ^ Mobley (2003), pp 20-21
  18. ^ Powell (1977), pp 15
  19. ^ Ward (1999), pp 232
  20. ^ Powell (1977), pp 15-16
  21. ^ Ward (1999), p 232
  22. ^ Ready (2005), pp 24-25
  23. ^ Ward (1999), pp 232-233
  24. ^ Powell, pp 16-18>
  25. ^ Ready (2005), pp 27
  26. ^ Jonathan Edward Barth, "'The Sinke of America': Society in the Albemarle Borderlands of North Carolina, 1663-1729," North Carolina Historical Review, Jan 2010, Vol. 87 Issue 1, pp 1-27
  27. ^ "Cherokee Indians". Encyclopedia of North Carolina.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Bishir, Catherine (2005). North Carolina Architecture. UNC Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-8078-5624-6. 
  29. ^ David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, 1986
  30. ^ a b Table 3a. Persons Who Reported a Single Ancestry Group for Regions, Divisions and States: 1980
  31. ^ a b Table 1. Type of Ancestry Response for Regions, Divisions and States: 1980
  32. ^ "Indentured Servitude in Colonial America"
  33. ^ Daniel B. Thorp, "Taverns and tavern culture on the southern colonial frontier," Journal of Southern History, Nov 1996, Vol. 62#4 pp 661-88
  34. ^ Alan D. Watson, "County Buildings and Other Public Structures in Colonial North Carolina," North Carolina Historical Review, Oct 2005, Vol. 82 Issue 4, pp 427-463,
  35. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans in Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
  36. ^ Marvin L. Kay, et al. "'They Are Indeed the Constant Plague of their Tyrants': Slave Defence of a Moral Economy in Colonial North Carolina, 1748-1772," Slavery & Abolition, Dec 1985, Vol. 6 Issue 3, pp 37-56
  37. ^ Alan D. Watson, "The Committees of Safety and the Coming of the American Revolution in North Carolina, 1774-1776," North Carolina Historical Review, April 1996, Vol. 73 Issue 2, pp 131-155
  38. ^ Jeffrey J. Crow, A Chronicle of North Carolina during the American Revolution, 1763-1789 (1975)
  39. ^ Carole Watterson Troxler, "'The Great Man of the Settlement': North Carolina's John Legett At Country Harbour, Nova Scotia, 1783-1812," North Carolina Historical Review, July 1990, Vol. 67 Issue 3, pp 285-314
  40. ^ Hugh F. Rankin, The North Carolina Continental Line in the American Revolution (1977)
  41. ^ John R. Maass, "'Too Grievous for a People to Bear': Impressment and Conscription in Revolutionary North Carolina," Journal of Military History, Oct 2009, Vol. 73 Issue 4, p 1091-1115
  42. ^ Roger E. Sappington, "North Carolina and the Non-Resistant Sects during the American War of Independence," Quaker History, Spring 1971, Vol. 60 Issue 1, pp 29-47
  43. ^ Paul V. Lutz, "A State's Concern for the Soldiers' Welfare: How North Carolina Provided for Her Troops during the Revolution," North Carolina Historical Review, July 1965, Vol. 42 Issue 3, pp 315-318
  44. ^ Charles Heaton, "The Failure of Enlightenment Military Doctrine in Revolutionary America: The Piedmont Campaign and the Fate of the British Army in the Lower South," North Carolina Historical Review, April 2010, Vol. 87 Issue 2, pp 127-157,
  45. ^ NC Business History
  46. ^ Charles C. Bolton, Poor Whites of the Antebellum South: Tenants and Laborers in Central North Carolina and Northeast Mississippi (Duke University Press, 1994)
  47. ^ John Hope Franklin, Free Negroes of North Carolina, 1789–1860, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1941, reprint, 1991
  48. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1860 US Census, University of Virginia. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
  49. ^ Classbrain.com
  50. ^ W.E.B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America, 1860-1180.New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935; reprint, New York: The Free Press, 1998, pp.529-531
  51. ^ Michael J. Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 30
  52. ^ Blu,The Lumbee Problem, 62
  53. ^ Paul Heinegg, Free African Americans of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Maryland and Delaware, 2005
  54. ^ a b Albert Shaw, The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Vol.XXII, Jul-Dec 1900, p.274, accessed 27 Mar 2008
  55. ^ a b c "George Henry White", Black Americans in Congress, US Congress
  56. ^ a b Richard H. Pildes, "Democracy, Anti-Democracy, and the Canon", Constitutional Commentary, Vol. 17, 2000, pp. 12-13, Accessed 10 Mar 2008
  57. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 15 Mar 2008
  58. ^ Michael J. Klarman, From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 32
  59. ^ Jane Turner Censer, "A Changing World of Work: North Carolina Elite Women, 1865-1895," North Carolina Historical Review, Jan 1996, Vol. 73 Issue 1, pp 28-55
  60. ^ "Telegram from Orville Wright in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to His Father Announcing Four Successful Flights, 1903 December 17". World Digital Library. 1903-12-17. Retrieved 2013-07-21. 
  61. ^ William N. Still, Jr., "Shipbuilding and North Carolina: The World War I Experience," American Neptune, June 1981, Vol. 41#3 pp 188-207
  62. ^ William J. Breen, "Seven Women in the War: The North Carolina Woman's Committee, 1917-1919", North Carolina Historical Review, July 1978, Vol. 55#3 pp 251-283,
  63. ^ Anthony J. Badger, Prosperity Road: The New Deal, Tobacco, and North Carolina (1980)
  64. ^ Douglas Carl Abrams, Conservative Constraints: North Carolina and the New Deal (1992)
  65. ^ Reid Chapman; Deborah Miles (2006). Asheville and Western North Carolina in World War II. Arcadia Publishing. p. 115. 
  66. ^ V. O. Key Jr., Southern Politics in State and Nation (1949) p 205
  67. ^ a b "Lightner's Election Was News". News & Observer. 2002-07-14. Retrieved 2008-03-18. dead link
  68. ^ Jerry Gershenhorn, "Double V in North Carolina," Journalism History, Fall 2006, Vol. 32 Issue 3, pp 156-167,
  69. ^ Historical Census Browser, 1960 US Census, University of Virginia, accessed 15 Mar 2008
  70. ^ Nasaw, Daniel (2011-06-13). "Sterilisation: North Carolina grapples with legacy". BBC. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  71. ^ Peter A. Coclanis, and Louis M. Kyriakoudes, "Selling Which South? Economic Change in Rural and Small-Town North Carolina in an Era of Globalization, 1940-2007," Southern Cultures, Winter 2007, Vol. 13#3 pp 86-102
  72. ^ Christopher A. Cooper and H. Gibbs Knotts, eds. The New Politics of North Carolina (U. of North Carolina Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-8078-5876-9

References

  • Mobley, Joe A. (ed) (2003). The Way We Lived in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5487-5. 
  • Powell, William S. (1977). North Carolina: A History. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4219-2. 
  • Ready, Milton (2005). The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-591-1. 
  • Ward, H. Trawick; Davis Jr., R. P. Stephen (1999). Time Before History: The Archaeology of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-2497-6. 

Bibliography

  • Powell, William S. and Jay Mazzocchi, eds. Encyclopedia of North Carolina (2006) 1320pp; 2000 articles by 550 experts on all topics; ISBN 0-8078-3071-2. The best starting point for most research.

Surveys

  • Clay, James, and Douglas Orr, eds., North Carolina Atlas: Portrait of a Changing Southern State 1971
  • Crow; Jeffrey J. and Larry E. Tise; Writing North Carolina History (1979) online
  • Fleer; Jack D. North Carolina Government & Politics (1994) online political science textbook
  • Hawks; Francis L. History of North Carolina 2 vol 1857
  • Kersey, Marianne M., and Ran Coble, eds., North Carolina Focus: An Anthology on State Government, Politics, and Policy, 2d ed., (Raleigh: North Carolina Center for Public Policy Research, 1989).
  • Lefler; Hugh Talmage. A Guide to the Study and Reading of North Carolina History (1963) online
  • Lefler, Hugh Talmage, and Albert Ray Newsome, North Carolina: The History of a Southern State (1954, 1963, 1973), standard textbook
  • Link, William A. North Carolina: Change and Tradition in a Southern State (2009), 481pp history by leading scholar
  • Luebke, Paul. Tar Heel Politics: Myths and Realities (1990).
  • Morse, J. (1797). "North Carolina". The American Gazetteer. Boston, Massachusetts: At the presses of S. Hall, and Thomas & Andrews. 
  • Powell William S. Dictionary of North Carolina Biography. Vol. 1, A-C; vol. 2, D-G; vol. 3, H-K. 1979-88.
  • Powell, William S. Encyclopedia of North Carolina. 2006. ISBN 978-0-8078-3071-0.
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina Fiction, 1734-1957: An Annotated Bibliography 1958
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina through Four Centuries (1989), standard textbook
  • Ready, Milton. The Tar Heel State: A History of North Carolina (2005) excerpt and text search
  • WPA Federal Writers' Project. North Carolina: A Guide to the Old North State. 1939. famous Works Progress Administration guide to every town

Localities

  • Boyd William Kenneth. The Story of Durham. 1925.
  • Lally, Kelly A. Historic Architecture of Wake County, North Carolina. Raleigh: Wake County Government, 1994. ISBN 0-9639198-0-6.
  • Payne, Roger L. Place Names of the Outer Banks. Washington, North Carolina: Thomas A. Williams, 1985. ISBN 0-932707-01-4.
  • Morland John Kenneth. Millways of Kent. UNC 1958.
  • Powell, William S. The First State University. 3rd ed. Chapel Hill: 1992.
  • Powell, William S. North Carolina Gazetteer. Chapel Hill: 1968. Available as an electronic book with ISBN 0-8078-6703-9 from NetLibrary.
  • Vickers, James. Chapel Hill: An Illustrated History. Chapel Hill: Barclay, 1985. ISBN 0-9614429-0-5.

Special topics

  • Bishir, Catherine. North Carolina Architecture. Chapel Hill: UNC, 1990.
  • North Carolina China Council [a regional affiliate of the China Council of the Asia Society.] North Carolina's "China Connection", 1840-1949: A Record. N.P.: North Carolina China Council, 1981. No ISBN. Catalog of a photographic exhibit shown at the North Carolina Museum of History and elsewhere, 1980-1981.
  • Riggs, Stanley R. ed. The Battle for North Carolina's Coast: Evolutionary History, Present Crisis, and Vision for the Future (University of North Carolina Press; 2011) 142 pages

Environment and geography

  • Sawyer, Roy T. America's Wetland: An Environmental and Cultural History of Tidewater Virginia and North Carolina (University of Virginia Press; 2010) 248 pages; traces the human impact on the ecosystem of the Tidewater region.

Pre 1920

  • Anderson, Eric. Race and Politics in North Carolina, 1872-1901 (1981).
  • Beatty Bess. "Lowells of the South: Northern Influence on the Nineteenth-Century North Carolina Textile Industry, 1830-1890". Journal of Southern History 53 (Feb 1987): 37-62. online at JSTOR
  • Billings Dwight. Planters and the Making of a "New South": Class, Politics, and Development in North Carolina, 1865-1900. 1979.
  • Bolton; Charles C. Poor Whites of the Antebellum South: Tenants and Laborers in Central North Carolina and Northeast Mississippi 1994 online edition
  • Bradley, Mark L. Bluecoats and Tar Heels: Soldiers and Civilians in Reconstruction North Carolina (2010) 370 pp. ISBN 978-0-8131-2507-7
  • Cathey, Cornelius O. Agricultural Developments in North Carolina, 1783-1860. 1956.
  • Clayton, Thomas H. Close to the Land. The Way We Lived in North Carolina, 1820-1870. 1983.
  • Ekirch, A. Roger "Poor Carolina": Politics and Society in Colonial North Carolina, 1729-1776 (1981)
  • Escott Paul D., and Jeffrey J. Crow. "The Social Order and Violent Disorder: An Analysis of North Carolina in the Revolution and the Civil War". Journal of Southern History 52 (August 1986): 373-402.
  • Escott Paul D., ed. North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction (U. of North Carolina Press, 2008) 307pp; essays by scholars on specialized topics
  • Escott; Paul D. Many Excellent People: Power and Privilege in North Carolina, 1850-1900 (1985) online
  • Fenn, Elizabeth A. and Peter H. Wood. Natives and Newcomers: The Way We Lived in North Carolina Before 1770 (1983)
  • Gilpatrick; Delbert Harold. Jeffersonian Democracy in North Carolina, 1789-1816 (1931) online edition
  • Gilmore; Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1996) online edition
  • Griffin Richard W. "Reconstruction of the North Carolina Textile Industry, 1865-1885". North Carolina Historical Review 41 (January 1964): 34-53.
  • Harris, William C. "William Woods Holden: in Search of Vindication." North Carolina Historical Review 1982 59(4): 354-372. ISSN 0029-2494 Governor during Reconstruction
  • Harris, William C. William Woods Holden, Firebrand of North Carolina Politics. (1987). 332 pp.
  • Johnson, Charles A. "The Camp Meeting in Ante-Bellum North Carolina". North Carolina Historical Review 10 (April 1933): 95-110.
  • Johnson, Guion Griffis. Antebellum North Carolina: A Social History. 1937
  • Kars, Marjoleine. Breaking Loose Together: The Regulator Rebellion in Pre-Revolutionary North Carolina (2002) online edition
  • Kruman Marc W. Parties and Politics in North Carolina, 1836-1865. (1983).
  • Leloudis, James L. Schooling the New South: Pedagogy, Self, and Society in North Carolina, 1880-1920 1996 online edition
  • McDonald, Forrest, and Grady McWhiney. "The South from Self-Sufficiency to Peonage: An Interpretation". American Historical Review 85 (December 1980): 1095-1118. in JSTOR
  • McDonald Forrest, and Grady McWhiney. "The Antebellum Southern Herdsmen: A Reinterpretation". Journal of Southern History 41 (May 1975): 147-66. in JSTOR
  • Morrill, James R. The Practice and Politics of Fiat Finance: North Carolina in the Confederation, 1783-1789. 1969 online edition
  • Newcomer, Mabel, Economic and Social History of Chowan County, North Carolina, 1880-1915 (1917) online edition
  • Nathans Sydney. The Quest for Progress: The Way We Lived in North Carolina, 1870-1920. 1983.
  • O'Brien Gail Williams. The Legal Fraternity and the Making of a New South Community, 1848-1882. (1986).
  • Opper Peter Kent. "North Carolina Quakers: Reluctant Slaveholders". North Carolina Historical Review 52 (January 1975): 37-58.
  • Perdue Theda. Native Carolinians: The Indians of North Carolina. Division of Archives and History, North Carolina Department of Cultural Resources, 1985.
  • Ramsey Robert W. Carolina Cradle. Settlement of the Northwest Carolina Frontier, 1747-1762. 1964.
  • Risjord, Norman. Chesapeake Politics 1781-1800 (1978)
  • Joseph Carlyle Sitterson. The Secession Movement in North Carolina (1939) 285 pages
  • Tolley, Kim, “Joseph Gales and Education Reform in North Carolina, 1799–1841,” North Carolina Historical Review, 86 (Jan. 2009), 1–31.
  • Louise Irby Trenholme; The Ratification of the Federal Constitution in North Carolina (1932) online edition
  • Watson Harry L. An Independent People: The Way We Lived in North Carolina, 1770-1820. 1983.

Since 1920

  • Abrams; Douglas Carl; Conservative Constraints: North Carolina and the New Deal (1992) online edition
  • Badger; Anthony J. Prosperity Road: The New Deal, Tobacco, and North Carolina (1980) online edition
  • Bell John L., Jr. Hard Times: Beginnings of the Great Depression in North Carolina, 1929-1933. North Carolina Division of Archives and History, 1982.
  • Christensen, Rob. The Paradox of Tar Heel Politics: The Personalities, Elections, and Events That Shaped Modern North Carolina (2008) excerpt and text search
  • Clancy, Paul R. Just a Country Lawyer: A Biography of Senator Sam Ervin. (1974). Senator who helped to bring down Richard Nixon, but opposed the Civil Rights movement
  • Cooper, Christopher A., and H. Gibbs Knotts, eds. The New Politics of North Carolina (U. of North Carolina Press, 2008) ISBN 978-0-8078-5876-9
  • Gatewood; Willard B. Preachers, Pedagogues & Politicians: The Evolution Controversy in North Carolina, 1920-1927 1966 online edition
  • Gilmore; Glenda Elizabeth. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920 (1996)
  • Grundy; Pamela. Learning to Win: Sports, Education, and Social Change in Twentieth-Century North Carolina 2001 online edition
  • Hagood, Margaret Jarman. Mothers of the South: Portraiture of the White Tenant Farm Woman 1939
  • Key, V. O. Southern Politics in State and Nation (1951)
  • Odum, Howard W. Folk, Region, and Society: Selected Papers of Howard W. Odum, (1964).
  • Parramore Thomas C. Express Lanes and Country Roads: The Way We Lived in North Carolina, 1920-1970. (1983).
  • Pope, Liston. Millhands and Preachers. (1942). A history of the 1929 Loray Mill strike in Gastonia, N.C., especially the role of the church.
  • Puryear, Elmer L. Democratic Party Dissension in North Carolina, 1928-1936 (1962).
  • Seymour, Robert E. "Whites Only". Valley Forge, Pa.: Judson, 1991. An account of the Civil Rights movement in North Carolina, and churches' involvement in it (on both sides) in particular, by a white Baptist pastor who was a supporter of the movement. ISBN 0-8170-1178-1.
  • Taylor, Elizabeth A. "The Women's Suffrage Movement in North Carolina", North Carolina Historical Review, (January 1961): 45-62, and ibid. (April 1961): 173-89;
  • Tilley Nannie May. The Bright Tobacco Industry, 1860-1929. (1948).
  • Tilley Nannie May. The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. (1985).
  • Tullos, Allen. Habits of Industry: White Culture and the Transformation of the Carolina Piedmont. (1989). online edition, based on interviews
  • Weare; Walter B. Black Business in the New South: A Social History of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company (1993) online edition
  • Wood; Phillip J. Southern Capitalism: The Political Economy of North Carolina, 1880-1980 1986 online edition

Primary sources

  • Lindley S. Butler and Alan D. Watson, eds., The North Carolina Experience: An Interpretive and Documentary History 1984, essays by historians and selected related primary sources.
  • John L. Cheney, Jr., ed., North Carolina Government, 1585-1979: A Narrative and Statistical History (Raleigh: Department of the Secretary of State, 1981)
  • Jack Claiborne and William Price, eds. Discovering North Carolina: A Tar Heel Reader (1991).
  • Hugh Lefler, North Carolina History Told by Contemporaries (numerous editions since 1934)
  • H. G. Jones, North Carolina Illustrated, 1524-1984 (1984)
  • Alexander S. Salley, ed. Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708 (1911) online edition
  • Woodmason Charles. The Carolina Backcountry on the Eve of the Revolution. 1953.
  • Yearns, W. Buck and John G. Barret; North Carolina Civil War Documentary (1980)

Primary sources: governors and political leaders

  • Luther H. Hodges; Businessman in the Statehouse: Six Years as Governor of North Carolina 1962 online edition
  • Memoirs of W. W. Holden (1911) complete text
  • Holden, William Woods. The Papers of William Woods Holden. Vol. 1: 1841-1868. Horace Raper and Thornton W. Mitchell, ed. Raleigh, Division of Archives and History, Dept. of Cultural Resources, 2000. 457 pp.
  • North Carolina Manual, published biennially by the Department of the Secretary of State since 1941.

External links








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