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African-Americans formed a unique ethnic identity in Texas, while facing societal and institutional discrimination for many years. The first person of African heritage to arrive in Texas was Estevanico, who came to Texas in 1528.1
Many African-Americans in Texas remained in slavery until after the U.S. Civil War ended. While, in many other states, the approach taken by the United States Army convinced many slaves to run away, this phenomenon did not occur in Texas. On June 19, 1865, authorities announced that slavery had been formally abolished. This is celebrated in Texas as "Juneteenth."1