House of Burgesses
|House of Burgesses|
|Colony of Virginia|
Patrick Henry in the House of Burgesses by Peter F. Rothermel
|Succeeded by||Virginia House of Delegates|
|Reconstructed chamber in Williamsburg
Jamestown, Virginia (1619-1699)
Williamsburg, Virginia (1699-1776)
The House of Burgesses was the first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.1 The House was established by the Virginia Company, who created the body as part of an effort to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America and to make conditions in the colony more agreeable for its current inhabitants.2 Its first meeting was held in Jamestown, Virginia, on July 30, 1619.3
The Colony of Virginia was founded by an English stock company, the Virginia Company, as a private venture. Early governors provided the stern leadership and harsh judgments required for the colony to survive its early difficulties. As early crises with famine, disease, Indian attack, the need to establish a cash crop and insufficient skilled or committed labor subsided, the colony needed to attract enough new and responsible settlers if it was to grow and prosper. To encourage settlers to come to Virginia, in 1618-1619, the Virginia Company leaders drew up a great charter. Emigrants who paid their own way to Virginia would receive 50 acres of land. They would not be mere sharecroppers. Civil authority would control the military. A council of burgesses, representatives chosen by the inhabitants of the colony for their government, would be convened as the House of Burgesses. The governor could veto their actions and the company still had overall control of the venture, but the settlers would have a say in their own government, including the right of the House of Burgesses to introduce money bills.4
On July 30, 1619, the first legislative assembly in the Americas convened for a six-day meeting at the church on Jamestown Island, Virginia. A council chosen by the Virginia Company as advisers to the governor, the Virginia Governor's Council, met as a sort of "upper house," while 22 elected representatives met as the House of Burgesses. Together, the House of Burgesses and the Council would be the Virginia General Assembly.4
The House's first session of July 30, 1619, accomplished little. It was cut short by an outbreak of malaria. The assembly had 22 members from the following constituencies: James City (Captain William Powell, Ensign William Spense), Charles City (Sergeant Samuel Sharpe, Samuel Jordan), the City of Henricus (Thomas Dowse, John Polentine or John Plentine), Kicoughtan (Captain William Tucker, William Capps), Martin-Brandon (Captain John Martin's Plantation) (Thomas Davis, Robert Stacy), Smythe's Hundred (Captain Thomas Graves, Walter Shelley), Martin's Hundred (John Boys, John Jackson), Argall's Gift Plantation (Thomas Pawlett, Edward Gourgainy), Flowerdew Hundred Plantation or Flowerdieu Hundred (Ensign Edmund Rossingham, John Jefferson), Captain Lawne's Plantation (Captain Christopher Lawne, Ensign Washer), and Captain Ward's Plantation (Captain John Warde or Capt. John Ward, Lt. John Gibbs or Lt. Gibbes).5
Especially after the massacre of about 400 colonists on March 22, 1622 by Native Americans and epidemics in the winters before and after the massacre, the governor and council ruled arbitrarily and allowed no dissent. By 1624, the royal government in London had heard enough about the problems of the colony and revoked the charter of the Virginia Company. Virginia became a crown colony and the governor and council would be chosen by the king. Nonetheless, the basic form of government of the colony was retained, although the right of the General Assembly to exist was not officially confirmed until 1639.4
In 1634, the General Assembly divided the colony into eight shires (later redesignated as counties) for purposes of government, administration and the judicial system. By 1643, the expanding colony had 15 counties. All of the county offices, including a board of commissioners, judges, sheriff, constable and clerks, were appointed positions. Only the members of the House of Burgesses were elected by a vote of the people. Women had no right to vote. While all free men originally were given the right to vote, by 1670 only property owners were allowed to vote.4
In 1652, the parliamentary forces of Oliver Cromwell forced the colony to submit to their takeover of the British government. Again, the colonists were able to retain the General Assembly as their governing body. Only taxes agreed to by the assembly were to be levied. Still most Virginia colonists were loyal to Prince Charles and were pleased at his restoration as King Charles II in 1660. He went on directly or indirectly to restrict some of the liberties of the colonists, such as requiring tobacco to be shipped only to England only on English ships with the price set by the English merchant buyers,6 but the General Assembly remained.4
A majority of the members of the General Assembly of 1676 were supporters of Nathaniel Bacon. They enacted legislation designed to further popular sovereignty and representative government and to equalize opportunities.7 Bacon took little part in the deliberations since he was busy fighting the Native Americans.8
The statehouse in Jamestown burned down for the fourth time on October 20, 1698. The House of Burgesses met temporarily in Middle Plantation, 11 miles (18 km) inland from Jamestown, and then in 1699 permanently moved the capital of the colony to Middle Plantation, which they renamed Williamsburg.9
Though not a unique occurrence on the frontier, colonists remained loyal to the British crown during the French and Indian War in North America from 1754 to 1763. Despite its beginnings in Europe between Great Britain and France, it resulted in local colonial losses and economic disruption. Higher taxes were to follow, and adverse local reactions to these and how they were determined would drive events well into the next decade.10
In 1764, desiring revenue from its North American colonies, Parliament passed the first law specifically aimed at raising colonial money for the Crown. The Sugar Act increased duties on non-British goods shipped to the colonies.11 The same year, the Currency Act prohibited American colonies from issuing their own currency.12 These angered many American colonists and began colonial opposition with protests. By the end of the year, many colonies were practicing non-importation, a refusal to use imported English goods.11 In 1765 the British Quartering Act, which required the colonies to provide barracks and supplies to British troops, further angered American colonists; and to raise more money for Britain, Parliament enacted the Stamp Act on the American colonies, to tax newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, broadsides, legal documents, dice, and playing cards.13 American colonists responded to Parliament's acts with organized protest throughout the colonies. A network of secret organizations known as the Sons of Liberty was created to intimidate the stamp agents collecting the taxes, and before the Stamp Act could take effect, all the appointed stamp agents in the colonies had resigned.14 The Massachusetts Assembly suggested a meeting of all colonies to work for the repeal of the Stamp Act, and all but four colonies were represented.15 The colonists also increased their non-importation efforts,16 and sought to increase in local production.
In 1769 the Virginia House of Burgesses passed several resolutions condemning Britain's stationing troops in Boston following the Massachusetts Circular Letter of the previous year; these resolutions stated that only Virginia's governor and legislature could tax its citizens.17 The members also drafted a formal letter to the King, completing it just before the legislature was dissolved by Virginia's royal governor.18
In 1774 the First Continental Congress passed their Declaration and Resolves, which inter alia claimed that American colonists were equal to all other British citizens, protested taxation without representation, and stated that, without colonial representation in Parliament, Parliament could not tax colonists.19
In 1619, the first house of Burgesses met in the choir of a church in Jamestown; subsequent meetings of the House of Burgesses continued to take place in Jamestown.1
In 1699, the seat of the House of Burgesses was moved from Jamestown to Middle Plantation, soon renamed Williamsburg.20 The Burgesses met there in two consecutive Capitol buildings (the first use of the word in the English Colonies). The present Capitol at Colonial Williamsburg is a reconstruction of the earlier of the two lost buildings.
In honor of the original House of Burgesses, every other year, the Virginia General Assembly traditionally leaves the current Virginia State Capitol in Richmond, and meets for one day in the restored Capitol at Colonial Williamsburg.22
In 2006, the Assembly held a special session at Jamestown to mark the 400th anniversary of its founding as part of the Jamestown 2007 celebration including an address by then-vice president Dick Cheney.23
- List of members of the Virginia House of Burgesses
- List of Speakers of the Virginia House of Burgesses
- Hatch, Charles (1956). America's Oldest Legislative Assembly & Its Jamestown Statehouses, Appendix II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service.
- Bosher, Kate (1907). "The First House of Burgesses". The North American Review. 184 (612): 733–39.
- Rubin, Jr. Louis D. Virginia: A History.New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1977. ISBN 0-393-05630-9. pp. 3–27.
- Stanard, William G. and Mary Newton Stanard. The Virginia Colonial Register. Albany, NY: Joel Munsell's Sons Publishers, 1902. OCLC 253261475, Retrieved July 15, 2011. p. 52.
- Rubin, 1977, p. 19.
- Rubin, 1977, p. 25.
- Rubin, 1977, p. 26.
- Rubin, 1977. p. 29.
- Anderson, Fred (2005). "The Real First World War and the Making of America.". American Heritage. 6 56 (75).
- Johnson, Allen. "The Passage of the Sugar Act". The William and Mary Quarterly. 16 (4): 507–14.
- Greene, Jack; Richard Jellison (1961). "The Currency Act of 1764 in Imperial-Colonial Relations, 1764-1776.". The William and Mary Quarterly. 3 18 (4): 485–518.
- "America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775". Library of Congress. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "The Sons of Liberty".
- Rothbard, Murray (1975). The Stamp Act Congress. NY: Arlington House.
- America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1765, Library of Congress
- MacDonald, William (1914). Select Charters and Other Documents Illustrative of American History, 1606-1775. NY: Macmillan.
- America During the Age of Revolution, 1768-1769, Library of Congress
- Macdonald, William (1916). Documentary Source Book of American History, 1606-1913. NY: Macmillan.
- Olmert, Michael (1985). Official Guide to Colonial Williamsburg. Williamsburg, VA: Colonial Williamsburg Foundation.
- "April dates in Virginia history". Virginia Historical Society. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "www.history.org - Historic Sites & Buildings : Capitol of Colonial Williamsburg". www.history.org.
- "Vice President's Remarks to a Joint Session of the Virginia General Assembly". Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Hatch, Charles E., Jr., (1956 rev). America's Oldest Legislative Assembly & Its Jamestown Statehouses, Appendix II. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service.
- Mayer, Henry (1986). A Son of Thunder, Patrick Henry and the American Republic. New York: Franklin Watts.
- Rubin, Jr. Louis D. Virginia: A History.New York W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1977. ISBN 0-393-05630-9.
- Salmon, Emily J. and Campbell, Jr., Edward D. C., editors, The Hornbook of Virginia History. Richmond, Virginia: The Library of Virginia, 1994.
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