Human anus

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The anus of a female (left) and a male (right).

The human anus (from Latin anūs meaning "ring", "circle")12 is the external opening of the rectum. Two sphincters control the exit of feces from the body during an act of defecation, which is the primary function of the anus. These are the internal anal sphincter and the external anal sphincter, which are circular muscles that normally maintain constriction of the orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning. The inner sphincter is involuntary and the outer is voluntary. It is located behind the perineum which is located behind the vagina in females and behind the scrotum in males.

With anal sex, the anus can play a role in sexuality. Attitudes towards anal sex vary and it is illegal in some countries.3 The anus is often considered a taboo part of the body,3 and it is known by a large number of usually vulgar slang terms. The anus is also the site of potential infections and other conditions, including cancercitation needed. The traditional polite synonym for anus was fundament, though this euphemism is rarely heard now that medical terms are widely acceptable.

Structure

The anus is the final component of the gastrointestinal tract, and directly continues from the rectum. The anus passes through the pelvic floor. The anus is surrounded by muscles. The top and bottom of the anus are surrounded by the internal and external anal sphincters, two muscular rings which control defeaecation.4:397

The anus is surrounded in its length by folds called anal valves, which converge at a line known as the pectinate line. This represents the point of transition between the hindgut and the ectoderm in the embryo. Below this point, the mucosa of the internal anus becomes skin.4 :397

Histology

The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract transitions to stratified squamous epithelium at the pectinate line. The stratified squamous epithelium gradually accumulates sebaceous and apocrine glands.5 :285

Development

During puberty, as testosterone triggers androgenic hair growth on the body, pubic hair begins to appear around the anus. Although initially sparse, it fills out by the end of puberty, if not earlier. However, in some ethnicities, androgenic hair is less common.

Function

Defecation

Intra-rectal pressure builds as the rectum fills with feces, pushing the feces against the walls of the anal canal. Contractions of abdominal and pelvic floor muscles can create intra-abdominal pressure which further increases intra-rectal pressure. The internal anal sphincter (an involuntary muscle) responds to the pressure by relaxing, thus allowing the feces to enter the canal. The rectum shortens as feces are pushed into the anal canal and peristaltic waves push the feces out of the rectum. Relaxation of the internal and external anal sphincters allows the feces to exit from the anus, finally, as the levator ani muscles pull the anus up over the exiting feces.

Pathology

Psychology

In psychology, the Freudian term anal fixation is used.

Society and culture

Sexuality

The anus has a relatively high concentration of nerve endings and is an erogenous zone, which can make anal intercourse pleasurable for both the insertive partner and the receptive partner. Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosexual development, for example, described an anal stage, hypothesizing that toddlers derive pleasure from retaining and expelling feces. This is the source of the term "anal-retentive" and the derived, derogatory vulgarism "anal".

In addition to nerve endings, pleasure from anal intercourse occurs due to the shared wall between the anus and the prostate for males and vagina/G-Spot for females. This allows for indirect stimulation of the G-Spot or clitoral legs in women, and prostate in men.6789 For a male insertive partner, the tightness of the anus can be a source of pleasure via the tactile pressure on the penis.810 Pleasure from the anus can also be achieved through anal masturbation, fingering,3 fisting, facesitting, anilingus, and other penetrative and non-penetrative acts. Anal stretching can stimulate the nerves around the anus and can be considered pleasurable. Care must be taken to maintain elasticity. Lubricant is widely regarded as a necessity while performing anal sex.11121314

Anal intercourse is sometimes referred to as sodomy or buggery, and is considered taboo in a number of legal systems. It has been, and in some jurisdictions continues to be, a crime carrying severe punishment.3

Hygiene

To prevent diseases of the anuscitation needed and to promote general hygiene, humans often clean the exterior of the anus after emptying the bowels. A rinse with water from a bidet or a wipe with toilet paper are often used for this purpose, though anal cleansing practices vary greatly between cultures.

Cosmetics

Shaving, trimming, depilatory (hair removal), or Brazilian waxing can clear the perineum of hair.

Anal bleaching is a process in which the anus and perineum, which may darken after puberty depending on individual genetics, is lightened for a more youthful appearance.

True anal piercing is rare because it may interfere with the function of the anus. However, surface piercings of the perineum are easier to care for and much more common.

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ Martim de Albuquerque (1873). Notes and Queries. Original from the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. p. 119. 
  2. ^ Edward O'Reilly, John O'Donovan (1864). An Irish-English Dictionary. Original from Oxford University: J. Duffy. p. 7. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Anal Sex, defined". Discovery.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2002. Retrieved July 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  5. ^ Deakin, Barbara Young … [et al.] ; (2006). Wheater's functional histology : a text and colour atlas. drawings by Philip J. (5th ed.). [Edinburgh?]: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06850-8. 
  6. ^ "The male hot spot — Massaging the prostate". Go Ask Alice!. September 27, 2002 [Revised/updatedMarch 28, 2008]. Retrieved April 21, 2010. 
  7. ^ Komisaruk, Barry R.; Whipple, Beverly; Nasserzadeh, Sara; Beyer-Flores, Carlos (2009). The Orgasm Answer Guide. JHU Press. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-8018-9396-4. Retrieved January 20, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b See page 3 for women preferring anal to vaginal, and page 15 for reaching orgasm through indirect stimulation of the G-Spot. Taormino, Tristan (1997). The Ultimate Guide to Anal Sex for Women. Cleis Press. ISBN 978-1-57344-221-3. Retrieved November 6, 2011. 
  9. ^ Natasha Janina, Valdez (2011). Vitamin O: Why Orgasms Are Vital to a Woman's Health and Happiness, and How to Have Them Every Time!. Skyhorse Publishing Inc. ISBN 978-1-61608-311-3. Retrieved November 6, 2011. page needed
  10. ^ Joann S. DeLora, Carol A. B. Warren, Carol Rinkleib Ellison (1981) [Digitized May 29, 2008]. Understanding sexual interaction. Houghton Mifflin (Original from the University of Virginia). p. 123. ISBN 978-0-395-29724-7. Retrieved November 6, 2011. 
  11. ^ Dean, John; Delvin, David. "Anal sex". Netdoctor.co.uk. Retrieved April 29, 2010. 
  12. ^ Carroll, Janell L. (2009). Sexuality Now: Embracing Diversity. Cengage Learning. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-495-60274-3. Retrieved 2010-12-19. 
  13. ^ Heidelbaugh, Joel J. (2007). Clinical men's health: evidence in practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 273. ISBN 978-1-4160-3000-3. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  14. ^ Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Z.; Sáez, H.; Dolezal, C.; Nieves-Rosa, L.; Díaz, F. (2000). "Frequent use of lubricants for anal sex among men who have sex with men". American Journal of Public Health 90 (7): 1117–1121. doi:10.2105/AJPH.90.7.1117. PMC 1446289. PMID 10897191. 







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