Human height is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body, standing erect.
When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are medical conditions caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities.1
In regions of poverty or warfare, environmental factors like chronic malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for delayed growth and/or marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.
- 1 Determinants of growth and height
- 2 Birth order and height
- 3 Process of growth
- 4 Height abnormalities
- 5 Role of an individual's height
- 6 Sports
- 7 History of human height
- 8 Average height around the world
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 External links
The study of height is known as auxology. Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less influential in regard to populations. Average height is relevant to the measurement of the health and wellness (standard of living and quality of life) of populations.2 Attributed as a significant reason for the trend of increasing height in parts of Europe are the egalitarian populations where proper medical care and adequate nutrition are relatively equally distributed.3 Changes in diet (nutrition) and a general rise in quality of health care and standard of living are the cited factors in the Asian populations. Average height in the United States has remained essentially stagnant since the 1950s even as the racial and ethnic background of residents has shifted. Malnutrition including chronic undernutrition and acute malnutrition is known to have caused stunted growth in various populations.4 This has been seen in North Korean, portions of African, certain historical European, and other populations.5 Developing countries such as Guatemala have rates of stunting in children under 5 living as high as 82.2% in Totonicapán, and 49.8% nation-wide.6
Height measurements are by nature subject to statistical sampling errors even for a single individual. In a clinical situation, height measurements are seldom taken more often than once per office visit, which may mean sampling taking place a week to several months apart. The smooth 50th percentile male and female growth curves illustrated above are aggregate values from thousands of individuals sampled at ages from birth to age 20. In reality, a single individual's growth curve shows large upward and downward spikes. Partly due to actual differences in growth velocity, and partly due to small measurement errors. For example, a typical measurement error of plus or minus 0.5 cm may completely nullify 0.5 cm of actual growth resulting in either a "negative" 0.5 cm growth (due to overestimation in the previous visit combined with underestimation in the latter), up to a 1.5 cm growth (the first visit underestimating and the second visit overestimating) in the same elapsed time period between measurements. Note there is a discontinuity in the growth curves at age 2, which reflects the difference in recumbent length (with the child on his or her back), used in measuring infants and toddlers, and standing height typically measured from age 2 onwards.
Height, like other phenotypic traits, is determined by a combination of genetics and environmental factors. A child's height based on parental heights is subject to regression toward the mean, therefore extremely tall or short parents will likely have correspondingly taller or shorter offspring, but their offspring will also likely be closer to average height than the parents themselves. Genetic potential and a number of hormones, minus illness, is a basic determinant for height. Other factors include the genetic response to external factors such as diet, exercise, environment, and life circumstances. Humans grow fastest (other than in the womb) as infants and toddlers, rapidly declining from a maximum at birth to roughly age 2, tapering to a slowly declining rate, and then during the pubertal growth spurt, a rapid rise to a second maximum (at around 11–12 years for female, and 13–14 years for male), followed by a steady decline to zero. On average, female growth speed trails off to zero at about 15 or 16 years, whereas the male curve continues for approximately 3 more years, going to zero at about 18–20. These are also critical periods where stressors such as malnutrition (or even severe child neglect) have the greatest effect.
Moreover, the health of a mother throughout her life, especially during her critical periods, and of course during pregnancy, has a role. A healthier child and adult develops a body that is better able to provide optimal prenatal conditions.5 The pregnant mother's health is important as gestation is itself a critical period for an embryo/fetus, though some problems affecting height during this period are resolved by catch-up growth assuming childhood conditions are good. Thus, there is a cumulative generation effect such that nutrition and health over generations influences the height of descendants to varying degrees.
The age of the mother also has some influence on her child's height. Studies in modern times have observed a gradual increase in height with maternal age, though these early studies suggest that trend is due to various socio-economic situations that select certain demographics as being more likely to have a first birth early in the mother's life.789 These same studies show that children born to a young mother are more likely to have below-average educational and behavioural development, again suggesting an ultimate cause of resources and family status rather than a purely biological explanation.89
The precise relationship between genetics and environment is complex and uncertain. Differences in human height is 60%–80% heritable, according to several twin studies10 and has been considered polygenic since the Mendelian-biometrician debate a hundred years ago.citation needed The only gene known to have an influence on human height is HMGA2. People who carry two copies of the "tall" allele of the HMGA2 gene are up to 1 cm taller than those who carry two copies of the "short" allele.11 A genome-wide association (GWA) study of more than 180,000 individuals has identified hundreds of genetic variants in at least 180 loci associated with adult human height.12
The effect of environment on height is illustrated by studies performed by anthropologist Barry Bogin and coworkers of Guatemala Mayan children living in the United States. In the early 1970s, when Bogin first visited Guatemala, he observed that Mayan Indian men averaged only 1.575 m (5 ft 2 in) in height and the women averaged 1.422 m (4 ft 8 in).citation needed Bogin took another series of measurements after the Guatemalan Civil War had erupted, during which up to a million Guatemalans had fled to the United States. He discovered that Maya refugees, who ranged from six to twelve years old, were significantly taller than their Guatemalan counterparts.13 By 2000, the American Maya were 10.24 cm (4.03 in) taller than the Guatemalan Maya of the same age, largely due to better nutrition and access to health care.14 Bogin also noted that American Maya children had a significantly lower sitting height ratio, (i.e., relatively longer legs, averaging 7.02 cm (2.76 in) longer) than the Guatemalan Maya.1415
The Nilotic peoples of Sudan such as the Shilluk and Dinka have been described as some of the tallest in the world. Dinka Ruweng males investigated by Roberts in 1953–54 were on average 1.813 m tall, and Shilluk males averaged 1.826 m.16 The Nilotic people are characterized as having long legs, narrow bodies and short trunks, an adaptation to hot weather.17 However, male Dinka and Shilluk refugees measured in 1995 in Southwestern Ethiopia were on average only 1.764 m and 1.726 m tall, respectively.18
In Tibet, the khampas are known for their great height. Khampa males are on average 180 cm tall (5' 10).19 Anthropologist Michael Peissel described the Khampa in 1964: "The Khampas stood a good six feet in height."20
It has been observed that males tend to increase in height with increasing birth order.21 Example include George W. Bush and younger brother Jeb Bush, Bashar Al-Assad and his older brother Bassel al-Assad, Jeremy Lin and older brother Josh Lin, Sacha Baron Cohen and older brother Erran Baron Cohen, Gamal Mubarak and older brother Alaa Mubarak, Bo Xilai and older brother Bo Xiyong. This is not observed for female siblings beyond the first two siblings.
Growth in stature, determined by its various factors, results from the lengthening of bones via cellular divisions chiefly regulated by somatotropin (human growth hormone (hGH)) secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. Somatotropin also stimulates the release of another growth inducing hormone Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) mainly by the liver. Both hormones operate on most tissues of the body, have many other functions, and continue to be secreted throughout life; with peak levels coinciding with peak growth velocity, and gradually subsiding with age after adolescence. The bulk of secretion occurs in bursts (especially for adolescents) with the largest during sleep.
The majority of linear growth occurs as growth of cartilage at the epiphysis (ends) of the long bones which gradually ossify to form hard bone. The legs compose approximately half of adult human height, and leg length is a somewhat sexually dimorphic trait. Some of this growth occurs after the growth spurt of the long bones has ceased or slowed. The majority of growth during growth spurts is of the long bones. Additionally, the variation in height between populations and across time is largely due to changes in leg length. The remainder of height consists of the cranium. Height is sexually dimorphic and statistically it is more or less normally distributed, but with heavy tails.
Most intra-population variance of height is genetic. Short stature and tall stature are usually not a health concern. If the degree of deviation from normal is significant, hereditary short stature is known as familial short stature and tall stature is known as familial tall stature. Confirmation that exceptional height is normal for a respective person can be ascertained from comparing stature of family members and analyzing growth trends for abrupt changes, among others. There are, however, various diseases and disorders that cause growth abnormalities. Most notably, extreme height may be pathological, such as gigantism resulting from childhood hyperpituitarism, and dwarfism which has various causes. Rarely, no cause can be found for extreme height; very short persons may be termed as having idiopathic short stature. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003 approved hGH treatment for those 2.25 standard deviations below the population mean (approximately the lowest 1.2% of the population). An even rarer occurrence, or at least less used term and recognized "problem", is idiopathic tall stature.
If not enough growth hormone is produced and/or secreted by the pituitary gland, then a patient with growth hormone deficiency can undergo treatment. This treatment involves the injection of pure growth hormone into thick tissue to promote growth.
Certain studies have shown that height is a factor in overall health while some suggest tallness is associated with better cardiovascular health and shortness with longevity.22 Cancer risk has also been found to grow with height.23
At the extreme end, being excessively tall can cause various medical problems, including cardiovascular problems, because of the increased load on the heart to supply the body with blood, and problems resulting from the increased time it takes the brain to communicate with the extremities. For example, Robert Wadlow, the tallest man known to verifiable history, developed trouble walking as his height increased throughout his life. In many of the pictures of the later portion of his life, Wadlow can be seen gripping something for support. Late in his life, although he died at age 22, he had to wear braces on his legs and walk with a cane; and he died after developing an infection in his legs because he was unable to feel the irritation and cutting caused by his leg braces. Excessive tallness and excessive shortness each can cause social exclusion and discrimination for both men and women (heightism).
Sources are in disagreement about the overall relationship between height and longevity. Samaras and Elrick, in the Western Journal of Medicine, demonstrate an inverse correlation between height and longevity in several mammals including humans.22
A study done in Sweden has shown that there is a strong inverse correlation between height and suicide among Swedish men.25
There is a large body of research in psychology, economics, and human biology that has assessed the relationship between several seemingly innocuous physical features (e.g., body height) and occupational success.26 The correlation between height and success was explored decades ago.2728 Shorter people are considered to have an advantage in certain sports (e.g., gymnastics, race car driving, etc.). Meanwhile, in many sports taller people have a major advantage. They include certain professional sports (see section "Sports"), fashion modelling, etc. In most occupational fields, body height is not relevant to how well people are able to perform. A correlation has been found between body height and occupational success in several studies, although there may be other factors such as gender or socioeonomic status that may have been influencing the subjects' heights as well as their occupational success.26272930
A demonstration of the height-success association can be found in the realm of politics. In the United States presidential elections, the taller candidate won 22 out of 25 times in the 20th century.31 Nevertheless, Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, was 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) and several prominent world leaders of the twentieth century, such as Vladimir Lenin, Benito Mussolini, Nicolae Ceaușescu and Joseph Stalin were of below average height. Further, growing evidence suggests that height may be a proxy for confidence, which is likewise strongly correlated with occupational success.32
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Europeans in North America were far taller than those in Europe and were the tallest in the world.3 The original indigenous population of Plains Native Americans was also among the tallest populations of the world at the time.33 Several nations, including many nations in Europe, have now surpassed the US, particularly the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian nations.citation needed Now, the average height of White Americans is about the same as for the Europeans they are descended from.citation needed
In the late nineteenth century, the Netherlands was a land renowned for its short population, but today its population is among the world's tallest with young men averaging 1.84 m (6 ft 0 in) tall.citation needed The tallest average in Europe is in the Dinaric Alps, with young men averaging 1.86 m (6 ft 1 in), and young women averaging 1.71 m (5 ft 7 in).34
According to a study by Economist John Komlos and Francesco Cinnirella, in the first half of 18th century, the average height of English male was 165 cm (5 ft 5 in), the average height of Irish male was 168 cm (5 ft 6 in). The estimated mean height of English, German, and Scottish soldiers are 163.6 cm – 165.9 cm (5 ft 4.4 in – 5 ft 5.3 in) for the period as a whole, while that of Irish was 167.9 cm (5 ft 6.1 in). The average height of male slaves and convicts in North America was 171 cm (5 ft 7 in).35
American-born colonial soldiers of the late 1770s were on average more than three inches taller than their English counterparts who served in Royal Marines at the same time.36
Average height of Americans and Europeans decreased during period of rapid industrialization, possibly due to rapid population growth and increased economic inequality.37 In early 19th century England, the difference between average height of English upper class youth (students of Sandhurst military academy) and English lower class youth (marine society boys) reached 22 cm (6.7 in), the highest that has been observed.38
Data derived from burials show that before 1850, the mean stature of male and female in Leiden, Netherlands was respectively 166.7 cm (5 ft 5.6 in) and 156.7 cm (5 ft 1.7 in). The average height of 19-year-old Dutch orphans in 1865 was 160 cm (5 ft 3 in).39
According to a study by J.W. Drukker and Vincent Tassenaar, the average height of Dutch decreased from 1830 to 1857, even while Dutch real GNP per capita was growing at an average rate of more than 0.5 percent per year. The worst decline were in urban areas that in 1847, the urban height penalty was 2.5cms (1 in). Urban mortality was also much higher than rural regions. In 1829, the average urban and rural Dutchman was 164 cm (5 ft 4.6 in). By 1856, the average rural Dutchman was 162 cm (5 ft 3.8 in) and urban Dutchman was 158.5 cm (5 ft 2.4 in).40
A 2004 report citing a 2003 UNICEF study on the effects of malnutrition in North Korea, due to "successive famines," found young adult males to be significantly shorter.specify In contrast South Koreans "feasting on an increasingly Western-influenced diet," without famine, were growing taller. The height difference is minimal for Koreans over 40, who grew up at a time when economic conditions in the North were roughly comparable to those in the South, while height disparities are most acute for Koreans who grew up in the mid-1990s – a demographic in which South Koreans are about 12 cm (4.7 in) taller than their North Korean counterparts – as this was a period during which the North was affected by a harsh famine.41
The average height for each sex within a population varies significantly, with men being (on average) taller than women. Women ordinarily reach their greatest height at a younger age than men, because puberty generally occurs earlier in women than in men. Vertical growth stops when the long bones stop lengthening, which occurs with the closure of epiphyseal plates. These plates are bone growth centers that disappear ("close") under the hormonal surges brought about by the completion of puberty. Adult height for one sex in a particular ethnic group follows more or less a normal distribution.citation needed
Adult height between populations often differs significantly. For example, the average height of women from the Czech Republic is greater than that of men from Malawi. This may be caused by genetic differences, childhood lifestyle differences (nutrition, sleep patterns, physical labor), or both.
The tallest living man is Sultan Kösen of Turkey, at 2.51 m (8 ft 3 in). The tallest man in modern history was Robert Pershing Wadlow (1918–1940), from Illinois, in the United States, who was 2.72 m (8 ft 11 in) at the time of his death. The tallest female in medical history was Zeng Jinlian of Hunan, China, who stood 2.48 m (8 ft 1 1⁄2 in) when she died at the age of 17. The shortest adult human on record is Chandra Bahadur Dangi of Nepal at 0.546 m (1 ft 9 1⁄2 in).
Depending on sex, genetic and environmental factors, shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals but tends to be universal in the extremely aged. This decrease in height is due to such factors as decreased height of inter-vertebral discs because of desiccation, atrophy of soft tissues and postural changes secondary to degenerative disease.
Below are average adult heights by country/geographical region. The original studies and sources should be consulted for details on methodology and the exact populations measured, surveyed, or considered.
As with any statistical data, the accuracy of this data may be questionable for various reasons:
- Some studies may allow subjects to self-report values.
- Test subjects may have been invited instead of chosen at random, resulting in sampling bias.
- A relatively small sample of the population may have been measured, which makes it uncertain whether this sample accurately represents the entire population.
- The height of a person can vary over the course of a day, due to factors such as the amount of exercise done directly before measurement (normally inversely correlated), or the time elapsed since lying down for a significant period of time (normally inversely correlated). For example, one study revealed a mean difference of 1.54 centimetres (0.61 in) in the height of 100 children from getting out of bed in the morning to between 4 and 5 p.m. that same day.42 Such factors may not have been controlled in some of the studies.
Note: Data in green are representative of the majority of the country or region's adult population.43
|Country/Region||Average male height||Average female height||Stature ratio
(male to female)
|Sample population /
pop. over 15
|Argentina||1.7351.7348 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.6081.6076 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||17 (healthy)||N/A||Measured||1998–2001||45|
|Argentina||N/A||1.596 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||19–49||N/A||Measured||2004–2005||46|
|Armenia||N/A||1.581 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Australia||1.784 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.645 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18–24||13.7%||Measured||1995||48|
|Australia||1.748 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.634 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18+||94.7%||Measured||1995||48|
|Austria||1.792 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.676 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Azerbaijan||1.718 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.654 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.04||16+||97.0%||Measured||2005||50|
|Bahrain||1.651 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.542 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.07||19+||91.1%||Measured||2002||51|
|Bangladesh||N/A||1.506 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007||47|
|Belgium||1.786 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.681 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Benin||N/A||1.593 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|Bolivia||N/A||1.518 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Bolivia||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.422 m (4 ft 8 in)||1.13||Aymara, 20–29||N/A||Measured||1970||52|
|Brazil||1.74 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.601 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||18+||93.2%||Measured||2008–2009||53|
|Brazil||1.731 m (5 ft 8 in)||1.611 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–24||11.9%||Measured||2008–2009||53|
|Brazil||1.75 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.65 m (5 ft 5 in)||N/A||-21||N/A||Measured||2003||54|
|Bulgaria||1.752 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||N/A||N/A||Measured||2010||55|
|Burkina Faso||N/A||1.616 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Cambodia||N/A||1.524 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Cameroon||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.613 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.06||Urban, 15+||N/A||Measured||2003||56|
|Canada||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.633 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||25–44||34.8%||Measured||2005||57|
|Canada||1.751 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.623 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.08||18–79||90.0%||Measured||2007–2009||58|
|Central African Republic||N/A||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1994||47|
|Chad||N/A||1.626 m (5 ft 4 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004||47|
|Chile||1.710 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||15–24||21.9%||Measured||2009–2010||59|
|Chile||1.696 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.561 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.09||15+||100.0%||Measured||2009–2010||59|
|Chile||1.712 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.572 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.09||25–44||37.3%||Measured||2009–2010||59|
|China, Mainland||1.721 m (5 ft 8 in)||1.601 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||19||N/A||Measured||2010||60|
|China, People's Republic of||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.570 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.06||Rural, 17||N/A||Measured||2002||61|
|China, People's Republic of||1.702 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.586 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Urban, 17||N/A||Measured||2002||61|
|Colombia||N/A||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004||47|
|Colombia||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18–22||N/A||Measured||2002||62|
|Comoros||N/A||1.548 m (5 ft 1 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996||47|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||N/A||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Congo, Republic of the||N/A||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007||47|
|Croatia||1.805 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.09||18||N/A||Measured||2006–2008||63|
|Cuba||1.6801.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.5601.560 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.08||Urban, 15+||N/A||Measured||1999||64|
|Czech Republic||1.8031.8031 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.6721.6722 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2001||65|
|Denmark||1.826 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.687 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.08||23||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Dinaric Alps||1.856 m (6 ft 1 in)||1.711 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2005||34|
|Dominican Republic||N/A||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996||47|
|El Salvador||1.656 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.603 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007||47|
|Egypt||N/A||1.595 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2008||47|
|Egypt||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–24||N/A||Measured||2008||66|
|Estonia||1.791 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||N/A||N/A||17||N/A||Measured||2003||67|
|Ethiopia||N/A||1.576 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1997||47|
|Finland||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||25–74||75.8%||Measured||2007||68|
|Finland||1.790 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||25–34||14.7%||Measured||2007||68|
|France||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.646 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||20–29||N/A||Measured||2001||69|
|France||1.756 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.625 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.08||18–70||81.7%||Measured||2003–2005||70|
|Gabon||N/A||1.584 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2000||47|
|Gambia||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.578 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.06||Rural, 21–49||N/A||Measured||1950–1974||71|
|Germany||1.810 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||18–25||N/A||Self-reported||2009||72|
|Germany||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18+||96.5%||Self-reported||2009||72|
|Ghana||N/A||1.593 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2008||47|
|Ghana||1.695 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1987–1989||73|
|Greece||1.783 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.666 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Guatemala||N/A||1.473 m (4 ft 10 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998||47|
|Guinea||N/A||1.588 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Haiti||N/A||1.586 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Honduras||N/A||1.520 m (5 ft 0 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Hong Kong||1.717 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2006||74|
|Hungary||1.773 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||18||N/A||Measured||2008||75|
|Hungary||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Adults||N/A||Measured||2000s||76|
|India||1.647 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.519 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.08||20–49||63.7%||Measured||2005–2006||77|
|India||1.663 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.526 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.09||20||2.7%||Predicted||2005–2006||78|
|India||1.612 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.521 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.06||Rural, 17+||N/A||Measured||2007||78|
|Indonesia||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.470 m (4 ft 10 in)||1.07||50+||N/A||Self-reported||1997||79|
|Iran||1.734 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.09||21–25||16.0%||Measured||2005||80|
|Iran||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.572 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||21+||78.5%||Measured||2005||80|
|Iraq – Baghdad||1.654 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.558 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.06||18–44||N/A||Measured||1999–2000||81|
|Ireland||1.775 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.635 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Israel||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.660 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||18–21||N/A||Measured||2010||82|
|Italy||1.772 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.678 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Italy||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.07||18–40||37.0%||Measured||2005||83|
|Ivory Coast||N/A||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998||47|
|Ivory Coast||1.701 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1985–1987||73|
|Jamaica||1.718 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.608 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–74||64.5%||Measured||1994–1996||84|
|Japan||1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||17||N/A||Measured||2011||85|
|Jordan||N/A||1.582 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007||47|
|Kazakhstan||N/A||1.598 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1999||47|
|Kenya||N/A||1.594 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Korea, NorthNorth Korea||1.656 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.549 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||20–39 (defectors)||N/A||Measured||2005||86|
|Korea, SouthSouth Korea||1.7371.7374 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.6111.6111 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||12th grade (typically 17–18)||N/A||Measured||2011||87|
|Kyrgyzstan||N/A||1.580 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1997||47|
|Lesotho||N/A||1.576 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004||47|
|Liberia||N/A||1.573 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|Lithuania||1.772 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 19–25||N/A||Measured||200588||89|
|Lithuania||1.813 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.675 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2005||90|
|Madagascar||N/A||1.543 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Malawi||1.660 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||Urban, 16–60||N/A||Measured||2000||91|
|Malaysia||1.647 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.533 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20+||84.6%||Measured||1996||92|
|Mali – southern Mali||1.713 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.604 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||Rural adults||N/A||Measured||1992||93|
|Malta||1.752 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.638 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||25–34||16.5%||Self-reported||2003||94|
|Malta||1.699 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.599 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.06||18+||94.8%||Self-reported||2003||94|
|Mexico||1.720 m (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.08||18–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2011||9596|
|Mexico – Morelos||1.670 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.550 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.08||18–76||N/A||Self-reported||1998–1999||97|
|Moldova||N/A||1.612 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Mongolia||1.684 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.07||25–34||N/A||Measured||2006||98|
|Montenegro||1.832 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.684 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.09||18–37||N/A||Measured||2011||99|
|Morocco||N/A||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Mozambique||N/A||1.560 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Namibia||N/A||1.607 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|Nepal||N/A||1.508 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|Netherlands||1.838 m (6 ft 1⁄2 in)||1.707 m (5 ft 7 in)||N/A||−21||N/A||Measured||2009||100|
|Netherlands||1.808 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.675 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||20+||92.6%||Self-reported||2010||10144102|
|Netherlands||1.832 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.699 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.08||20–30||N/A||Self-reported||2010||101|
|New Zealand||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.650 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.07||19–45||51.7%||Estimates||1993–2007||103|
|New Zealand||1.745 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.07||45–65||28.6%||Estimates||1993–2007||103|
|Nicaragua||N/A||1.537 m (5 ft 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2001||47|
|Nigeria||1.638 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.578 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.04||18–74||86.7%||Measured||1994–1996||84|
|Norway||1.824 m (6 ft 0 in)||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.09||20–25||9.0%||Measured||2008–2009||104|
|Norway||1.816 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.682 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||26–35||15.2%||Measured||2008–2009||104|
|Norway||1.803 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.670 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.08||20–85||88.8%105||Measured||2008–2009||10444102|
|Peru||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.510 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.09||20+||85.4%||Measured||2005||106|
|Philippines||1.634 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.517 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.08||20–39||49.5%||Measured||2003||107|
|Philippines||1.619 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.502 m (4 ft 11 in)||1.08||20+||83.1%||Measured||2003||107|
|Poland||1.785 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.651 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2010||108|
|Portugal||1.737 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.637 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.06||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Russia||1.760 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.680 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.04||20+||N/A||Self-reported||2009||109|
|Rwanda||N/A||1.577 m (5 ft 2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Senegal||N/A||1.630 m (5 ft 4 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
|Serbia||1.820 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.668 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.09||18–30||N/A||Measured||2012||110|
|Singapore||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.600 m (5 ft 3 in)||1.07||17–25||N/A||N/A||2003||111|
|Slovakia||1.794 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.656 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||18||N/A||Measured||2004||112|
|Slovenia – Ljubljana||1.803 m (5 ft 11 in)||1.674 m (5 ft 6 in)||1.08||19||N/A||Measured||2011||113|
|South Africa||1.690 m (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.06||25–34||N/A||Measured||1998||114|
|Spain||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.662 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.07||21||N/A||Self-reported||2001||49|
|Sri Lanka||1.636 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.514 m (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.08||18+||93.6%||Measured||2005–2006||115|
|Swaziland||N/A||1.591 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|Sweden||1.815 m (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)||1.668 m (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)||1.09||20–29||N/A||Measured||2008||116|
|Sweden||1.779 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.646 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.08||20–74||82.4%||Self-reported||1987–1994||117|
|Switzerland||1.754 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.640 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.07||20–74||84.8%||Self-reported||1987–1994||117|
|Switzerland||1.781 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 18–21||N/A||Measured||2005||118|
|Switzerland||1.782 m (5 ft 10 in)||N/A||N/A||Conscripts, 19||N/A||Measured||2009||119|
|Tanzania||N/A||1.566 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2004||47|
|Thailand||1.703 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.5901.59 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||15–19, STOU students||N/A||Self-reported||2005||120|
|Togo||N/A||1.590 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1998||47|
|Turkey||N/A||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2003||47|
|Turkey – Ankara||1.761 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.620 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||18–29||N/A||Measured||2004–2006||121|
|Turkey – Ankara||1.740 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.589 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.10||18–59||N/A||Measured||2004–2006||121|
|Uganda||N/A||1.592 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2006||47|
|United Arab Emirates||1.734 m (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)||1.564 m (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)||1.11||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||122|
|U.K. – England||1.754 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.619 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16+||N/A||Measured||2010||123|
|U.K. – England||1.771 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.644 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16–24||N/A||Measured||2010||123|
|U.K. – England||1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.637 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.08||25–34||N/A||Measured||2010||123|
|U.K. – Scotland||1.750 m (5 ft 9 in)||1.613 m (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)||1.08||16+||N/A||Measured||2008||124|
|U.K. – Scotland||1.782 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.635 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||25–34||N/A||Measured||2008||124|
|U.K. – Wales||1.770 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.620 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||16+||N/A||Self-reported||2009||125|
|U.S.||1.776 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||All Americans, 20–29||17.4%||Measured||2003–2006||126|
|U.S.||1.763 m (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)||1.622 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.09||All Americans, 20+||91.0%||Measured||2003–2006||126|
|U.S.||1.780 m (5 ft 10 in)||1.632 m (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)||1.09||Black Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006||126|
|U.S.||1.706 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.587 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||1.07||Mexican Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006||126|
|U.S.||1.789 m (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)||1.648 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.09||White Americans, 20–39||N/A||Measured||2003–2006||126|
|Uruguay||1.7001.70 m (5 ft 7 in)||1.5801.58 m (5 ft 2 in)||1.08||Adults||N/A||Measured||1990||127|
|Uzbekistan||N/A||1.599 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||1996||47|
|Vietnam||1.621 m (5 ft 4 in)||1.522 m (5 ft 0 in)||1.07||25–29||N/A||Measured||1992–1993||73|
|Vietnam||1.657 m (5 ft 5 in)||1.552 m (5 ft 1 in)||1.07||Students, 20–25||N/A||Measured||2006–2007||128|
|Zambia||N/A||1.585 m (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2007||47|
|Zimbabwe||N/A||1.603 m (5 ft 3 in)||N/A||25–49||N/A||Self-reported||2005||47|
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- Altezza media per sesso e regione per le persone di 18–40 anni, anno 2006, Received from ISTAT 11 Feb. 2009
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- Note: In this study, the subjects' height was measured twice. The first measurement presumably took place in 2004 and the average height of the conscripts was 176.4 cm. When they measured the same group after a year, the mean height of the conscripts was 177.2 cm
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- Distribution of Body Weight, Height and Body Mass Index in a National Sample of Malaysian Adults. PMID 11072496.
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- Aumenta la estatura de los jóvenes A study published by the University of Guadalajara
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- Note: Calculated using a weighted average of the different age groups.
- Muscle Minding. p. 60. Based on British norms and their relations to New Zealand values. Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, Wellington, New Zealand, ISBN 0477-03598-1.
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- Figure is for population between the ages of 20 and 84.
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- "Svenskarna längre och tyngre". Dagens Nyheter. 2008-02-29.
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- Fitting the Task to the Man, 1987 (for heights in U.S. and Japan)
- Eurostats Statistical Yearbook 2004 (for heights in Germany)
- Netherlands Central Bureau for Statistics, 1996 (for average heights)
- Mean Body Weight, Height, and body mass index, United States 1960–2002
- UK Department of Health – Health Survey for England
- Burkhard Bilger. "The Height Gap." The New Yorker
- A collection of data on human height, referred to here as "karube" but originally collected from other sources, was originally available here (www.kurabe.net/average_height/dead link) but is no longer. A copy is available here.www.psych.ualberta.ca/~phurd/karube/ (an English translation of this Japanese page would make it easier to evaluate the quality of the data...)
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- Blaha, P. et al.: 6. Celostátní antropologický výzkum detí a mládeže 2001, Ceská republika [6th Nationwide anthropological research of children and youth 2001, Czech republic], Charles University in Prague 2005
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- Average height of young Spaniards (in Spanish)
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- Average height of the Dinkas
- CDC National Center for Health Statistics: Growth Charts of American Percentiles
- fao.org, Body Weights and Heights by Countries (given in percentiles)
- The Height Gap, Article discussing differences in height around the world
- Tallest in the World: Native Americans of the Great Plains in the Nineteenth Century
- European Heights in the Early eighteenth Century
- Spatial Convergence in Height in East-Central Europe, 1890–1910
- The Biological Standard of Living in Europe During the Last Two Millennia
- HEALTH AND NUTRITION IN THE PREINDUSTRIAL ERA: INSIGHTS FROM A MILLENNIUM OF AVERAGE HEIGHTS IN NORTHERN EUROPE
- Industrialized Nations?