|— Metropolis —|
|Charminar, Birla Mandir, Hussain Sagar, Golconda Fort, Skyline at Lanco Hills, Chowmahalla Palace.|
|Nickname(s): City of Pearls|
|Districts||Hyderabad, Rangareddy and Medak|
|Founder||Mohammed Quli Qutub Shah|
|• Body||GHMC, HMDA|
|• MP||Asaduddin Owaisi|
|• Mayor||Mohammad Majid Hussain|
|• Police commissioner||Anurag Sharma|
|• Metropolis||650 km2 (250 sq mi)|
|• Metro||7,100 km2 (2,700 sq mi)|
|• Density||18,480/km2 (47,900/sq mi)|
|• Metro rank||6th|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Pincode(s)||500 xxx, 501 xxx, 502 xxx, 508 xxx, 509 xxx|
|Area code(s)||+91–40, 8413, 8414, 8415, 8417, 8418, 8453, 8455|
|Vehicle registration||AP 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 24, 28 & 29|
|Official languages||Telugu and Urdu|
Hyderabad (i//) is the capital city of the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi) on the banks of the Musi River, it is also the largest city in the state. As of 2011, the population of the city was 6.8 million with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration.
Hyderabad was established in 1591 CE by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golkonda. It remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty until 1687, when Mughal emperor Aurangzeb conquered the region and the city became part of the Mughal empire. In 1724, Asif Jah I, a Mughal viceroy, declared his sovereignty and formed the Asif Jahi dynasty, also known as the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Nizams ruled the princely state of Hyderabad in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj for more than two centuries. The city remained the capital from 1769 to 1948, when the Nizam signed an Instrument of Accession with the Indian Union as a result of Operation Polo. Between 1948 and 1956 Hyderabad city was the capital of the Hyderabad State. In 1956, the States Reorganisation Act merged Hyderabad State with the Andhra State to form the modern state of Andhra Pradesh, with Hyderabad city as its capital.
Throughout its history, the city was a centre for local traditions in art, literature, architecture and cuisine. As a result, it has become a tourist destination with many places of interest, including Chowmahalla Palace, Charminar and Golkonda fort. It has several museums such as Salar Jung Museum, Nizam Museum, and AP State Archaeology Museum as well as bazaars such as Laad Bazar, Madina Circle, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar, dating from the Qutb Shahi and Nizam era. Hyderabadi biriyani and Hyderabadi haleem are examples of distinctive culinary products of the city.
Historically, Hyderabad was known for its pearl and diamond trading centres. Industrialisation brought major Indian manufacturing, R&D, and financial institutions to the city, such as the Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, the Defence Research and Development Organisation, the National Geophysical Research Institute, the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology and the National Mineral Development Corporation. The formation of an information technology (IT) Special Economic Zone (SEZ) by the state agencies attracted global and Indian companies to set up operations in the city. The emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries during the 1990s earned it the titles of "India's pharmaceutical capital" and the "Genome Valley of India". The Telugu film industry is based in Hyderabad.
The name Hyderabad means "Hyder's abode" or "lion city", derived from the Persian/Urdu words "haydar" or "hyder" (lion) and "ābād" (city or abode).1 According to John Everett-Heath, Hyderabad was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder because of his lion-like valour in battles.1 One popular theory suggests that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the founder of the city, named it "Bhaganagar" or "Bhāgnagar" after Bhāgmathi, a local nautch (dancing) girl with whom he had fallen in love.2 She converted to Islam and adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was renamed Hyderabad in her honour.2 According to another source, the city was named after Haidar, the son of Quli Qutb Shah.3 Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was originally called Baghnagar (city of gardens).4 However, no sources define when or by whom the city was named.
Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE.5 The region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda ("shepherd's hill"),6 and was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.7 Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1158–1310), whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad.8
The Kakatiya dynasty was later reduced to a vassal of the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321) after their defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate. This lasted until 1321 when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Allaudin Khilji general Malik Kafur.9 During this period, Alauddin Khilji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which is said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines in Golkonda,10 to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against the sultanate and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km (124 mi) west of Hyderabad, as its capital. The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan.8
Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518.8 The fifth sultan, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 159111 to avoid the water shortages experienced at Golkonda.12 During his rule, he had the Charminar and Mecca Masjid built in the city.13 On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.1415 The annexed area was renamed Deccan Suba (Deccan province) and the capital was moved from Golkonda to Aurangabad, about 550 km (342 mi) northwest of Hyderabad.1416
In 1712, Farrukhsiyar, the sixth of Aurangzeb's successors, appointed Asif Jah I to be Viceroy of the Deccan, with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (Administrator of the Realm). In 1724, Asif Jah I defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty, and named the region Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad.1416 The death of Asif Jah I in 1748 resulted in a period of political unrest as his sons, backed by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces, contended for the throne. The accession of Asif Jah II, who reigned from 1762 to 1803, to the throne ended the instability. In 1768 he signed the treaty of Masulipatnam, surrendering the coastal region to the East India Company in return for a fixed annual rent.18
In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams.1416 In response to regular threats from Hyder Ali, Dalwai of Mysore, Baji Rao I, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire, and Basalath Jung (Asif Jah II's elder brother, who was supported by the Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau), the Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company in 1798, allowing the British Indian Army to occupy Bolarum (modern Secunderabad) to protect the state's borders, for which the Nizams paid an annual maintenance to the British.18 From the late 19th century on, Hyderabad was transformed into a modern city with the establishment of railways, transport services, underground drainage, running water, electricity, Begumpet Airport, telecommunications, universities and industries. The Nizams ruled the state from Hyderabad until 17 September 1948, a year after India's independence from Britain.1416
Following the independence of India from British rule, the Nizam declared his intention to remain independent rather than become part of the Indian Union.18 The Hyderabad State Congress, with the support of the Indian National Congress and the Communist Party of India, began agitating against Nizam VII in 1948. On 17 September 1948, the Indian Army took control of Hyderabad State after an invasion codenamed Operation Polo. With the defeat of his forces, Nizam VII capitulated to the Indian Union by signing the "Instrument of Accession", which made him the Rajpramukh (Princely Governor) of the state until 31 October 1956.1619 Between 1946 and 1951, the Communist Party of India fomented the Telangana uprising against the feudal lords of the Telangana region and later against the princely state of Hyderabad.20 The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India, with Hyderabad City continuing to be the capital. In his 1955 report Thoughts on Linguistic States, B. R. Ambedkar, then chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, proposed designating the city of Hyderabad as the second capital of India because of its amenities and strategic central location.21 Since 1956, the Rashtrapati Nilayam in Hyderabad has been the second official residence and business office of the President of India.22
On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised by language group. Hyderabad State was split into three parts, the modern states of Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. The nine Telugu- and Urdu-speaking districts of Hyderabad State that make up the Telangana region were merged with the Telugu-speaking Andhra State to create Andhra Pradesh,23 with Hyderabad as its capital. Several protests, known collectively as the Telangana movement, attempted to invalidate the merger and demanded the creation of a new Telangana state. Major actions took place in 1969 and 1972, with a third beginning in 2010.24 In 2002, a blast in Dilsukhnagar claimed two lives,25 while in May and August 2007, terrorist groups detonated a series of bombs in the city, causing communal tension and riots.26 A series of blasts that occurred at Dilsukhnagar in February 2013 are the latest terrorist attacks in Hyderabad.27
Hyderabad is situated in the north-western part of Andhra Pradesh in southeastern India, 1,566 kilometres (973 mi) south of Delhi, 699 kilometres (434 mi) southeast of Mumbai, and 570 kilometres (350 mi) north of Bangalore by road.29 It lies on the banks of the Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau.3031 and covers 650 km2 (250 sq mi), making it one of the largest metropolitan areas in India.30 Hyderabad, with an average altitude of 1,778 feet (542 m), lies on predominantly sloping terrain of grey and pink granite, dotted with small hills, the highest being Banjara Hills at 2,206 feet (672 m).3132 The city has numerous lakes referred to as sagar, meaning "sea". Examples of these lakes include Hussain Sagar, built in 1562 near the city centre, Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar, which are artificial lakes created by dams on the Musi.3133 As of 1996, the city had 140 lakes and 834 water tanks (ponds).34
Hyderabad has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) bordering on a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh).35 The annual mean temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F); monthly mean temperatures are 21–32 °C (70–90 °F).36 Summers (March–June) are hot and humid, with average highs in the mid 30s Celsius;37 maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) between April and June.36 Winter lasts for only about 2 1⁄2 months, during which the lowest temperature occasionally dips to 10 °C (50 °F) in December and January.36 May is the hottest month, when daily temperatures range from 26 to 38.8 °C (79 to 102 °F); January, the coldest, has temperatures varying from 14.7 to 28.6 °C (58 to 83 °F).37 Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally cooler because of the city's moderate elevation.
Heavy rain from the south-west summer monsoon falls on Hyderabad between June and September,38 supplying it with most of its annual rainfall of 812.5 mm (32 in).37 The highest total monthly rainfall, 181.5 mm (7 in), occurs in September.37 The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period was 241 mm (9 in) on 24 August 2000. The highest temperature ever recorded was 45.5 °C (114 °F) on 2 June 1966, and the lowest was 8 °C (46 °F) on 8 January 1946. The city receives 2,731 hours of sunshine per year; maximum daily sunlight exposure occurs in February.3839
|Climate data for Hyderabad|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.4
|Average high °C (°F)||28.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||22.2
|Average low °C (°F)||14.7
|Record low °C (°F)||8.8
|Rainfall mm (inches)||3.2
|Avg. rainy days||.3||.4||.9||1.8||2.7||7.6||10.6||10.1||8.9||5.7||1.6||.4||51.0|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||279.0||271.2||263.5||273.0||282.1||180.0||142.6||136.4||168.0||226.3||246.0||263.5||2,731.6|
|Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980),40 NOAA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)41|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990)42|
The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) oversees and manages the civic infrastructure of the city's 18 "circles", which together encompass 150 municipal wards. Each ward is represented by a corporator, elected by popular vote. The corporators elect the Mayor, who is the titular head of GHMC; executive powers rest with the Municipal Commissioner, appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The GHMC carries out the city's infrastructural work such as building and maintenance of roads and drains, town planning including construction regulation, maintenance of municipal markets and parks, solid waste management, the issuing of birth and death certificates, the issuing of trade licences, collection of property tax, and community welfare services such as mother and child healthcare service, pre-school education, and non-formal education.43 The GHMC was formed in April 2007 by merging the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH) with 12 municipalities of the Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak districts covering a total area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi).4445:3 In the 2009 municipal election, an alliance of the Indian National Congress and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen formed the majority.46 The Secunderabad Cantonment Board is a civic administration agency overseeing an area of 40.1 km2 (15.5 sq mi),47:93 where there are several military camps.48:2 The Osmania University campus is administered independently by the university authority.47:93
Hyderabad's administrative agencies have varied jurisdictions; in ascending order of size is the Hyderabad Police area, Hyderabad district, the GHMC area ("Hyderabad city") and the area under the Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA). The HMDA is an apolitical urban planning agency that encompasses the GHMC and its suburbs, extending to 54 mandals in five districts encompassing the city.49 It coordinates the development activities of GHMC and suburban municipalities and manages the administration of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB), the Andhra Pradesh Transmission Corporation, the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) and other bodies.49
The jurisdiction of the Hyderabad Police Commissionerate is divided into five police zones, each headed by a deputy commissioner.50 The Hyderabad Traffic Police is headed by a deputy commissioner who reports to the commissioner.51 In 2012, the Andhra Pradesh Government announced its intention to merge the Hyderabad and Cyberabad Police Commissionerates into a single Greater Hyderabad Police Commissionerate.52
As the seat of the Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad is home to the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the state secretariat and the Andhra Pradesh High Court, as well as to various local government agencies. The Lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court are under the jurisdiction of the High Court.5354:1 The GHMC area contains 24 State Legislative Assembly constituencies, which come under 5 constituencies of the Lok Sabha (the lower house of the Parliament of India).44
The HMWSSB regulates rainwater harvesting, sewerage services and water supply,49 which is sourced from several dams located in the suburbs.55 In 2005, the HMWSSB started operating a 150-kilometre-long (93 mi) water supply pipeline from Nagarjuna Sagar Dam to meet increasing demands.55 The Andhra Pradesh Central Power Distribution Company manages electricity supply.49 Firefighting services operate from the 13 fire stations, as of March 2012, of the Andhra Pradesh Fire Services department.56 The state-owned Indian Postal Service has five head post offices and many sub-post offices in Hyderabad. The state postal service is complemented by private courier services.31
Every day, Hyderabad produces around 4,500 tonnes of solid waste, which is transported from collection units in Imlibun, Yousufguda and Lower Tank Bund to the dumpsite in Jawaharnagar.57 Disposal of this waste is managed by the Integrated Solid Waste Management project which was started by the GHMC in 2010.58 In addition to the large amount of solid waste generated, rapid urbanisation and increased economic activity has also led to increased industrial waste, air, noise and water pollution, which is regulated by the Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board (APPCB).59 The contribution of different sources to air pollution in 2006 was: 20–50% from vehicles, 40–70% from a combination of vehicle discharge and road dust, 10–30% from industrial discharges and 3–10% from the burning of household rubbish.60 Deaths resulting from atmospheric particulate matter are estimated at 1,700–3,000 each year.61 Ground water around Hyderabad, which has a hardness of up to 1000 ppm, around three times higher than is desirable,62 is the main source of drinking water but the increasing population and consequent increase in demand has led to a decline in not only ground water but also dam levels.5563 This shortage is further exacerbated by inadequately treated effluent discharged from industrial treatment plants polluting the water sources of the city.64
The Andhra Pradesh Vaidya Vidhana Parishad is the state government department responsible for administering healthcare in Hyderabad.65 As of 2010–11, the city had 50 government hospitals,66 300 private and charity hospitals and 194 nursing homes providing approximately 12,000 hospital beds, less than half of the required 25,000;6768 for every 10,000 people in the city, there are 17.6 hospital beds,69 9 specialist doctors, 14 nurses and 6 physicians.68 The city also has about 4,000 individual clinics70 and 500 medical diagnostic centres,67 which are preferred by many residents; an estimated 28% of the population use government facilities, because of their distance, poor quality of care and long waiting times,71:60–61 despite the high proportion of the city's residents being covered by government health insurance, 24% according to a National Family Health Survey in 2005.71:4 As of 2012, many new private hospitals of various sizes have opened or are being built.70 Hyderabad also has outpatient and inpatient facilities that use Unani, homeopathic and Ayurvedic treatments.72
In the 2005 National Family Health Survey, it was reported that the city's total fertility rate is 1.8,71:47 which is below the replacement rate. Only 61% of children had been provided with all basic vaccines (BCG, measles and full courses of polio and DPT), fewer than in all other surveyed cities except Meerut.71:98 The infant mortality rate was 35 per 1,000 live births, and the mortality rate for children under five was 41 per 1,000 live births.71:97 The survey also reported that a third of women and a quarter of men are overweight or obese, 49% of children below 5 years are anaemic, and up to 20% of children are underweight,71:44, 55–56 while more than 2% of women and 3% of men suffer from diabetes in Hyderabad.71:57
When the GHMC was created in 2007, the area occupied by the municipality increased from 175 km2 (68 sq mi) to 650 km2 (250 sq mi).30 Consequently, the population increased by 87%, from 3,637,483 in the 2001 census to 6,809,970 in the 2011 census, 24% of which are migrants from elsewhere in India,48:2 making Hyderabad the fourth most populous city in India.7475 As of 2011, the population density is 18,480 /km2 (47,900 /sq mi).76 The Hyderabad Urban Agglomeration has a population of 7,749,334, making it the sixth most populous urban agglomeration in the country.75 The population of the Hyderabad urban agglomeration has since been estimated by electoral officials to be 9.1 million as of early 2013 but is expected to exceed 10 million by the end of the year.77 There are 3,500,802 male and 3,309,168 female citizens—a sex ratio of 945 females per 1000 males,78 higher than the national average of 926 per 1000.79 Among children aged 0–6 years, 373,794 are boys and 352,022 are girls—a ratio of 942 per 1000.78 Literacy stands at 82.96% (male 85.96%; female 79.79%), higher than the national average of 74.04%.80 The socio-economic strata comprise of 20% upper class, 50% middle class and 30% working class.81
The residents of Hyderabad, referred to as "Hyderabadi", are predominantly Telugu and Urdu people, and a minority Tamil, Marathi, Kannada (including Nawayathi), Marwari, Bengali, Malayali, Gujarati, Punjabi and Uttar Pradeshi communities. Among the communities of foreign origin, Yemeni Arabs form the majority, although African Arabs, Armenians, Abyssinians, Iranians, Pathans and Turkish people are also present. The foreign population declined after Hyderabad State became part of the Indian Union, as it lost the patronage of the Nizams.82
Telugu is the official language of Hyderabad and Urdu is its second language.84 The Telugu dialect spoken in Hyderabad is called Telangana, and the Urdu spoken is called Dakhani.85:1869–7086 English is also used, particularly among white-collar workers.87 A significant minority speaks other languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Tamil, Bengali and Kannada.82
Hindus form the majority of Hyderabad's population. Muslims are present throughout the city and predominate in and around the Old City. There are also Christian, Sikh, Jain, Buddhist and Parsi communities, and iconic temples, mosques and churches can be seen.88 According to the 2001 census, Hyderabad district's religious make-up was: Hindus (55.41%), Muslims (41.17%), Christians (2.43%), Jains (0.43%), Sikhs (0.29%) and Buddhists (0.02%); 0.23% did not state any religion.83
From the total population of city 13% people live below poverty line.89 According to a 2012 report submitted by GHMC to the World Bank, Hyderabad has 1,476 slums with a total population of 1.7 million, of whom 66% live in 985 slums in the "core" of the city (the part that formed Hyderabad before the April 2007 expansion) and the remaining 34% live in 491 in suburban tenements.90 About 22% of the slum-dwelling households had migrated from different parts of India in the last decade of the 20th century, and 63% claimed to have lived in the slums for over 10 years.48:55 Overall literacy in the slums is 60–80% and female literacy is 52–73%. A third of the slums have basic service connections and 90% have water supply lines. There are 405 government schools, 267 government aided schools, 175 private schools and 528 community halls in the slum areas.91:70
According to a 2008 survey by the Centre for Good Governance, 87.6% of the slum-dwelling households are nuclear families, 18% are very poor, with an income of 20000 (US$370) per annum, 73% live below the poverty line (a standard poverty line recognised by the Andhra Pradesh Government is 24000 (US$440) per annum), 27% of the chief wage earners (CWE) are casual labour and 38% of the CWE are illiterate. About 3.72% of the slum children aged 5–14 do not go to school and 3.17% work as child labour, of whom 64% are boys and 36% are girls. The largest employers of child labour are street shops and construction sites. Among the working children, 35% are engaged in hazardous jobs.48:59
The historic city established by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah on the southern side of the Musi River forms the "Old City", while the "New City" encompasses the urbanised area on the northern banks. The two are connected by many bridges across the river, the oldest of which is Purana Pul (old bridge).92 Hyderabad is twinned with neighbouring Secunderabad, from which it is separated by Hussain Sagar.
In the southern part of central Hyderabad are many historical and touristic sites, such as the Charminar, the Mecca Masjid, the Salar Jung Museum, the Nizam's museum, the Falaknuma Palace, and the traditional retail corridor comprising Laad Bazaar, Pearls Market and Madina circle. North of the river are hospitals, colleges, major railway stations and business areas such as Begum Bazaar, Koti, Abids, Sultan Bazaar and Moazzam Jahi Market, along with administrative and recreational establishments such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Andhra Pradesh Secretariat, the Hyderabad Mint, the Andhra Pradesh Legislature, the Public Garden, the Nizam Club, the Ravindra Bharathi, the state museum, the Birla Temple and the Birla Planetarium.939495
North of central Hyderabad lie Hussain Sagar, Tank Bund Road, Rani Gunj and the Secunderabad Railway Station.93 The majority of the city's parks and recreation centres, such as Sanjeevaiah Park, Indira Park, Lumbini Park, NTR Gardens, the Buddha statue and Tankbund Park are located here.28 In the northwest part of the city there are upscale residential areas such as Banjara Hills, Jubilee Hills, Begumpet and Khairatabad. The northern end contains industrial areas such as Sanathnagar, Moosapet, Balanagar, Pathan Cheru and Chanda Nagar. The northeast end is dotted with residential colonies.939495 The "Cyberabad" area in the southwest and west parts of the city has grown rapidly since the 1990s. It is home to information technology and bio-pharmaceutical companies and to landmarks such as Hyderabad Airport, Osman Sagar, Himayath Sagar and KBR National Park. In the eastern part of the city lie many defence research centres and Ramoji Film City.
Hyderabad features many heritage buildings constructed during Qutb shahi and Nizam eras, showcasing Indo-Islamic architecture infliuenced by Medieval, Mughal and European styles.498 After the 1908 flooding of the Musi River, the city was expanded and civic monuments constructed, particularly during the rule of Mir Osman Ali Khan (the VIIth Nizam), whose patronage of architecture led to him being referred to as the maker of modern Hyderabad.99100 In 2012, the government of India declared Hyderabad the first "Best heritage city of India".101
Qutb Shahi architecture of the 16th and early 17th centuries followed classical Persian architecture featuring domes and colossal arches,102 The oldest surviving Qutb Shahi structure in Hyderabad is the ruins of Golconda fort built in 16th century. The Charminar, Mecca Masjid, Charkaman and Qutb Shahi Tombs are other existing structures of this period; among these the Charminar has become an icon of the city. Located in the centre of old Hyderabad, it is a square structure with sides 20 metres (66 ft) long and four grand arches each facing a road. At each corner stands a 56 metres (184 ft) minaret. Most of the historical Bazaars that still exist were constructed on the street north of Charminar towards Golconda fort. The Charminar, Qutb Shahi tombs and Golconda fort are considered to bemonuments of national importance in India; in 2010 the Indian government proposed that the sites be listed for UNESCO World Heritage status.99103104:11-18105
Among the oldest surviving examples of Nizam architecture in Hyderabad is the Chowmahalla Palace, which was the seat of royal power. It showcases a diverse array of architectural styles, from the Baroque Harem to its Neoclassical royal court. The other palaces built by the Nizams include Falaknuma Palace (inspired by Andrea Palladio villas), Purani Haveli, King Kothi and Bella Vista Palace all of which were built at the peak of the Nizam rule in the 19th century. During Mir Osman Ali Khan's rule, European, styles along with Indo-Islamic, became prominent. These styles are reflected in the Falaknuma Palace and many civic monuments such as the Hyderabad High Court, Osmania Hospital, Osmania University, Hyderabad and Kachiguda railway stations, State Central Library, City College, Andhra Pradesh Legislature, State Archaeology Museum and Jubilee Hall.99102106107 Other landmarks of note are the Paigah Palace, Asman Garh Palace, Basheer Bagh Palace, Errum Manzil and Spanish Mosque, which are villas constructed by the Paigah Family.104:16-17108109
Hyderabad is the largest contributor to the gross domestic product (GDP), tax and other revenues, of Andhra Pradesh, compared to the other cities in the state and the sixth largest deposit centre and fourth largest credit centre nationwide, as ranked by the RBI in June 2012.110 Its US$ 74 billion GDP makes it the fifth-largest contributor city to India's overall GDP in 2011-12.111 Its per capita annual income in 2011 was 44300 (US$810).112 As of 2006, the largest employers in the city are the governments of Andhra Pradesh (113,098 employees) and of India (85,155).113 According to a government survey in 2005, 77% of males and 19% of females in the city were employed.114 The service industry remains dominant in the city, and 90% of the employed workforce is engaged in this sector.115
Hyderabad has a history of trade in precious gems; its role in the pearl trade has given it the name, "City of Pearls" and up until the 18th century, the city was also the only global trading centre for large diamonds.15116117 Industrialisation began under the Nizams in the late 19th century, helped by railway expansion that connected the city with major ports.118119 From the 1950s to the 1970s, Indian enterprises, such as Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC), Bharat Electronics (BE), Electronics Corporation of India Limited (ECIL), Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB), Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Andhra Bank (AB) and State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH)94 were established in the city.120 The city is home to the Hyderabad Securities formerly known as Hyderabad Stock Exchange (HSE),121 and houses the regional office of Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI).122 The growth of the financial services sector has helped Hyderabad evolve from a traditional manufacturing city to a cosmopolitan industrial service centre.94 Since the 1990s, the growth of information technology (IT), IT-enabled services, insurance and financial institutions has expanded the service sector, and these primary economic activities have boosted the ancillary sectors of trade and commerce, transport, storage, communication, real estate and retail.119
Hyderabad's commercial markets are divided into four sectors: central business districts,123 sub-central business centres, neighbourhood business centres and local business centres.124 Many traditional and historical bazaars, such as the Laad Bazaar,125 selling a variety of traditional and cultural antique wares as well as previous gems are located throughout the city.125126
The establishment of the Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited (IDPL), a public sector undertaking, in 1961 was followed over the decades by many national and global companies opening manufacturing and research facilities in the city,127 contributing to its reputation as "India's pharmaceutical capital" and the "Genome Valley of India".128 It is a global centre of information technology, for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).129130 During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT exports reached US$ 4.7 billion,131 and 22% of the NASSCOM's total membership is from the city.112 The development of HITEC City, a township with extensive technological infrastructure, prompted multinational companies to establish facilities in Hyderabad.129 The city is home to more than 1300 IT and ITES firms, including global conglomerates such as Microsoft (operating its largest R&D campus outside the US), Google, IBM, Yahoo!, Dell, Facebook,48:3132 and major Indian firms including Mahindra Satyam, Infosys, Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), Genpact and Wipro.48:3 In 2009 the World Bank Group ranked the city as the second best Indian city for doing business.133 The city and its suburbs contain the highest number of special economic zones of any Indian city.112
Like the rest of India, Hyderabad has a large informal economy that employs 30% of the labour force.91:71 According to a survey published in 2007, it had 40–50,000 street vendors, and their numbers were increasing.134:9 Among the street vendors, 84% are male and 16% female,135:12 and four fifths are "stationary vendors" operating from a fixed pitch, often with their own stall.135:15–16 Most are financed through personal savings; only 8% borrow from moneylenders.135:19 Vendor earnings vary from 50 (92¢ US) to 800 (US$15) per day.134 Other unorganised economic sectors include dairy, poultry farming, brick manufacturing, casual labour and domestic help. Those involved in the informal economy constitute a major portion of urban poor.91:71
The most commonly used forms of medium distance transport in Hyderabad include government owned services such as light railways and APSRTC buses,136 as well as privately operated auto rickshaws;137 short distance transportation is provided by the ubiquitous cycle rickshaws.138 APSRTC bus services operate from the Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station in the city centre139 and ferries over 130 million passengers daily across the entire network.140:76 Hyderabad's light rail transportation system, the Multi-Modal Transport System (MMTS), is a three line suburban rail service used by over 150,000 passengers daily.141 Complementing these government services are minibus routes operated by Setwin (Society for Employment Promotion & Training in Twin Cities).142 Intercity rail services also operate from Hyderabad; the main, and largest, station is Secunderabad Railway Station, which serves as Indian Railways South Central Railway zone headquarters and a hub for APSRTC buses and MMTS light rail services connecting Secunderabad and Hyderabad. Other major railway stations in Hyderabad are Hyderabad Deccan Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.143 The Hyderabad Metro, a new rapid transit system, is to be added to the existing public transport infrastructure and is scheduled to operate three lines by 2014.144
As of 2012, there are over 3.5 million vehicles operating in the city, of which 74% are two-wheelers, 15% cars and 3% three-wheelers. The remaining 8% include buses, goods vehicles and taxis.145 The large number of vehicles coupled with relatively low road coverage, roads occupy only 9.5% of the total city area,47:79 has led to widespread traffic congestion146:2–3 especially since 80% of passengers and 60% of freight are transported by road.147:3 The Inner Ring Road, the Outer Ring Road, the Hyderabad Elevated Expressway, the longest flyover in India,148 and various interchanges, overpasses and underpasses were built to ease the congestion. Maximum speed limits within the city are 50 km/h (31 mph) for two-wheelers and cars, 35 km/h (22 mph) for auto rickshaws and 40 km/h (25 mph) for light commercial vehicles and buses.149
Hyderabad sits at the junction of number of National Highways linking it to 6 other states; NH-7, a major highway running 2,369 km (1,472 mi) from Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh in the north to Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu in the south, NH-9, running 841 km (523 mi) east-west between Machilipatnam,Andhra Pradesh to Pune, Maharashta, and NH-202, a 280 km (174 mi) highway linking Hyderabad to Bhopalpatnam, Chhattisgarh. Five state highways, SH-1, SH-2, SH-4, SH-5 and SH-6, either start from, or pass through, Hyderabad.150:58
Air traffic was previously handled via Begumpet Airport, but this was replaced by Rajiv Gandhi International Airport (RGAI) (IATA: HYD, ICAO: VOHS) in 2008,151 with the capacity of handling 12 million passengers and 100,000 tonnes of cargo per annum.152 In 2011, Airports Council International, an autonomous body representing the world's airports, judged RGAI the world's best airport in the 5–15 million passenger category and the world's fifth best airport for Airport service quality.153
Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in India with the decline of the Mughal Empire in Delhi in 1857 AD. The migration of performing artists to the city particularly from the north and west of the Indian sub continent, under the patronage of the Nizam, enriched the cultural milieu.154155 This migration resulted in a mingling of North and South Indian languages, cultures and religions, which has since led to a co-existence of Hindu and Muslim traditions, for which the city has become noted.156157:viii A further consequence of this north-south mix is that both Telugu and Urdu are official languages of Andhra Pradesh.158 The mixing of religions has also resulted in many festivals being celebrated in Hyderabad such as the Ganesh Chaturthi, Diwali, Bonalu and Bathukamma of Hindu tradition and the important Muslim holidays of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.
Traditional Hyderabadi garb also reveals a mix of Muslim and South Asian influences with men wearing Sherwani and Kurta–Paijama and women wearing Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez.159160161 Muslim women also commonly wear burqas and hijabs in public.162 In addition to the traditional Indian and Muslim garments, increasing exposure to western cultures has led to a rise in the wearing of western style clothing among youths.163
Hyderabad received royal patronage for arts, literature and architecture from Qutb Shahi rulers and Nizams; this attracted artists and men of letters from different parts of the world. The resulting multi-ethnic settlements popularised cultural events such as mushairas (poetic symposia).164 The Qutb Shahi dynasty patronised the growth of Deccani Urdu literature; the Deccani Masnavi and Diwan (collection of poems) composed during this period are among the earliest available manuscripts in Urdu.165 The reign of the Nizams saw many literary reforms and the introduction of Urdu as a language of court, administration and education.166 In 1824, a collection of Urdu Ghazals (a specific poetic form) named Gulzar-e-Mahlaqa, authored by Mah Laqa Bai—the first female Urdu poet to have Diwan—was published in Hyderabad.167 The Hyderabad Literary Festival, held since 2010, is an annual event that showcases the city's literary and cultural creativity.168 Organisations engaged in research into and promotion of literature include the Sahitya Akademi, the Urdu Academy, the Telugu Academy, the National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, the Comparative Literature Association of India, and the Andhra Saraswata Parishad. The State Central Library, established in 1891, is the largest public library in the state.169 Other major libraries are the Sri Krishna Devaraya Andhra Bhasha Nilayam, the British Library and the Sundarayya Vignana Kendram.170
South Indian music and dances such as the Kuchipudi and Kathakali styles are popular in the Deccan region. North Indian music and dance gained popularity during the Mughals and Nizam rule,171 and it was a tradition among the nobility to associate themselves with Tawaif (courtesans) to be viewed as being cultured. The courtesans were revered as the epitome of etiquette and culture, and were appointed to teach singing, poetry and classical dance to many children of the elite.172 This gave rise to certain styles of court music, dance and poetry. Besides western and Indian popular music genres such as filmi music, the residents of Hyderabad play city-based marfa music, especially at weddings, festivals and other celebratory events.173 The state government organises the Golconda Music and Dance Festival, the Taramati Music Festival and the Premavathi Dance Festival to further encourage the development of music.174 Although the city is not particularly noted for theatre and drama,175 the state government promotes theatre with multiple programmes and festivals176177 in such venues as the Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam. Although not a purely music oriented event, Numaish, a popular annual exhibition of local and national consumer products, does feature some musical performances.178 The city is home to the Telugu film industry, popularly known as Tollywood179 and as of 2012, produces the second largest number of films in India with the largest number being produced by Bollywood.180 Films in the local Hyderabadi dialect are also produced and have been gaining popularity since 2005.181 The city has also hosted international film festivals such as the International Children's Film Festival and the Hyderabad International Film Festival.182 In 2005, Guinness World Records declared Ramoji Film City to be the world's largest film studio.183
The Golconda and Hyderabad styles are branches of Deccani painting.184 Developed during the 16th century, the Golconda style is a native style blending foreign techniques, bearing some similarity to the Vijayanagara paintings of neighbouring Mysore. A significant use of luminous gold and white colours is generally found in the Golconda style.185 The Hyderabad style originated in the early 17th century under the Nizams. Highly influenced by Mughal painting, this style makes use of bright colours and mostly depicts regional landscape, culture, costumes and jewellery.184
A metalware handicraft known as Bidri ware was popularised in the region in the 18th century. Bidri ware is a Geographical Indication (GI) tagged craft of India.99186 Kalamkari, a hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile, is popular in the city.187 Hyderabad's museums include the Salar Jung Museum (housing "one of the largest one-man-collections in the world"188), the AP State Archaeology Museum, the Nizam Museum, the City Museum and the Birla Science Museum, which contains a planetarium.189
Hyderabadi cuisine comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and the skilled use of various spices.190 Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem, with their blend of Mughlai and Arab cuisines,191 have become iconic dishes of India.192 Hyderabadi cuisine is highly influenced by Mughlai and to some extent by French,193 Arabic, Turkish, Iranian and native Telugu and Marathwada cuisines.161191 Other popular native dishes include nihari, chakna, baghara baingan and the desserts qubani ka meetha, double ka meetha and kaddu ki kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).161194
One of the earliest newspapers to be published in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times, which was established in the 1780s.195 The major Telugu dailies published in Hyderabad are Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy, the major English papers are The Times of India, The Hindu and The Deccan Chronicle,196 and the major Urdu papers include The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad. Many coffee table magazines, professional magazines and research journals are regularly published there.197 The Secunderabad Cantonment Board established the first radio station in Hyderabad State around 1919. Deccan Radio was the first radio station in the city to broadcast to the public. It went on air on 3 February 1935.198 In 2000, radio stations were permitted to broadcast in FM;199 the available channels included All India Radio, Radio Mirchi, Radio City and Big FM.200
Television broadcasting in Hyderabad began in 1974 with the launch of Doordarshan, the Government of India's public service broadcaster,201 which transmits two free-to-air terrestrial television channels and one satellite channel. Private satellite channels started in July 1992 with the launch of Star TV.202 Satellite TV channels are accessible via cable subscription, direct-broadcast satellite services or internet-based television.199203 Hyderabad's first dial-up Internet access became available in the early 1990s and was limited to software development companies.204 The first public internet access service began in 1995, and the first private sector Internet service provider (ISP) started operating in 1998.205
Schools in Hyderabad are affiliated to the Central Board of Secondary Education, the Secondary School Certificate206 or the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, and they are run by government or by private entities such as local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other agencies. Around two-thirds of pupils go to private schools.207 Languages of instruction include English, Hindi, Urdu208 and Telugu. Schools follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing secondary education, students have to enroll in schools or junior colleges with a higher secondary facility. Admission to professional graduation colleges in Hyderbad is through Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test (EAM-CET). Most colleges are affiliated with either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.209
There are 13 universities in Hyderabad: two private universities, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities. The central universities are the University of Hyderabad,210 Maulana Azad National Urdu University and the English and Foreign Languages University.211 Osmania University, established in 1918, was the first university in Hyderabad. As of 2012, it is India's second most popular destination for international students.212 The Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Open University, established in 1982, is the first distance learning open university in India.213
Notable business and management schools in Hyderabad include the Indian School of Business,214 National Institute of Rural Development,215 and the Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India.216 Institutes of national importance include the Institute of Public Enterprise, the Administrative Staff College of India, and the Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy. Hyderabad has five major medical schools—Osmania Medical College, Gandhi Medical College, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Deccan College of Medical Sciences and Shadan Institute Of Medical Sciences217—and many affiliated teaching hospitals. The Government Nizamia Tibbi College is a college of unani medicine.218
Hyderabad is a major centre for biomedical, biotechnology and pharmaceutical study and research;219 the National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research is located here.220 The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics and the Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University are notable agricultural engineering institutes. Many of India's leading technical and engineering schools are in Hyderabad, including the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad (IIITH), the Birla Institute of Technology & Science (BITS), and the Indian Institute Of Technology (IITH). Schools of fashion design in the city include Raffles Millennium International, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan and Leigh College.
Cricket and association football are the most popular sports in Hyderabad.221 The city has hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002 National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2004 AP Tourism Hyderabad Open women's tennis tournament, the 2007 Military World Games, the 2009 World Badminton Championships and the 2009 IBSF World Snooker Championship. The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex is a venue for field hockey, and the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium in Gachibowli serves as a venue for athletics and football.222
The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium host cricket matches;223 the latter serves as the home ground of Hyderabad Cricket Association. Hyderabad has been the venue of many international cricket matches, including matches in the 1987 and the 1996 Cricket World Cups. The Hyderabad cricket team represents the city in the Ranji Trophy—a first-class cricket tournament among India's states and cities. Hyderabad is home to the Indian Premier League franchise Sunrisers Hyderabad formerly known as Deccan Chargers which won the 2009 Indian Premier League held in South Africa.224
During the British rule, Secunderabad was a well-known sporting centre, and had many parade and polo grounds, race course and other sporting facilities.225:18 The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and the British, such as the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club, which is known for its horse racing,226 especially the annual Deccan derby.227 The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises popular events such as the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag,228 TSD Rallies and 4x4 off-road rallying.229 The Hyderabad Golf Club has an eighteen-hole golf course.230 Notable international sportspeople from Hyderabad include: cricketers Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub and Noel David; football players Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin and Shabbir Ali;231 tennis player Sania Mirza; badminton players S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, Saina Nehwal, Jwala Gutta and Chetan Anand; hockey players Syed Mohammad Hadi and Mukesh Kumar; and bodybuilder Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan.
|Dubai||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||233|
|San Diego||California||United States||237|
- List of tourist attractions in Hyderabad
- List of tallest buildings in Hyderabad
- List of million-plus cities in India
- List of people from Hyderabad
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