Romanization of Georgian

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Romanization of Georgian is the representation of Georgian language texts from Georgian alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

Georgian national system of romanization

This system, adopted in February 2002 by the State Department of Geodesy and Cartography of Georgia and the Institute of Linguistics, Georgian Academy of Sciences, establishes a transliteration system of the modern Georgian alphabet in Latin characters.1 The system had already been in use since 1998 on driving licenses.

ISO 9984

The international standard ISO 9984 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of modern Georgian characters.

Unofficial system of romanization

Despite its popularity this system sometimes leads to ambiguity. The system is mostly used in social networks, forums, chat rooms etc. The system is greatly influenced by the common case-sensitive Georgian alphabet keyboard layout (see Georgian keyboard) that ties each key to each letter in the alphabet (seven of them: T, W, R, S, J, Z, C with the help of the shift key to make another letter).

Transliteration table

Georgian letter IPA National system
(2002)
BGN/PCGN
(1981)
ISO 9984
(1996)
ALA-LC
(1997)
Unofficial system
/ɑ/ a a a a a
/b/ b b b b b
/ɡ/ g g g g g
/d/ d d d d d
/ɛ/ e e e e e
/v/ v v v v v
/z/ z z z z z
2 /eɪ/ ey ē ē
/tʰ/ t t' t' t' T3 or t
/i/ i i i i i
/kʼ/ k' k k k k
/l/ l l l l l
/m/ m m m m m
/n/ n n n n n
2 /i/, /j/ j y y
/ɔ/ o o o o o
/pʼ/ p' p p p p
/ʒ/ zh zh ž ž J,3 zh or j
/r/ r r r r r
/s/ s s s s s
/tʼ/ t' t t t t
2 /uɪ/ w w
/u/ u u u u u
/pʰ/ p p' p' p' p or f
/kʰ/ k k' k' k' q or k
/ɣ/ gh gh ġ g, gh or R3
/qʼ/ q' q q q y4
/ʃ/ sh sh š š sh or S3
/tʃ(ʰ)/ ch ch' č' č' ch or C3
/ts(ʰ)/ ts ts' c' c' c or ts
/dz/ dz dz j ż dz or Z3
/tsʼ/ ts' ts c c w, c or ts
/tʃʼ/ ch' ch č č W,3 ch or tch
/x/ kh kh x x x or kh (rarely)
2 /q/, /qʰ/ q'
/dʒ/ j j ǰ j j
/h/ h h h h h
2 /oː/ ō ō
2 /f/ f f

In ALA-LC, the Mingrelian letters ჷ /ə/ and ჸ /ʔ/ are written ĕ and '.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (2007). Technical reference manual for the standardization of geographical names. United Nations. p. 64. ISBN 978-92-1-161500-5. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Archaic letters.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g These are influenced by aforementioned layout, and are preferred to avoid ambiguity, as an expressions: t, j, g, ch can mean two letters).
  4. ^ Initially, the use of y letter for ყ is most probably due to their resemblance to each other.







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