Indian Premier League

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Indian Premier League
Ipl.svg
Logo of Indian Premier League
Countries India
Administrator Board of Control for Cricket in India
Format Twenty20
First tournament 2008
Next tournament 2014
Tournament format Double round-robin and playoffs
Number of teams 8 (current)
Current champion Mumbai Indians (1st title)
Most successful Chennai Super Kings (2 titles)
Qualification Champions League Twenty20
Most runs India Suresh Raina (2802), Chennai Super Kings (current)
Most wickets Sri Lanka Lasith Malinga (127), Mumbai Indians (current)
Website iplt20.com
2014 Indian Premier League

Indian Premier League (IPL) is a Twenty20 cricket tournament where different franchise teams participate for the title. The tournament started in 2008 and from then it usually takes place every year in the months of April - June. It is currently supervised by BCCI Vice-President Ranjib Biswal, who serves as the League's Chairman and Commissioner.1

IPL is the most-watched Twenty20 cricket league in the world and also known for its commercial success. During the sixth IPL season (2013) its brand value was estimated to be around US$3.03 billion.23 Live rights to the event are syndicated around the globe, and in 2010, the IPL became the first sporting event to be broadcast live on YouTube.4 It is currently sponsored by Pepsi and thus officially known as the Pepsi Indian Premier League.5

Of the 11 clubs to have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 2008, five have won the title: Chennai Super Kings (2), Rajasthan Royals (1), Deccan Chargers (1), Kolkata Knight Riders (1) and Mumbai Indians (1). The current champions are Mumbai Indians, who won the title in the 2013 season. Currently there are eight teams.

History

Twenty20 cricket was first introduced by the England and Wales cricket board in 2003 but the IPL is largely credited in projecting the format of the game onto the world stage. IPL was inaugurated in 2008. During the same period Zee "Indian Cricket League" was in operational. It was an enormous success. The annual tournament, played mostly in Indian summer has gone from strength to strength and is largely viewed as being the 'richest' tournament in world cricket.

There are the eight franchises in the IPL (in brackets original cost of franchise in $/million):

The following three teams have played in the IPL but due to financial constraints have ceased to exist:

Until 2012, the Indian Premier League was sponsored by DLF after they paid $50 million for the five year sponsorship. Pepsi took over the contract for the 2013 IPL after paying close to 4 billion rupees for the 5 year contract. In 2008, Sony paid $1 billion for the broadcasting rights over a ten year period. The IPL is watched across the world and in 2010 made history by becoming the first sporting event to be broadcast live on YouTube.

First season

The inaugural season of the tournament took place from 18 April - 1 June 2008. The group stages featured eight teams playing against each other twice on home and once away basis, with the top four progressing to the semi-finals.

The final was played in DY Patil Stadium, Nerul, Navi Mumbai. The first winner of the tournament was Rajasthan Royals, who beat Chennai Super Kings in a match that went down to the last ball. Rajasthan's Shane Watson was named player of the tournament.

Second season

The 2009 Indian Premier League season, also known as IPL 2, was the second season held in South Africa because of the General elections in India and was played for 37 days from 18 April - 24 May 2009. Deccan Chargers beat Royal Challengers Bangalore in the final to take the title. (these two were placed 8th and 7th respectively in the standings of previous season).

Third season

The third season returned to India and it was the first IPL tournament that was broadcast live on YouTube. The final four matches of the tournament were screened in 3D across theatres in India. Chennai Super Kings defeated Mumbai Indians in the finals to win their first title.

Fourth season

In 2011, two new teams from Pune and Kochi made their debut in IPL fourth season. However, the bid around the Kochi franchise turned controversial resulting in the resignation of minister, Shashi Tharoor from the Central Government. Later Lalit Modi was also removed from IPL chairmanship by BCCI. On 5 December 2010, it was confirmed that Kochi will take part in the fourth season of IPL.6

The addition of teams representing Sahara's Pune Warriors India and the Kochi Tuskers Kerala have increased the number of franchises from 8 to 10. The format was changed where each team would play 5 other teams in a home-away format. Of the remaining, a team would play one at home and 2 away matches. Thus each team played 14 matches.

Chennai Super Kings won their second consecutive title after defeating Royal Challengers Bangalore by 58 runs in the final.7

Fifth season

The fifth season featured nine teams after the termination of the Kochi franchise. The players auction was held on 4 February 2012. Maximum number of players in each squad was increased from 30 to 33. A total of 76 matches were played from 4 April to 27 May.8 Delhi Daredevils, Kolkata Knight Riders, Mumbai Indians and Chennai Super Kings qualified for the playoffs. The final was hosted by Chennai on 27 May, where the defending champions Chennai Super Kings took on Kolkata Knight Riders. Kolkata Knight Riders won the match by 5 wickets.

This edition of the IPL was the most competitive with 14 matches producing results in the very last over, and a couple in the last ball.910 Towards the end of the league, it encountered many hurdles including a spot fixing case, which allegedly included five players caught on a sting operation carried by a news channel.1112

Sixth season

Pepsi replaced DLF as the title sponsor. Nine teams have participated in the sixth season. The sixth season took place from 3 April - 26 May 2013. Deccan Chargers franchise was terminated by the IPL governing council which was later replaced by Sunrisers Hyderabad owned by Sun Group.

Chennai Super Kings, Mumbai Indians, Rajasthan Royals and Sunrisers Hyderabad were the four teams in the league stage to qualify for the playoffs. Rajasthan Royals defeated Sunrisers Hyderabad by 4 wickets in the eliminator played at Feroz Shah Kotla in New Delhi.13 Mumbai Indians defeated Rajasthan Royals in the second qualifier and faced Chennai Super Kings in the Final. Mumbai Indians defeated Chennai Super Kings by 23 runs for their first title win. Shane Watson was named man of the tournament.

On the same day, Pune Warriors India owned by Sahara Group decided to pull out of IPL. This decision was taken after Sahara failed to pay IPL dues.

Seventh season

The league starts from 16 April - 1 June 2014 and will be hosted by both UAE & India. There will be eight teams participating in 2014 Indian Premier League as Pune Warriors India was terminated. The auction of players for the seventh season of IPL took place on 13 and 15 February 2014 in Bangalore. For the second time after 2011 IPL teams were allowed to retain up to 5 players. 7 teams retained at least 2 players from the previous squad. After hosting the first part in the United Arab Emirates, the seventh edition of Indian Premier League will return to India on May 2. Based on security demands for the 2014 Lok Sabha Elections the venues for some matches are shifted outside India.

League organisation

Franchises

The winning bidders for the eight franchises (or clubs) were announced on 24 January 2008.14 While the total base price for auction was US$400 million, the auction fetched US$723.59 million.15 Chennai Super Kings, Delhi Daredevils, Kings XI Punjab, Kolkata Knight Riders, Mumbai Indians, Rajasthan Royals, Royal Challengers Bangalore and Deccan Chargers were the founding clubs of the new professional league.

On 21 March 2010, teams from Pune (Pune Warriors India) and Kochi (Kochi Tuskers Kerala) were unveiled as the two new clubs for the fourth edition of the Indian Premier League. The base price was $225 million. While Pune was bought by Sahara Adventure Sports Group for $370 million, the Kochi franchise was bought by Rendezvous Sports World Limited for $333.3 million.16 The second franchise auction fetched total $703 million.

The rights to the new Hyderabad franchise were awarded to the Sun TV Network in October 2012.17

Tournament Rules

There are five ways that a franchise can acquire a player: In the annual auction, signing domestic players, signing uncapped players, through trading, and signing replacements.1819 In the trading window, the player can only be traded with his consent. The franchise will have to pay the difference between the old contract price and the new contract price. If the new contract is worth more than the older one, then the difference will be shared between the player and the franchise selling the player.2021

Some of the team composition rules are:

  • A minimum squad strength of 16 players plus one physiotherapist and a coach.
  • No more than 11 foreign players in the squad and maximum of four foreign players should be in the playing eleven.
  • A minimum of 14 Indian players must be included in each squad.
  • A minimum of six players from the BCCI under-22 pool in each squad.

IPL games utilise television timeouts, hence there is no time limit for teams to complete their innings. However, there may be a penalty if the umpires find teams misusing this privilege at their own choice. Additionally, each team is given a two-and-a-half-minute "strategic timeout" during each innings; one must be taken by the bowling team between the 6th to 10th overs, and the batting team between the 11th to 16th overs.22

The total spending cap for a franchisee in the first player auction was US$5 million. Under-22 players are to be remunerated with a minimum annual salary of US$20,000 while for others it is US$50,000.

Results and statistics

Team 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Chennai Super Kings R 4th W W R R TBD
Delhi Daredevils 4th 3rd 5th 10th 3rd 9th TBD
Kings XI Punjab 3rd 5th 8th 5th 6th 6th TBD
Kolkata Knight Riders 6th 8th 6th 4th W 7th TBD
Mumbai Indians 5th 7th R 3rd 4th W TBD
Rajasthan Royals W 6th 7th 6th 7th 3rd TBD
Royal Challengers Bangalore 7th R 3rd R 5th 5th TBD
Pune Warriors India DNP DNP DNP 9th 9th 8th DNP
Deccan Chargers 8th W 4th 7th 8th DNP DNP
Kochi Tuskers Kerala DNP DNP DNP 8th DNP DNP DNP
Sunrisers Hyderabad DNP DNP DNP DNP DNP 4th TBD

Notes:

  • W = Winner; R = Runner-up; SF = Semifinalist; DNP = Did Not Play; TBD = To be Decided
Season Champions Runners-up Semi-finalists No. of teams
2008 Rajasthan Royals Chennai Super Kings Kings XI Punjab Delhi Daredevils 8
2009 Deccan Chargers Royal Challengers Bangalore Delhi Daredevils Chennai Super Kings 8
2010 Chennai Super Kings Mumbai Indians Royal Challengers Bangalore Deccan Chargers 8
2011 Chennai Super Kings Royal Challengers Bangalore Mumbai Indians Kolkata Knight Riders 10
2012 Kolkata Knight Riders Chennai Super Kings Delhi Daredevils Mumbai Indians 9
2013 Mumbai Indians Chennai Super Kings Rajasthan Royals Sunrisers Hyderabad 9
2014 8

Prize Money

Season 7 of Indian Premier League (IPL 2014) will offer a total prize money of Rs. 30 crore. The Winning team of IPL gets prize money of Rs. 13 crores.

  • Champions: INR13 crores
  • Runner-up: INR8 crores
  • Third place: INR5 crores
  • Fourth place: INR4 crores
  • No prize money for remaining teams

It must be noted that IPL rules mandate that half of the prize money must be distributed among the players.23

Ticket Sales Money/gate receipt

Almost 80% of the tickets are sold by franchises themselves while other 20% is for IPL governing body.citation needed Tickets sales/gate receipts are large proportion of an IPL franchise's yearly revenue.

Sponsorships

India's biggest property developer DLF Group paid 250 cr (around US$50 million) to be the title sponsor of the tournament for 5 years from 2008 to 2012.24 From 2013 season, the American food and beverage company PepsiCo took over title sponsorship for five years valued at 3968 million, and also exclusive beverage supplier for the IPL teams in the 2013 season.2526

The IPL is expected to bring the BCCI an income of approximately US$1.6 billion, over a period of five to ten years. All of these revenues are directed to a central pool, 40% of which will go to IPL itself, 54% to franchises and 6% as prize money. The money will be distributed in these proportions until 2017, after which the share of IPL will be 50%, franchises 45% and prize money 5%. The IPL signed up Kingfisher Airlines as the official umpire partner for the series in a INR1.06 billion (US$18 million) (approximately £15 million) deal. This deal sees the McDowells No.1 brand on all umpires' uniforms and also on the giant screens during third umpire decisions.27

Other sponsorships include, a deal with Hero Honda worth $22.5 million, with PepsiCo worth $12.5 million, and a deal with Kingfisher at $26.5 million.28

Television rights

On 17 January 2008 it was announced that a consortium consisting of India's Sony Entertainment Television(Set Max) network and Singapore-based World Sport Group secured the global broadcasting rights of the Indian Premier League.29 The record deal has a duration of ten years at a cost of US$1.026 billion. As part of the deal, the consortium will pay the BCCI US$918 million for the television broadcast rights and US$108 million for the promotion of the tournament.30 This deal was challenged in the Bombay High Court by IPL, and got the ruling on its side.

After losing the battle in court, Sony Entertainment Television signed a new contract with BCCI with Sony Entertainment Television paying INR87 billion (US$1.5 billion) for 10 years. One of the reasons for payment of this huge amount is seen as the money required to subsidise IPL's move to South Africa which will be substantially more than the previous IPL. IPL had agreed to subsidise the difference in operating cost between India and South Africa as it decided to move to the African nation after the security concerns raised because of its coincidence with India's general elections.

20% of these proceeds would go to IPL, 8% as prize money and 72% would be distributed to the franchisees. The money would be distributed in these proportions until 2012, after which the IPL would go public and list its shares (But in March 2010, IPL decided not to go public).31

Sony-WSG then re-sold parts of the broadcasting rights geographically to other companies. It is officially broadcast on Set Max, Set Six and in internet on Times internet.

On 4 March 2010 ITV announced it had secured the United Kingdom television rights for the 2010 Indian Premier League. ITV will televise 59 of the 60 IPL matches on its ITV4 free to air channel.32

On 1 April 2011, Rogers Media announced that he signed a four-year exclusive deal in Canada to broadcast 36 group stage matches, 3 playoff matches and 1 championship match on its channel Sportsnet One.33 In the 2012 season, its coverage includes a weekly highlight show and four matches on its Omni Television multicultural stations, and the IPL Final was broadcast on the main Sportsnet regional channels.34

Winning Bidder Regional Broadcast Rights Terms of Deal
Sony Entertainment Television/World Sport Group India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal 10 years, 2008–2017 at INR87 billion (US$1.5 billion) (revised)29
The Times Group Worldwide Global Rights to distribute on broadband, mobile and radio. 4 Years 2011–2014, Terms not released.35
Channel 9 Bangladesh 36
GEO Super (2008–2010, 2012, 2013, 2014) Pakistan Contract extended to 2013.37
Carlton Sports Network (2012–)
Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation: Channel Eye (2008–2011)
Sri Lanka Terms not released.
Network Ten (2008)
One (2009–2010)
Australia: Currently no television broadcasting.38 5 years, 2008–2012 at A$10–15 million.39
Sky Sport (2008–2010, 2012–) New Zealand Terms not released.
PCCW Hong Kong: Broadcast rights on Now TV. 2 years, 2010–2011 terms not released.
StarHub Singapore: Broadcast rights on IPL Channel. Terms not released.
Astro Malaysia, Brunei Terms not released.
SuperSport South Africa, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe 10 Years, 2008–2017 terms not released.
Arab Digital Distribution (CricOne) United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Yemen

Broadcast rights on CricOne

10 Years, 2008–2017 terms not released.40
Sky Sports(2015-) ITV (2010–2014) Setanta Sports (2008–2009) United Kingdom: Broadcast on ITV4. 4 Years 2011–2014, Terms not released.
SportsMax Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Barbados, Bermuda, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Sint Maarten, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands Terms not released.
Sportsnet One/World/Omni (2011–present) Asian Television Network (2008–2010) ATN-Asian Radio (2008–present) Canada: Exclusive broadcast rights. 4 years, 2011–2014 terms not released.
Willow TV (2008–2010, 2012, 2013) United States Rights to distribute on television, radio, broadband and Internet, for the IPL in North America. 5 years, 2008–2012, terms not released.41
NEO Cricket (2011–) Dish Network (2008, 2011–) DirecTV (2008–2010) United States Terms not released.

Revenue and profits

The UK-based brand consultancy, Brand Finance, has valued the IPL at $4.13 billion in 2010.42 It was valued at US$2.01 billion in 2009 by the same consultancy.43

There are disputed figures for the profitability of the teams. One analyst said that four teams out of the eight made a profit in 2009.44 While The Times said that all but Kings XI Punjab made a profit.45

In 2010, the IPL expects to have 80 official merchandising deals. It has signed a deal with Swiss watchmaker Bandelier to make official watches for the IPL.46

Mobile applications

DCI Mobile Studios (A division of Dot Com Infoway Limited), in conjunction with Sigma Ventures of Singapore, have jointly acquired the rights to be the exclusive Mobile Application partner and rights holder for the Indian Premier League cricket matches worldwide for the next 8 years (including the 2017 season). Recentlywhen?, they have released the IPL T20 Mobile applications for iPhone, Nokia Smartphones and BlackBerry devices. It is available across all other major Mobile platforms including the Android, Windows Mobile, Palm & others.47

Official website

The IPL negotiated a contract with the Canadian company Live Current Media Inc. to run and operate its portals and the minimum guarantee has been negotiated at US$50 million over the next 10 years.48 In 2010, the contract was nullified and the BCCI decided to run the IPL Digital properties in-house. The official website of the tournament is www.iplt20.com. Incorporating popular forms of social media, the website now contains a more holistic presence across all online mediums to empower user interaction.

Global interest

The third season of the IPL saw interest rise dramatically in the United Kingdom, due to telecasts being moved from the subscription-based Setanta Sports to the free-to-air ITV4. Lalit Modi, then chairman and Commissioner, also expressed immense satisfaction on the way IPL has been accepted by the British audience. "ITV beats Sky Sports over the weekend in number of viewers. This is great going. The ITV numbers are double that of rugby league. This is huge by all imaginations. UK figures for viewership on ITV already 10 times that of last year. This is just fantastic news," he said.49

Fantasy Cricket

A number of portals piggyback on the immense popularity of the Indian Premier League and offer users an opportunity to play fantasy cricket leagues specially designed for the IPL. Fantasy Cricket is a game which allows users to make a virtual team and then allots points to them based on how their chosen players perform in the actual matches. There are some basic rules that need to be followed while creating a virtual team. It is hugely popular in India and among Indians living abroad during the eight weeks of the Indian Premier League. It can be played on official website of IPL.

Controversies

However, the League has been the subject of controversies where allegations of cricket betting, money laundering, termination of franchises and spot fixing were witnessed.5051 The IPL franchise has a number of issues regarding the viability of the business model, sponsorship fees, reduction in the brand value, fees paid to players and other issues that threaten the game.52

See also

References

  1. ^ "BCCI AGM 2011: Rajiv Shukla appointed IPL chief". Sahara Samay. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  2. ^ "Brand IPL comes under a cloud". Business Standard. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  3. ^ "Controversies, scandals inflicting body blow to IPL as brand value". India Today. 24 May 2013. Retrieved 10 February 2014. 
  4. ^ "IPL matches to be broadcast live on Youtube". ESPNcricinfo. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010. 
  5. ^ "Pepsi to be new IPL team sponsor". Wisden India. 21 November 2012. 
  6. ^ Finally, Kochi IPL franchise gets go-ahead from BCCI The Times of India, published: 6 December 2010. Retrieved 18 December 2010
  7. ^ Dinakar, S. (28 May 2011). "Dhoni and his men are toast of Chennai". The Hindu (Chennai, India). 
  8. ^ "IPL 2012". jagran.com. Dainik Jagran. 20 April 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  9. ^ CricketCountry Staff (6 May 2012). "IPL 2012: Most close finishes this year". New Delhi: Cricketcountry.com. Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "Last-gasp IPL thrillers stressful for players, spectators: Morkel". The Times of India (New Delhi). IANS. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  11. ^ Basu, Indranil (16 May 2012). "BCCI suspends 5 cricketers for IPL spot fixing". The Times of India (New Delhi). Retrieved 26 May 2012. 
  12. ^ Soutik Biswas (25 May 2012). "Is IPL a 'crony league'?". Retrieved 25 May 2012. 
  13. ^ Abhishek Purohit (22 May 2013). "Hodge launches Royals into qualifier". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  14. ^ "Cricket". The Times of India. 
  15. ^ "Cricinfo – Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL". ESPNcricinfo. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  16. ^ Pune and Kochi unveiled as new IPL franchises
  17. ^ "Sun TV Network win Hyderabad IPL franchise". Wisden India. 25 October 2012. 
  18. ^ Slow trading with all eyes on auction, Brief discussion of IPL rules on acquiring players.
  19. ^ IPL lays down guidelines for replacements, Discusses IPL rules on buying replacement players players.
  20. ^ IPL rules when trading players. ESPNcricinfo
  21. ^ "New Rules of IPL 5". http://www.invectura.com. 30 March 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "IPL 3 to start on March 12 in Hyderabad". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  23. ^ "IPL-onomics: where Indian players call the shots". 22 April 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  24. ^ "Kushal Pal Singh". Forbes. 03–11–09. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  25. ^ "With eight IPL team rights, PepsiCo hopes for a shiny summer". Business Standard. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  26. ^ "Will Pepsi change the IPL game?". Business Line. Retrieved 4 April 2013. 
  27. ^ Vinaya Naidu (16 May 2013). "IPL6 Sponsors Engaging Through Social Media. Bring Fans Closer To Their Teams". Retrieved 16 May 2013. 
  28. ^ "Five-year sponsorship agreements". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 23 March 2010. Retrieved 23 March 2010. 
  29. ^ a b "Sony and World Sports Group bag IPL television rights". ESPNcricinfo. 14 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  30. ^ "Billion dollar rights deal for IPL". The Australian. 15 January 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  31. ^ IndranilBasu (27 January 2008). "Does the IPL model make sense?". The Times of India. Retrieved 21 March 2008. 
  32. ^ "ITV to screen IPL in 2010". ITV. 4 March 2010. 
  33. ^ "IPL Cricket live on Sportsnet". Rogers Sportsnet. 1 April 2011. 
  34. ^ "Sportsnet World is Home to Cricket’s Biggest Stars with IPL 2012, Season Begins this Wednesday". sportsnet.ca. Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  35. ^ "Times Group-led consortium wins IPL internet, mobile rights". The Times of India. 
  36. ^ "IPL 6 player auction will be live telecast TV channel List". 2 February 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  37. ^ "TV channels broadcasting IPL 2013 Live". Tera Sports. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  38. ^ Knox, David. "TV Rights Dispute Shuts Out Indian Premier League". TVtonight. Retrieved 2 April 2013. 
  39. ^ "Cricinfo – Australia to get live coverage of IPL". 2 February 2008. Retrieved 12 April 2008. 
  40. ^ ADD secures IPL telecast rights for Middle East and North Africa
  41. ^ "IPL: Willow TV gets TV rights for the Americas". Cricket Next. 9 April 2008. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  42. ^ "Stiff clauses leave only 4 in race for IPL teams". The Economic Times (India). 6 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010. 
  43. ^ Brand IPL touches the sky. Iplt20.com
  44. ^ IPL teams become hot commodity LiveMint article
  45. ^ Lalit Modi ambition could create problems for IPL franchises
  46. ^ IPL targets 80 licensing and merchandising deals this year
  47. ^ DCI Mobile studios and; Sigma Ventures acquire global mobile Applications rights for IPL T20
  48. ^ "Live Current Media Inc. and DLF Indian Premier League To Launch IPLT20.com as Official IPL Online Destination". livecurrent.com. 18 April 2008. 
  49. ^ "Record ratings for IPL in the UK". 
  50. ^ "Why is the Indian Premier League floundering?". BBC News. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  51. ^ "A Tax Inquiry Jolts the World of Indian Cricket". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 May 2012. 
  52. ^ Shashi Kadapa. How sustainable is the strategy of the Indian Premier League - IPL? A critical review of 10 key issues that impact the IPL Strategy - published at: International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications (IJSRP), Volume 3, Issue 12, December 2013 Edition. . Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2365587

fantasy cricket leagues for IPL

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