Indigenous peoples of the Americas
|Approximately 52 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|(not including Mestizos - people of mixed race populations in Latin America)|
|United States||2.9-5 million5|
|Indigenous languages of the Americas, English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Dutch|
Native American religion
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of North and South America and their descendants. Pueblos indígenas (indigenous peoples) is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries. Aborigen (aboriginal/native) is used in Argentina, whereas "Amerindian" is used in Guyana but not commonly in other countries.22 Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which include First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples.23 Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians, and Alaskan Natives.24
According to the prevailing New World migration model, migrations of humans from Eurasia to the Americas took place via Beringia, a land bridge which connected the two continents across what is now the Bering Strait. The majority of authorities agree that the earliest migration via Beringia took place at least 13,500 years ago, with disputed evidence that people had migrated into the Americas much earlier, up to 40,000 years ago.citation needed These early Paleo-Indians spread throughout the Americas, diversifying into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes. According to the oral histories of many of the indigenous peoples of the Americas, they have been living there since their genesis, described by a wide range of traditional creation accounts.
Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for Asia, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies.252627282930 The Americas came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used to refer to the Caribbean. This led to the names "Indies" and "Indian", which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. This unifying concept, codified in law, religion, and politics, was not originally accepted by indigenous peoples but has been embraced by many over the last two centuries. Even though the term "Indian" does not include the Aleuts, Inuit, or Yupik peoples, these groups are considered indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in Amazonia, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas.31 Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting, and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states, and empires.
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous Americans; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as Quechua languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages, and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization, and subsistence practices. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western society, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
- 1 History
- 2 Agriculture
- 3 Culture
- 4 Demography of contemporary populations
- 5 History and status by country
- 6 Native American name controversy
- 7 Rise of indigenous movements
- 8 Genetics
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 Sources
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are subject to ongoing research and discussion.33 The traditional Western theory, which is built on circumstantial evidence, has been that these early migrants moved into the Beringia land bridge between eastern Siberia and present-day Alaska between 40,000 and 16,500 years ago. There are suggestions of human occupation in the northern Yukon about 24,000 years ago,34353637 when sea levels were significantly lowered due to the Quaternary glaciation, and hints of the presence of humans in the Old Crow Basin in the Yukon as far back as about 40,000 years ago.3338 These people are believed to have followed herds of now-extinct Pleistocene megafauna along ice-free corridors that stretched between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets.39 Another route proposed is that, either on foot or using primitive boats, they migrated down the Pacific Northwest coast to South America.40 Evidence of the latter would have been covered by a sea level rise of more than 120 meters since the last ice age.41
The time range of 40,000–16,500 years ago is a hot topic of debate and probably will be for years to come. The few agreements achieved to date are the origin from Central Asia, with widespread habitation of the Americas during the end of the last glacial period, or more specifically what is known as the late glacial maximum, around 16,000–13,000 years before present.3742
The Clovis culture is the earliest definitively dated prehistoric Paleo-Indian culture in the Americas. It appears around 11,500 RCBP (radiocarbon years before present43), equivalent to 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago. In 2014, the autosomal DNA of a 12,500+-year-old infant from Montana found in close association with several Clovis artifacts was sequenced.44 The data indicate that the individual was from a population directly ancestral to present South American and Central American Native American populations, and closely related to present North American Native American populations. The implication is that there was an early divergence between North American and Central American plus South American populations. Hypotheses which posit that invasions subsequent to the Clovis culture overwhelmed or assimilated previous migrants into the Americas were ruled out.44
Stone tools, particularly projectile points and scrapers, are the primary evidence of the earliest human activity in the Americas. Crafted lithic flaked tools are used by archaeologists and anthropologists to classify cultural periods.45
The anatomical features of Kennewick Man, one of the oldest and most complete human remains ever found in North America, were different from those of modern Native Americans and his relationship to other ancient people is uncertain.46
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the Early Modern period.47
While technically referring to the era before Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492 to 1504, in practice the term usually includes the history of American indigenous cultures until they were either conquered or significantly influenced by Europeans, even if this happened decades or even centuries after Columbus' initial landing.48 Pre-Columbian is used especially often in the context of the great indigenous civilizations of the Americas, such as those of Mesoamerica (the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacano, the Zapotec, the Mixtec, the Aztec, and the Maya) and the Andes (Inca, Moche, Chibcha, Cañaris).
Many pre-Columbian civilizations established characteristics and hallmarks which included permanent or urban settlements, agriculture, civic and monumental architecture, and complex societal hierarchies.49 Some of these civilizations had long faded by the time of the first permanent European and African arrivals (ca. late 15th–early 16th centuries), and are known only through oral history and archaeological investigations. Others were contemporary with this period, and are also known from historical accounts of the time. A few, such as the Mayan, Olmec, Mixtec, and Nahua peoples, had their own written records. However, the European colonists of the time worked to eliminate non-Christian beliefs, and many pre-Columbian written records were destroyed in Christian pyres. Only a few hidden documents remain today, leaving contemporary historians with glimpses of ancient culture and knowledge.
According to both indigenous American and European accounts and documents, American civilizations at the time of European encounter had achieved many accomplishments.50 For instance, the Aztecs built one of the largest cities in the world, Tenochtitlan, the ancient site of Mexico City, with an estimated population of 200,000. American civilizations also displayed impressive accomplishments in astronomy and mathematics. The domestication of maize or corn required thousands of years of selective breeding.
Inuit, Alaskan Native, and American Indian creation myths tell of a variety of origins of their respective peoples. Some were "always there" or were created by gods or animals, some migrated from a specified compass point, and others came from "across the ocean."51
So far, the only verifiable site of pre-Columbian European settlement anywhere in the Americas, outside of Greenland, is L'Anse aux Meadows, located near the very northern tip of the Canadian island of Newfoundland. It was settled by the Norse around the end of the 10th century. None of the other numerous theories of pre-Columbian contacts between the Americas and Asians, Africans, and Europeans have been substantiated by evidence persuasive to the majority of scholars.
The European colonization of the Americas forever changed the lives and cultures of the peoples of the continents. Although the exact pre-contact population of the Americas is unknown, scholars estimate that Native American populations diminished by between 80 and 90% within the first centuries of contact with Europeans. The leading cause was disease. The continent was ravaged by epidemics of diseases such as smallpox, measles, and cholera, which were brought from Europe by the early explorers and spread quickly into new areas even before later explorers and colonists reached them. Native Americans suffered high mortality rates due to their lack of prior exposure to these diseases. The loss of lives was exacerbated by violence on the part of colonists who frequently perpetrated massacres on the indigenous groups and enslaved them.525354 According to the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1894), the North American Indian Wars of the 19th century cost the lives of about 19,000 whites and 30,000 Native Americans.55
The first indigenous group encountered by Columbus were the 250,000 Taínos of Hispaniola who represented the dominant culture in the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas. Within thirty years about 70% of the Taínos had died.56 They had no immunity to European diseases, so outbreaks of measles and smallpox ravaged their population.57 Increasing punishment of the Taínos for revolting against forced labour, despite measures put in place by the encomienda, which included religious education and protection from warring tribes,58 eventually led to the last great Taíno rebellion.
Following years of gross mistreatment, the Taínos began to adopt suicidal behaviors, with women aborting or killing their infants and men jumping from the cliffs or ingesting manioc, a violent poison.56 Eventually, a Taíno Cacique named Enriquillo managed to hold out in the mountain range of Bahoruco for thirteen years, causing serious damage to the Spanish, Carib-held plantations and their Indian auxiliaries.59 Hearing of the seriousness of the revolt, Emperor Charles V (also King of Spain) sent captain Francisco Barrionuevo to negotiate a peace treaty with the ever-increasing number of rebels. Two months later, after consultation with the Audencia of Santo Domingo, Enriquillo was offered any part of the island to live in peace.
The Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regard to native Indians. The laws forbade the maltreatment of natives and endorsed their conversion to Catholicism.60 The Spanish crown found it difficult to enforce these laws in a distant colony.
Various theories for the decline of the Native American populations emphasize epidemic diseases, conflicts with Europeans, and conflicts among warring tribes. Scholars now believe that, among the various contributing factors, epidemic disease was the overwhelming cause of the population decline of the American natives.6162 Some believe that after first contacts with Europeans and Africans, Old World diseases caused the death of 90 to 95% of the native population of the New World.63 Smallpox killed up to one third of the native population of Hispaniola in 1518.64 By killing the Incan ruler Huayna Capac, smallpox had brought the Incas into a civil war. Smallpox was only the first epidemic. Typhus (probably) in 1546, influenza and smallpox together in 1558, smallpox again in 1589, diphtheria in 1614, measles in 1618—all ravaged the remains of Inca culture. Smallpox had killed millions of native inhabitants of Mexico.6566 Unintentionally introduced at Veracruz with the arrival of Pánfilo de Narváez on April 23, 1520, smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520s,67 possibly killing over 150,000 in Tenochtitlan alone (the heartland of the Aztec Empire), and aiding in the victory of Hernán Cortés over the Aztec empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521.68citation needed]]
Explorations of the Caribbean led to the discovery of the Arawak peoples of the Lesser Antilles. The culture was destroyed by 1650. Only 500 had survived by the year 1550, though the bloodlines continued through to the modern populace. In Amazonia, indigenous societies weathered centuries of colonization.70
The repeated outbreaks of influenza, measles and smallpox probably resulted in a decline of between one-half and two-thirds of the Aboriginal population of eastern North America during the first 100 years of European contact.71 In 1617–1619, smallpox reportedly killed 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Native American residents.72 In 1633, in Plymouth, the Native Americans there were exposed to smallpox because of contact with Europeans. As it had done elsewhere, the virus wiped out entire population groups of Native Americans.73 It reached Lake Ontario in 1636, and the lands of the Iroquois by 1679.7475 During the 1770s, smallpox killed at least 30% of the West Coast Native Americans.76 Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic population depletion among the Plains Indians.7778 In 1832, the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans (The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832).7980
The Spaniards and other Europeans brought horses to the Americas. Some of these animals escaped and began to breed and increase their numbers in the wild.83 The re-introduction of the horse, extinct in the Americas for over 7,500 years, had a profound impact on Native American culture in the Great Plains of North America and of Patagonia in South America. By domesticating horses, some tribes had great success: horses enabled them to expand their territories, exchange more goods with neighboring tribes, and more easily capture game, especially bison.
Over the course of thousands of years, American indigenous peoples domesticated, bred and cultivated a large array of plant species. These species now constitute 50–60% of all crops in cultivation worldwide.84 In certain cases, the indigenous peoples developed entirely new species and strains through artificial selection, as was the case in the domestication and breeding of maize from wild teosinte grasses in the valleys of southern Mexico. Numerous such agricultural products retain their native names in the English and Spanish lexicons.
The South American highlands were a center of early agriculture. Genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species suggests that the potato has a single origin in the area of southern Peru,85 from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex. Over 99% of all modern cultivated potatoes worldwide are descendants of a subspecies indigenous to south-central Chile,86 Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum, where it was cultivated as long as 10,000 years ago.8788 According to George Raudzens, "It is clear that in pre-Columbian times some groups struggled to survive and often suffered food shortages and famines, while others enjoyed a varied and substantial diet."89 The persistent drought around 850 AD coincided with the collapse of Classic Maya civilization, and the famine of One Rabbit (AD 1454) was a major catastrophe in Mexico.90
Natives of North America began practicing farming approximately 4,000 years ago, late in the Archaic period of North American cultures. Technology had advanced to the point that pottery was becoming common and the small-scale felling of trees had become feasible. Concurrently, the Archaic Indians began using fire in a controlled manner. Intentional burning of vegetation was used to mimic the effects of natural fires that tended to clear forest understories. It made travel easier and facilitated the growth of herbs and berry-producing plants, which were important for both food and medicines.91
In the Mississippi River valley, Europeans noted Native Americans' managed groves of nut and fruit trees not far from villages and towns and their gardens and agricultural fields. Further away, prescribed burning would have been used in forest and prairie areas.92
Many crops first domesticated by indigenous Americans are now produced and/or used globally. Chief among these is maize or "corn", arguably the most important crop in the world.93 Other significant crops include cassava, chia, squash (pumpkins, zucchini, marrow, acorn squash, butternut squash), the pinto bean, Phaseolus beans including most common beans, tepary beans and lima beans, tomatoes, potatoes, avocados, peanuts, cocoa beans (used to make chocolate), vanilla, strawberries, pineapples, Peppers (species and varieties of Capsicum, including bell peppers, jalapeños, paprika and chili peppers) sunflower seeds, rubber, brazilwood, chicle, tobacco, coca, manioc and some species of cotton.
Studies of contemporary indigenous environmental management, including agro-forestry practices among Itza Maya in Guatemala and hunting and fishing among the Menominee of Wisconsin, suggest that longstanding "sacred values" may represent a summary of sustainable millennial traditions.94
Cultural practices in the Americas seem to have been shared mostly within geographical zones where unrelated peoples adopted similar technologies and social organizations. An example of such a cultural area is Mesoamerica, where millennia of coexistence and shared development among the peoples of the region produced a fairly homogeneous culture with complex agricultural and social patterns. Another well-known example is the North American plains where until the 19th century several peoples shared the traits of nomadic hunter-gatherers based primarily on buffalo hunting.
The development of writing is counted among the many achievements and innovations of pre-Columbian American cultures. Independent from the development of writing in other areas of the world, the Mesoamerican region produced several indigenous writing systems beginning in the 1st millennium BCE. What may be the earliest-known example in the Americas of an extensive text thought to be writing is by the Cascajal Block. The Olmec hieroglyphs tablet has been indirectly dated from ceramic shards found in the same context to approximately 900 BCE, around the time that Olmec occupation of San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán began to wane.95
The Maya writing system (often called hieroglyphs from a superficial resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian writing) was a combination of phonetic symbols and logograms. It is most often classified as a logographic or (more properly) a logosyllabic writing system, in which syllabic signs play a significant role. It is the only pre-Columbian writing system known to represent completely the spoken language of its community. In total, the script has more than one thousand different glyphs although a few are variations of the same sign or meaning and many appear only rarely or are confined to particular localities. At any one time, no more than about five hundred glyphs were in use, some two hundred of which (including variations) had a phonetic or syllabic interpretation.
Aztec codices (singular codex) are books written by pre-Columbian and colonial-era Aztecs. These codices provide some of the best primary sources for Aztec culture. The pre-Columbian codices differ from European codices in that they are largely pictorial; they were not meant to symbolize spoken or written narratives.96 The colonial era codices not only contain Aztec pictograms, but also Classical Nahuatl (in the Latin alphabet), Spanish, and occasionally Latin.
Native American music in North America is almost entirely monophonic, but there are notable exceptions. Traditional Native American music often centers around drumming. Rattles, clappersticks, and rasps were also popular percussive instruments. Flutes were made of rivercane, cedar, and other woods. The tuning of these flutes is not precise and depends on the length of the wood used and the hand span of the intended player, but the finger holes are most often around a whole step apart and, at least in Northern California, a flute was not used if it turned out to have an interval close to a half step. The Apache fiddle is a single stringed instrument.
The music of the indigenous peoples of Central Mexico and Central America was often pentatonic. Before the arrival of the Spaniards and other Europeans, music was inseparable from religious festivities and included a large variety of percussion and wind instruments such as drums, flutes, sea snail shells (used as a trumpet) and "rain" tubes. No remnants of pre-Columbian stringed instruments were found until archaeologists discovered a jar in Guatemala, attributed to the Maya of the Late Classic Era (600–900 CE), which depicts a stringed musical instrument which has since been reproduced. This instrument is astonishing in at least two respects. First, it is one of the very few stringed instruments known in the Americas prior to the introduction of European musical instruments. Second, when played it produces a sound virtually identical to a jaguar's growl.97
Visual arts by indigenous peoples of the Americas comprise a major category in the world art collection. Contributions include pottery, paintings, jewellery, weavings, sculptures, basketry, carvings, and beadwork.98 Because too many artists were posing as Native Americans in order to profit from the caché of Native American art, the United States passed the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990, requiring artists to prove that they are enrolled in a state or federally recognized tribe.
||The neutrality of this section is disputed. (September 2011)|
The following table provides estimates for each country in the Americas of the populations of indigenous people and those with partial indigenous ancestry, each expressed as a percentage of the overall population. The total percentage obtained by adding both of these categories is also given.
Note: these categories are inconsistently defined and measured differently from country to country. Some figures are based on the results of population-wide genetic surveys while others are based on self-identification or observational estimation.
|Country||Indigenous||Ref.||Part indigenous||Ref.||Combined total||Ref.|
|Antigua and Barbuda||%||%||%|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||%||%||%|
|Saint Vincent and
|Trinidad and Tobago||0.8%||88%||80%|
In 2005, Argentina's indigenous population numbered about 600,329 (1.6% of total population); this figure includes 457,363 people who self-identified as belonging to an indigenous ethnic group and 142,966 who identified themselves as first-generation descendants of an indigenous people.10 The ten most populous indigenous peoples are the Mapuche (113,680 people), the Kolla (70,505), the Toba (69,452), the Guaraní (68,454), the Wichi (40,036), the Diaguita-Calchaquí (31,753), the Mocoví (15,837), the Huarpe (14,633), the Comechingón (10,863) and the Tehuelche (10,590). Minor but important peoples are the Quechua (6,739), the Charrúa (4,511), the Pilagá (4,465), the Chané (4,376), and the Chorote (2,613). The Selknam (Ona) people are now virtually extinct in its pure form. The languages of the Diaguita, Tehuelche, and Selknam nations have become extinct or virtually extinct: the Cacán language (spoken by Diaguitas) in the 18th century and the Selknam language in the 20th century; one Tehuelche language (Southern Tehuelche) is still spoken by a handful of elderly people.
Mestizos (European with indigenous peoples) number about 34 percent of the population; unmixed Maya make up another 10.6 percent (Ketchi, Mopan, and Yucatec). The Garifuna, who came to Belize in the 19th century, originating from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, with a mixed African, Carib, and Arawak ancestry make up another 6% of the population.103
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (April 2012)|
In Bolivia, a 62% majority of residents over the age of 15 self-identify as belonging to an indigenous people, while another 3.7% grew up with an indigenous mother tongue yet do not self-identify as indigenous.131 Including both of these categories, and children under 15, some 66.4% of Bolivia's population was registered as indigenous in the 2001 Census.132 The largest indigenous ethnic groups are: Quechua, about 2.5 million people; Aymara, 2.0 million; Chiquitano, 181,000; Guaraní, 126,000; and Mojeño, 69,000. Some 124,000 belong to smaller indigenous groups.133 The Constitution of Bolivia, enacted in 2009, recognizes 36 cultures, each with its own language, as part of a plurinational state. Some groups, including CONAMAQ (the National Council of Ayllus and Markas of Qullasuyu) draw ethnic boundaries within the Quechua- and Aymara-speaking population, resulting in a total of fifty indigenous peoples native to Bolivia.
Large numbers of Bolivian highland peasants retained indigenous language, culture, customs, and communal organization throughout the Spanish conquest and the post-independence period. They mobilized to resist various attempts at the dissolution of communal landholdings and used legal recognition of "empowered caciques" to further communal organization. Indigenous revolts took place frequently until 1953.134 While the National Revolutionary Movement government begun in 1952 discouraged self-identification as indigenous (reclassifying rural people as campesinos, or peasants), renewed ethnic and class militancy re-emerged in the Katarista movement beginning in the 1970s.135 Lowland indigenous peoples, mostly in the east, entered national politics through the 1990 March for Territory and Dignity organized by the CIDOB confederation. That march successfully pressured the national government to sign the ILO Convention 169 and to begin the still-ongoing process of recognizing and titling indigenous territories. The 1994 Law of Popular Participation granted "grassroots territorial organizations" that are recognized by the state certain rights to govern local areas.
Some radio and television programs in Quechua and Aymara are produced. The constitutional reform in 1997 recognized Bolivia as a multilingual, pluri-ethnic society and introduced education reform. In 2005, for the first time in the country's history, an indigenous Aymara, Evo Morales, was elected as President.
Morales began work on his “indigenous autonomy” policy, which he launched in the eastern lowlands department on August 3, 2009, making Bolivia the first country in the history of South America to affirm the right of indigenous people to govern themselves.136 Speaking in Santa Cruz Department, the President called it "a historic day for the peasant and indigenous movement", saying that, though he might make errors, he would "never betray the fight started by our ancestors and the fight of the Bolivian people".136 A vote on further autonomy will take place in referendums which are expected to be held in December 2009.136 The issue has divided the country.137
Indigenous peoples of Brazil make up 0.4% of Brazil's population, or about 700,000 people,82 even though millions of Brazilians have some indigenous ancestry.138139 Indigenous peoples are found in the entire territory of Brazil, although the majority of them live in Indian reservations in the North and Center-Western part of the country. On January 18, 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005. With this addition Brazil has now overtaken the island of New Guinea as the country having the largest number of uncontacted tribes.139
In a 2007 news story, The Washington Post reported, "As has been proved in the past when uncontacted tribes are introduced to other populations and the microbes they carry, maladies as simple as the common cold can be deadly. In the 1970s, 185 members of the Panara tribe died within two years of discovery after contracting such diseases as flu and chickenpox, leaving only 69 survivors."140
Aboriginal peoples in Canada comprise the First Nations,141 Inuit142 and Métis;143 the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" are falling into disuse.144 Hundreds of Aboriginal nations evolved trade, spiritual and social hierarchies. The Métis culture of mixed blood originated in the mid-17th century when First Nation and native Inuit married European settlers.145 The Inuit had more limited interaction with European settlers during that early period.146 Various laws, treaties, and legislation have been enacted between European immigrants and First Nations across Canada. Aboriginal Right to Self-Government provides opportunity to manage historical, cultural, political, health care and economic control aspects within first people's communities.
Although not without conflict, European/Canadian early interactions with First Nations and Inuit populations were relatively peaceful compared to the experience of native peoples in the United States.147 Combined with a late economic development in many regions,148 this relatively peaceful history has allowed Canadian Indigenous peoples to have a fairly strong influence on the early national culture while preserving their own identity.149 From the late 18th century, European Canadians encouraged Aboriginals to assimilate into their own culture, referred to as "Canadian culture".150 These attempts reached a climax in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with forced integration.151 National Aboriginal Day recognises the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples of Canada.152 There are currently over 600 recognized First Nations governments or bands encompassing 1,172,790 2006 people spread across Canada with distinctive Aboriginal cultures, languages, art, and music.153154155
According to the 2002 Census, 4.6% of the Chilean population, including the Rapanui of Easter Island, was indigenous, although most show varying degrees of mixed heritage.156 Many are descendants of the Mapuche, and live in Santiago, Araucanía and the lake district. The Mapuche successfully fought off defeat in the first 300–350 years of Spanish rule during the Arauco War. Relations with the new Chilean Republic were good until the Chilean state decided to occupy their lands. During the Occupation of Araucanía the Mapuche surrendered to the country's army in the 1880s. Their land was opened to settlement by Chileans and Europeans. Conflict over Mapuche land rights continues to the present.
Other groups include the Aymara, the majority of whom live in Bolivia and Peru, with smaller numbers in the Arica-Parinacota and Tarapacá Regions, and the Alacalufe people, who reside mainly in Puerto Edén.
A minority today within Colombia's overwhelmingly Mestizo and Afro-Colombian population, Colombia's indigenous peoples nonetheless encompass at least 85 distinct cultures and more than 1,378,884 people.157158 A variety of collective rights for indigenous peoples are recognized in the 1991 Constitution.
One of these is the Muisca culture, a subset of the larger Chibcha ethnic group, famous for their use of gold, which led to the legend of El Dorado. At the time of the Spanish conquest, the Chibchas were the largest native civilization between the Incas and the Aztecs.
There are over 60,000 inhabitants of Native American origins, representing 1.5% of the population. Most of them live in secluded reservations, distributed among eight ethnic groups: Quitirrisí (In the Central Valley), Matambú or Chorotega (Guanacaste), Maleku (Northern Alajuela), Bribri (Southern Atlantic), Cabécar (Cordillera de Talamanca), Guaymí (Southern Costa Rica, along the Panamá border), Boruca (Southern Costa Rica) and Térraba (Southern Costa Rica).
These native groups are characterized for their work in wood, like masks, drums and other artistic figures, as well as fabrics made of cotton.
Their subsistence is based on agriculture, having corn, beans and plantains as the main crops.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (June 2013)|
In Cuba the population of Native Americans includes 0.1 of the population and 0.2 part Native which is also part of the population. Many are from the Taino people or Arawak people. When the Spanish Empire was in control of the island they used the Natives as slaves but many died from diseases, hence decreasing the population. Presently 0.3 of the population of Cuba consists of part Native and full-blooded Native Americans.
Ecuador was the site of many indigenous cultures, and civilizations of different proportions. An early sedentary culture, known as the Valdivia culture, developed in the coastal region, while the Caras and the Quitus unified to form an elaborate civilization that ended at the birth of the Capital Quito. The Cañaris near Cuenca were the most advanced, and most feared by the Inca, due to their fierce resistance to the Incan expansion. Their architecture remains were later destroyed by Spaniards and the Incas.
Approximately 96.4% of Ecuador's Indigenous population are Highland Quichuas living in the valleys of the Sierra region. Primarily consisting of the descendents of Incans, they are Kichwa speakers and include the Caranqui, the Otavalos, the Cayambi, the Quitu-Caras, the Panzaleo, the Chimbuelo, the Salasacan, the Tugua, the Puruhá, the Cañari, and the Saraguro. Linguistic evidence suggests that the Salascan and the Saraguro may have been the descendants of Bolivian ethnic groups transplanted to Ecuador as mitimaes.
Coastal groups, including the Awá, Chachi, and the Tsáchila, make up 0.24% percent of the indigenous population, while the remaining 3.35 percent live in the Oriente and consist of the Oriente Kichwa (the Canelo and the Quijos), the Shuar, the Huaorani, the Siona-Secoya, the Cofán, and the Achuar.
In 1986, indigenous people formed the first "truly" national political organization. The Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) has been the primary political institution of the Indigenous since then and is now the second largest political party in the nation. It has been influential in national politics, contributing to the ouster of presidents Abdalá Bucaram in 1997 and Jamil Mahuad in 2000.
Much of El Salvador was home to the Pipil, the Lenca, Xinca, and Kakawira. The Pipil lived in western El Salvador, spoke Nawat, and had many settlements there, most noticeably the Señorío of Cuzcatlán. The Pipil had no precious mineral resources, but they did have rich and fertile land that was good for farming. The Spaniards were disappointed not to find gold or jewels in El Salvador as they had in other lands like Guatemala or Mexico, but upon learning of the fertile land in El Salvador, they attempted to conquer it. Noted Meso-American indigenous warriors to rise militarily against the Spanish included Princes Atonal and Atlacatl of the Pipil people in central El Salvador and Princess Antu Silan Ulap of the Lenca people in eastern El Salvador, who saw the Spanish not as gods but as barbaric invaders. After fierce battles, the Pipil successfully fought off the Spanish army led by Pedro de Alvarado along with their Mexican Indian allies (the Tlaxcalas), sending them back to Guatemala. After many other attacks with an army reinforced with Guatemalan Indian allies, the Spanish were able to conquer Cuzcatlán. After further attacks, the Spanish also conquered the Lenca people. Eventually, the Spaniards intermarried with Pipil and Lenca women, resulting in the Mestizo population which would become the majority of the Salvadoran people. Today many Pipil and other indigenous populations live in the many small towns of El Salvador like Izalco, Panchimalco, Sacacoyo, and Nahuizalco.
Pure Maya account for some 40 percent of the population; although around 40 percent of the population speaks an indigenous language, those tongues (of which there are more than 20) enjoy no official status. Guatemala's majority population holds a percentage of 59.4% in White or Mestizo (of mixed European and indigenous ancestry) people. The area of Livingston, Guatemala is highly influenced by the Caribbean and its population includes a combination of Mestizos and Garifuna people.
About 5 percent of the population are of full-blooded indigenous descent, but upwards to 80 percent more or the majority of Hondurans are mestizo or part-indigenous with European admixture, and about 10 percent are of indigenous and/or African descent.159 The main concentration of indigenous in Honduras are in the rural westernmost areas facing Guatemala and to the Caribbean Sea coastline, as well on the Nicaraguan border.159 The majority of indigenous people are Lencas, Miskitos to the east, Mayans, Pech, Sumos, and Tolupan.159
The territory of modern-day Mexico was home to numerous indigenous civilizations prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores: The Olmecs, who flourished from between 1200 BCE to about 400 BCE in the coastal regions of the Gulf of Mexico; the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, who held sway in the mountains of Oaxaca and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; the Maya in the Yucatan (and into neighbouring areas of contemporary Central America); the P'urhépecha or Tarascan in present day Michoacán and surrounding areas, and the Aztecs/Mexica, who, from their central capital at Tenochtitlan, dominated much of the centre and south of the country (and the non-Aztec inhabitants of those areas) when Hernán Cortés first landed at Veracruz.
In contrast to what was the general rule in the rest of North America, the history of the colony of New Spain was one of racial intermingling (mestizaje). Mestizos quickly came to account for a majority of the colony's population; however, significant numbers and communities of indígenas (as the native peoples are now known) survive to the present day. The CDI identifies 62 indigenous groups in Mexico, each with a unique language.160
In the states of Chiapas and Oaxaca and in the interior of the Yucatan peninsula the majority of the population is indigenous. Large indigenous minorities, including Aztecs or Nahua, P'urhépechas, Mazahua, Otomi, and Mixtecs are also present in the central regions of Mexico. In Northern Mexico indigenous people are a small minority.
The "General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples" grants all indigenous languages spoken in Mexico, regardless of the number of speakers, the same validity as Spanish in all territories in which they are spoken, and indigenous peoples are entitled to request some public services and documents in their native languages.161 Along with Spanish, the law has granted them — more than 60 languages — the status of "national languages". The law includes all indigenous languages of the Americas regardless of origin; that is, it includes the indigenous languages of ethnic groups non-native to the territory. As such the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous Peoples recognizes the language of the Kickapoo, who immigrated from the United States,162 and recognizes the languages of the Guatemalan indigenous refugees.163 The Mexican government has promoted and established bilingual primary and secondary education in some indigenous rural communities. Nonetheless, of the indigenous peoples in Mexico, only about 67% of them (or 5.4% of the country's population) speak an indigenous language and about a sixth do not speak Spanish (1.2% of the country's population).164
The indigenous peoples in Mexico have the right of free determination under the second article of the constitution. According to this article the indigenous peoples are granted:165
- the right to decide the internal forms of social, economic, political and cultural organization;
- the right to apply their own normative systems of regulation as long as human rights and gender equality are respected;
- the right to preserve and enrich their languages and cultures;
- the right to elect representatives before the municipal council in which their territories are located;
amongst other rights.
The Miskito are a native people in Central America. Their territory extended from Cape Camarón, Honduras, to Rio Grande, Nicaragua along the Mosquito Coast. There is a native Miskito language, but large groups speak Miskito Coast Creole, Spanish, Rama and other languages. The Creole English came about through frequent contact with the British who colonized the area. Many are Christians.
Traditional Miskito society was highly structured with a defined political structure. There was a king, but he did not have total power. Instead, the power was split between himself, a governor, a general, and by the 1750s, an admiral. Historical information on kings is often obscured by the fact that many of the kings were semi-mythical.
Indigenous population in Peru make up around 30%127 Native Peruvian traditions and customs have shaped the way Peruvians live and see themselves today. Cultural citizenship—or what Renato Rosaldo has called, "the right to be different and to belong, in a democratic, participatory sense" (1996:243)—is not yet very well developed in Peru. This is perhaps no more apparent than in the country's Amazonian regions where indigenous societies continue to struggle against state-sponsored economic abuses, cultural discrimination, and pervasive violence.167
Indigenous peoples in what is now the contiguous United States, including their descendants, are commonly called "Amerindian", "American Indians", or simply "Indians" domestically, but are officially referred to as "Native Americans" by the USCB. In Alaska, indigenous peoples, which include Athabascan, Aleut, Alutiiq, Cup'ik, Haida, Inuit, Iñupiat, Tlingit, and Yup'ik, are referred to collectively as Alaska Natives. In Hawaii, indigenous Polynesian peoples, which include Marshallese, Samoan, Tahitian, and Tongan, are referred to collectively as Native Hawaiians.
Native Americans in the United States make up 2 percent of the population. In the 2010 census 2.9 million people identified as Native American, Native Hawaiian, and Alaska Native alone, and 5.2 million people identified as U.S. Native Americans, either alone or in combination with one or more ethnicity or other races.5 1.8 million are recognized as registered tribal members.citation needed Tribes have established their own criteria for membership, which are often based on blood quantum, lineal descent, or residency. A minority of U.S. Native Americans live in land units called Indian reservations. Some southwestern U.S. tribes, such as the Kumeyaay, Cocopa, Pascua Yaqui and Apache span both sides of the US–Mexican border. Haudenosaunee people have the legal right to freely cross the US–Canadian border. Athabascan, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, Inupiat, Blackfeet, Nakota, Cree, Anishinaabe, Huron, Lenape, Mi'kmaq, Penobscot, and Haudenosaunee, among others live in both Canada and the US.
Most Venezuelans have some indigenous heritage, but the indigenous population make up only around 2% of the total population. They speak around 29 different languages and many more dialects, but some of the ethnic groups are very small and their languages are in danger of becoming extinct in the next decades. The most important indigenous groups are the Ye'kuana, the Wayuu, the Pemon and the Warao. The most advanced native people to have lived in present-day Venezuela is thought to have been the Timoto-cuicas, who mainly lived in the Venezuelan Andes. In total it is estimated that there were between 350 thousand and 500 thousand inhabitants, the most densely populated area being the Andean region (Timoto-cuicas), thanks to the advanced agricultural techniques used.
The 1999 constitution of Venezuela gives them special rights, although the vast majority of them still live in very critical conditions of poverty. The largest groups receive some basic primary education in their languages.
Indigenous peoples make up the majority of the population in Bolivia and Peru, and are a significant element in most other former Spanish colonies. Exceptions to this include Uruguay (Native Charrúa). At least four of the native American languages (Quechua in Peru and Bolivia; Aymara also in Peru and Bolivia, Guaraní in Paraguay, and Greenlandic in Greenland) are recognized as official languages.
The Native American name controversy is an ongoing dispute over the acceptable ways to refer to the indigenous peoples of the Americas and to broad subsets thereof, such as those living in a specific country or sharing certain cultural attributes.
|Part of a series on|
|Intellectual property · Land rights
Language · Traditional knowledge · Treaty rights
|AADNC · ACHPR · Arctic Council
Bureau of Indian Affairs · CDI
Council of Indigenous Peoples
FUNAI · NCIP · UNPFII
|NGOs and political groups|
|AFN · Amazon Watch · CAP · COICA
CONAIE · Cultural Survival · EZLN · fPcN
IPACC · IPCB · IWGIA · NARF · ONIC
Survival International · UNPO · (more ...)
Lands inhabited by indigenous peoples
|ILO 169 · United Nations Declaration|
In recent years, there has been a rise of indigenous movements in the Americas (mainly South America). These are rights-driven groups that organize themselves in order to achieve some sort of self-determination and the preservation of their culture for their peoples. Organizations like the Coordinator of Indigenous Organizations of the Amazon River Basin and the Indian Council of South America are examples of movements that are breaking the barrier of borders in order to obtain rights for Amazonian indigenous populations everywhere. Similar movements for indigenous rights can also be seen in Canada and the United States, with movements like the International Indian Treaty Council and the accession of native Indian group into the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization.
There has also been a recognition of indigenous movements on an international scale, with the United Nations adopting the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, despite dissent from the stronger countries of the Americas.
In Colombia, various indigenous groups protested the denial of their rights. People organized a march in Cali in October 2008 to demand the government live up to promises to protect indigenous lands, defend the indigenous against violence, and reconsider the free trade pact with the United States.168
With the rise to power of governments in Venezuela, Ecuador, Paraguay, and especially Bolivia where Evo Morales was the first indigenous descendant elected president of Bolivia, the indigenous movement gained a strong foothold.
Representatives from indigenous and rural organizations from major South American countries, including Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Chile and Brazil, started a forum in support of Morales' legal process of change. The meeting condemned plans by the European "foreign power elite" to destabilize the country. The forum also expressed solidarity with the Morales and his economic and social changes in the interest of historically marginalized majorities. Furthermore, in a cathartic blow to the US-backed elite, it questioned US interference through diplomats and NGOs. The forum was suspicious of plots against Bolivia and other countries, including Cuba, Venezuela, Ecuador, Paraguay and Nicaragua.170
The forum rejected the supposed violent method used by regional civic leaders from the called "Crescent departments" in Bolivia to impose their autonomous statutes, applauded the decision to expel the US ambassador to Bolivia, and reaffirmed the sovereignty and independence of the presidency. Amongst others, representatives of CONAIE, the National Indigenous Organization of Colombia, the Chilean Council of All Lands, and the Brazilian Landless Movement participated in the forum.170
Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focus on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. "Y-DNA" is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while "mtDNA" is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to offspring of both sexes. Neither recombines, and thus Y-DNA and mtDNA change only by chance mutation at each generation with no intermixture between parents' genetic material.171 Autosomal "atDNA" markers are also used, but differ from mtDNA or Y-DNA in that they overlap significantly.172 AtDNA is generally used to measure the average continent-of-ancestry genetic admixture in the entire human genome and related isolated populations.172
The genetic pattern indicates indigenous peoples of the Americas experienced two very distinctive genetic episodes; first with the initial-peopling of the Americas, and secondly with European colonization of the Americas.34173174 The former is the determinant factor for the number of gene lineages, zygosity mutations and founding haplotypes present in today's indigenous peoples of the Americas populations.173
Human settlement of the New World occurred in stages from the Bering sea coast line, with an initial 15, 000 to 20,000-year layover on Beringia for the small founding population.34175176 The micro-satellite diversity and distributions of the Y lineage specific to South America indicates that certain indigenous peoples of the Americas populations have been isolated since the initial colonization of the region.177 The Na-Dené, Inuit and Indigenous Alaskan populations exhibit haplogroup Q (Y-DNA) mutations, however are distinct from other indigenous peoples of the Americas with various mtDNA and atDNA mutations.178179180 This suggests that the earliest migrants into the northern extremes of North America and Greenland derived from later migrant populations.181182
Scientific evidence links indigenous Americans to Asian peoples, specifically eastern Siberian populations. Indigenous peoples of the Americas have been linked to North Asian populations by linguistic factors, the distribution of blood types, and in genetic composition as reflected by molecular data, such as DNA.183
- Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- Origins of Paleoindians
- Alaska Natives
- History of the west coast of North America
- Hyphenated American
- Indigenous arts of the Americas
- Indigenous languages of the Americas
- Indigenous Movements in the Americas
- Indigenous rights
- List of American Inuit
- List of Greenlandic Inuit
- List of indigenous artists of the Americas
- List of indigenous people of the Americas
- List of traditional territories of the indigenous peoples of North America
- List of writers from peoples indigenous to the Americas
- Native American Languages Act of 1990
- Native American religion
- Native American weaponry
- Native Hawaiians
- Pacific Islander
- list of Mayan languages
- Population history of American indigenous peoples
- Uncontacted peoples
- "Proyecciones de indígenas de México y de las entidades federativas 2000-2010". Comisión Nacional para el Desarrollo de los Pueblos Indígenas. 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
- "CIA, The World Factbook Peru" (PDF). Retrieved 12 July 2011.
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- United States Census Bureau. The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2010
- DANE 2005 National Census
- Canada 2011 Census 
- "Brazil urged to protect Indians". BBC News. 2005-03-30.
- "Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas (ECPI) 2004 - 2005". INDEC. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- "CIA - The World Factbook - Honduras". Cia.gov. Retrieved 2013-12-03.
- 2005 Census
- "CIA - The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Una comunidad indígena salvadoreña pide su reconocimiento constitucional en el país". soitu.es. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "Costa Rica: Ethnic groups". Cia.gov. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
- Lector de Google Drive. Docs.google.com. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Redatam::CELADE, ECLAC - United Nations. Celade.cepal.org. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- dead link
- "Terminology." Survival International. Retrieved 30 March 2012. "Aborigen" Diccionario de la Real Academia Española. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
- "Terminology". Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Retrieved 11 November 2009. "The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people — Indians (First Nations), Métis and Inuit. These separate peoples have unique heritages, languages, cultural practices, and spiritual beliefs"
- "Terminology of First Nations Native, Aboriginal and Indian" (PDF). the Office of the Aboriginal Advisor for Aboriginals. Retrieved 11 November 2009. "Native is a word similar in meaning to Aboriginal. Native Peoples or First peoples is a collective term to describe the descendants of the original peoples of North America"
- Wilton, David (2004-12-02). Word myths: debunking linguistic urban legends. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-19-517284-3. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- Adams, Cecil (2001-10-25). "Does "Indian" derive from Columbus's description of Native Americans as "una gente in Dios"?". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 3 July 2011.
- Zimmer, Ben (2009-10-12). "The Biggest Misnomer of All Time?". VisualThesaurus.
- Hoxie, Frederick E. (1996). Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 568. ISBN 978-0-395-66921-1.
- Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1.
- Gómez-Moriana, Antonio (1993-05-12). "The Emerging of a Discursive Instance:Columbus and the invention of the "Indian"". Discourse Analysis as Sociocriticism : The Spanish Golden Age. University Of Minnesota Press. pp. 124–132. ISBN 978-0-8166-2073-9. Retrieved 4 July 2011.
- Mann, Charles C. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. New York: Knopf Publishing Group. ISBN 1-4000-4006-X. OCLC 56632601.
- Göran Burenhult: Die ersten Menschen, Weltbild Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-8289-0741-5
- "Atlas of the Human Journey-The Genographic Project". National Geographic Society. 1996–2009. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
- Wells, Spencer; Read, Mark (2002). The Journey of Man - A Genetic Odyssey (Digitised online by Google books). Random House. pp. 138–140. ISBN 0-8129-7146-9. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- "Introduction". Government of Canada. Parks Canada. 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2010. "Canada's oldest known home is a cave in Yukon occupied not 12,000 years ago like the U.S. sites, but at least 20,000 years ago"
- "Pleistocene Archaeology of the Old Crow Flats". Vuntut National Park of Canada. 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2010. "However, despite the lack of this conclusive and widespread evidence, there are suggestions of human occupation in the northern Yukon about 24,000 years ago, and hints of the presence of humans in the Old Crow Basin as far back as about 40,000 years ago,"
- "Jorney of mankind". Brad Shaw Foundation. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- Fitzhugh, Drs. William; Goddard, Ives; Ousley, Steve; Owsley, Doug; Stanford., Dennis. "Paleoamerican". Smithsonian Institution Anthropology Outreach Office. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- "The peopling of the Americas: Genetic ancestry influences health". Scientific American. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Alternate Migration Corridors for Early Man in North America". American Antiquity, Vol. 44, No. 1 (Jan., 1979), p2. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "68 Responses to "Sea will rise ‘to levels of last Ice Age’"". Center for Climate Systems Research, Columbia University. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "A single and early migration for the peopling of the Americas supported by mitochondrial DNA sequence data". The National Academy of Sciences of the US. National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- "''The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archaeology.''". Enotes.com. Retrieved 2011-03-27.
- Rasmussen, M.; Anzick, S. L.; Waters, M. R.; Skoglund, P.; Degiorgio, M.; Stafford, T. W.; Rasmussen, S.; Moltke, I.; Albrechtsen, A.; Doyle, S. M.; Poznik, G. D.; Gudmundsdottir, V.; Yadav, R.; Malaspinas, A. S.; White, S. S.; Allentoft, M. E.; Cornejo, O. E.; Tambets, K.; Eriksson, A.; Heintzman, P. D.; Karmin, M.; Korneliussen, T. S.; Meltzer, D. J.; Pierre, T. L.; Stenderup, J.; Saag, L.; Warmuth, V. M.; Lopes, M. C.; Malhi, R. S.; Brunak, S. R.; Sicheritz-Ponten, T.; Barnes, I.; Collins, M.; Orlando, L.; Balloux, F.; Manica, A.; Gupta, R.; Metspalu, M.; Bustamante, C. D.; Jakobsson, M.; Nielsen, R.; Willerslev, E. (2014-02-13). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature 506 (7487): 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025.
- "Method and Theory in American Archaeology" (Digitised online by Questia Media). Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips. University of Chicago. 1958. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Melissa Lee Phillips (2005-07-06), Scientists finally study Kennewick Man, BBC News Online
- "Method and Theory in American Archaeology" (Digitised online by Questia Media). Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips. University of Chicago. 1958. Retrieved 20 November 2009.
- Fernández-Armesto, Felipe (1987). Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic: 1229-1492. New studies in medieval history series. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan Education. ISBN 0-333-40382-7. OCLC 20055667.
- Sorenson, John L.; and Carl L. Johannessen (2006). "Biological evidence for pre-Columbian transoceanic voyages". In Victor H. Mair (ed.). Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Perspectives on the global past series. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press. pp. 238–297. ISBN 0-8248-2884-4. OCLC 62896389.
- Wright, Ronald (2005). Stolen Continents: 500 Years of Conquest and Resistance in the Americas (1st Mariner Books ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-618-49240-2. OCLC 57511483.
- Richard Erdoes, Alfonso Ortiz, (Eds.) "American Indian Myths and Legends." Pantheon, 1985.
- Martin, Stacie E (2004). "Native Americans". In Dinah Shelton. Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity. Macmillan Library Reference. pp. 740–746.
- Stannard, David E. (1993). American Holocaust:The Conquest of the New World: The Conquest of the New World. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-508557-0.
- Thornton, Russel (1987). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: ˜a Population History Since 1492. Norman : University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-2074-4.
- Thornton, Russell (1990). American Indian Holocaust and Survival: A Population History since 1492. University of Oklahoma Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-8061-2220-5
- "Espagnols-Indiens: le choc des civilisations" in L'Histoire, n°322, July–August 2007, pp.14–21
- Smallpox Through History. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009.
- Junius P. Rodriguez (2007). Encyclopedia of slave resistance and rebellion, Volume 1. ISBN 978-0-313-33272-2. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- David M. Traboulay (September 1994). Columbus and Las Casas: the conquest and Christianization of America, 1492-1566. ISBN 978-0-8191-9642-2. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
- "Laws of Burgos, 1512-1513". Faculty.smu.edu. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Cook, p. 1.
- "BBC Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge". Bbc.co.uk. 2009-11-05. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "The Story Of... Smallpox – and other Deadly Eurasian Germs". Pbs.org. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Kohn, George C. (2008). Encyclopedia of plague and pestilence: from ancient times to the present. Infobase Publishing. p. 160. ISBN 0-8160-6935-2.
- "Epidemics". Libby-genealogy.com. 2009-04-30. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- American plague, New Scientist
- Oaxacadead link
- "graeme – smallpox – history". Archived from the original on 10 January 2004.
- "Stacy Goodling, "Effects of European Diseases on the Inhabitants of the New World"". Millersville.edu. Archived from the original on May 10, 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- See Varese (2004), as reviewed in Dean (2006).
- "Aboriginal Distributions 1630 to 1653". Natural Resources Canada.
- "David A. Koplow, '' Smallpox: The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge''". Ucpress.edu. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Dutch Children's Disease Kills Thousands of Mohawksdead link
- W.B. Spaulding. "Smallpox". Thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Iroquois". Fourdir.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Lange, Greg (2003-01-23). "Smallpox epidemic ravages Native Americans on the northwest coast of North America in the 1770s". Historylink.org. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "The first smallpox epidemic on the Canadian Plains: In the fur-traders' words". Pubmedcentral.nih.gov. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Mountain Man Plain Indian Fur Trade". Thefurtrapper.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Lewis Cass and the Politics of Disease: The Indian Vaccination Act of 1832". Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Wicazo Sa Review: Vol. 18, No. 2, The Politics of Sovereignty (Autumn, 2003), pp. 9–35". Links.jstor.org. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Fineberg, Gail. "'500 Years of Brazil's Discovery'". Loc.gov. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "Brazil urged to protect Indians". BBC News. 2005-03-30. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Ancient Horse (Equus cf. E. complicatus), The Academy of Natural Sciences, Thomas Jefferson Fossil Collection, Philadelphia, PA, (See: species Equus scotti) Others died out at the end of the last ice age with other megafauna.
- ""Native Americans: The First Farmers." ''AgExporter'' October 1, 1999". Allbusiness.com. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Spooner, DM; et al. (2005). "A single domestication for potato based on multilocus amplified fragment length polymorphism genotyping". PNAS 102 (41): 14694–99. doi:10.1073/pnas.0507400102. PMC 1253605. PMID 16203994. Lay summary
- Miller, N (2008-01-29). "Using DNA, scientists hunt for the roots of the modern potato". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 10 September 2008.
- Solis, JS; et al. (2007). "Molecular description and similarity relationships among native germplasm potatoes (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum L.) using morphological data and AFLP markers". Electronic Journal of Biotechnology 10 (3): 0. doi:10.2225/vol10-issue3-fulltext-14.
- John Michael Francis (2005). Iberia and the Americas. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-421-9.
- "Technology, disease, and colonial conquests, sixteenth to eighteenth centuries: essays reappraising the guns and germs theories". George Raudzens (2003). BRILL. p.190. ISBN 0-391-04206-8
- "The great Maya droughts: water, life, and death". Richardson Benedict Gill (2000). UNM Press. p.123. ISBN 0-8263-2774-5
- Owen, Wayne (2002). "Chapter 2 (TERRA–2): The History of Native Plant Communities in the South". Southern Forest Resource Assessment Final Report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. Retrieved 29 July 2008.
- David L. Lentz, ed. (2000). Imperfect balance: landscape transformations in the Precolumbian Americas. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 241–242. ISBN 0-231-11157-6.
- Michael Pollan, The Omnivore's Dilemma
- Atran, Scott: Medin, Douglas (2010) The Native Mind and the Cultural Construction of Nature, MIT Press
- Skidmore, Joel (2006). "The Cascajal Block: The Earliest Precolumbian Writing". Mesoweb Reports & News. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- Elizabeth Hill Boone, "Pictorial Documents and Visual Thinking in Postconquest Mexico". p. 158.
- A sample of this sound is available at the Princeton Art Museum website.
- ""Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment" by John C. Ewers". Sil.si.edu. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- "North America: Greenland." CIA Factbook. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Aboriginal Identity (8), Area of Residence (6), Age Groups (12) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. 2010-05-19. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- Lizcano (2005), pg 218, Martinez-Torres (2008)
- "Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin, 2010 US Census" (PDF). March 2011. pp. 6–7. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- "Belize 2000 Housing and Population Census". Belize Central Statistical Office. 2000. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- "CIA — The World Factbook — Costa Rica". Cia.gov. Retrieved 14 September 2009.
- "El Salvador". CIA World Fact Book. 26 Apr 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- Guatemala entry at The World Factbook
- Honduras entry at The World Factbook
- Nicaragua entry at The World Factbook
- Panama entry at The World Factbook
- Dominica entry at The World Factbook
- Grenada entry at The World Factbook
- Haiti entry at The World Factbook
- Puerto Rico entry at The World Factbook
- Bonilla et al., Ancestral proportions and their association with skin pigmentation and bone mineral density in Puerto Rican women from New York City. Hum Gen (2004) 115: 57-58, and Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis, Martinez-Cruzado et al, Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005 Martínez-Cruzado, J. C.; Toro-Labrador, G.; Viera-Vera, J.; Rivera-Vega, M. Y.; Startek, J.; Latorre-Esteves, M.; Román-Colón, A.; Rivera-Torres, R.; Navarro-Millán, I. Y.; Gómez-Sánchez, E.; Caro-González, H. C. Y.; Valencia-Rivera, P. (2005). "Reconstructing the population history of Puerto Rico by means of mtDNA phylogeographic analysis". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 128 (1): 131–155. doi:10.1002/ajpa.20108. PMID 15693025.
- Suriname entry at The World Factbook
- "''Primeros Resultados de la Encuesta Complementaria de Pueblos Indígenas (ECPI)''" (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- "''El 56% de los argentinos tiene antepasados indígenas''". 2005-01-16. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Argentina entry at The World Factbook
- Bolivia entry at The World Factbook
- "População residente, por cor ou raça, segundo a situação do domicílio - Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- Chile entry at The World Factbook
- Colombia entry at The World Factbook
- Ecuador entry at The World Factbook
- Guyana entry at The World Factbook
- "Paraguay." Pan-American Health Organization. (retrieved 12 July 2011)
- Paraguay entry at The World Factbook
- "CIA World Factbook: Suriname". CIA. Retrieved 23 Mar 2010.
- Uruguay entry at The World Factbook
- "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011". Ine.gov.ve. p. 14. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Indigenous identification was treated in a complex way in the 2001 Census, which collected data on self-identification, capacity to speak an indigenous language, and learning an indigenous language as a child. CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 32
- CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 42
- CEPAL, "Los pueblos indígenas de Bolivia: diagnóstico sociodemográfico a partir del censo del 2001," 2005, p. 47
- Gotkowitz, Laura (2007). A revolution for our rights: Indigenous struggles for land and justice in Bolivia, 1880–1952. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-4049-6.
- Rivera Cusicanqui, Silvia (1987). Oppressed but not defeated: Peasant struggles among the Aymara and Qhechwa in Bolivia, 1900-1980. Geneva: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.
- "Bolivian president Morales launches the "indigenous autonomy"". MercoPress. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- "Bolivian Indians in historic step". BBC. 2009-08-03. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
- Mughal, Muhammad Aurang Zeb. 2012. Brazil. Steven Danver (ed.), Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures, and Contemporary Issues, Vol. 3. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, pp. 579-581.
- Colitt, Raymond (2011-02-01). "Uncontacted Amazonian Tribe Spotted in Rare Photos: Big Pics h". Discovery.com. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "In Amazonia, Defending the Hidden Tribes," The Washington Post, 8 July 2007.
- "Civilization.ca-Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage-Culture". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. Government of Canada. May 12, 2006. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- "Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada)-ICC Charter". Inuit Circumpolar Council > ICC Charter and By-laws > ICC Charter. 2007. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- "In the Kawaskimhon Aboriginal Moot Court Factum of the Federal Crown Canada" (PDF). Faculty of Law. University of Manitoba. 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- Kaplam, Lawrence (2002). "Inuit or Eskimo: Which names to use?". Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved 6 April 2007.
- "What to Search: Topics-Canadian Genealogy Centre-Library and Archives Canada". Ethno-Cultural and Aboriginal Groups. Government of Canada. 2009-05-27. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Innu Culture 3. Innu-Inuit 'Warfare'". 1999, Adrian Tanner Department of Anthropology-Memorial University of Newfoundland. Retrieved 5 October 2009.
- David L. Preston (2009). The Texture of Contact: European and Indian Settler Communities on the Frontiers of Iroquoia, 1667-1783. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-0-8032-2549-7.
- Roger E. Riendeau (2007). A Brief History of Canada. Infobase Publishing. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-4381-0822-3.
- A Dialogue on Foreign Policy. Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. January 2003. pp. 15–16. Retrieved 30 November 2006.
- Michael Asch (1997). Aboriginal and Treaty Rights in Canada: Essays on Law, Equity, and Respect for Difference. UBC Pres. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-7748-0581-0.
- Laurence J. Kirmayer; Gail Guthrie Valaskakis (2009). Healing Traditions:: The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada. UBC Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-7748-5863-2.
- "National Aboriginal Day History" (PDF). Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Retrieved 18 October 2009.
- "Assembly of First Nations - Assembly of First Nations-The Story". Assembly of First Nations. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Civilization.ca-Gateway to Aboriginal Heritage-object". Canadian Museum of Civilization Corporation. May 12, 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
- "Aboriginal Identity (8), Sex (3) and Age Groups (12) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data". Canada 2006 Census data products. Statistics Canada, Government of Canada. 06/12/2008. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
- "El gradiente sociogenético chileno y sus implicaciones ético-sociales". Medwave.cl. 2000-06-15. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- DANE 2005 national census
- "Health equity and ethnic minorities in emergency situations", Pier Paolo Balladelli, José Milton Guzmán, Marcelo Korc, Paula Moreno, Gabriel Rivera, The Commission on Social Health Determinants, Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization, Bogotá, Colombia, 2007
- Bourgois, Philippe (Apr 1986). "The Miskitu of Nicaragua: Politicized Ethnicity". Anthropology Today (Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland) 2 (2): 4–9. JSTOR 3033029.
- Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (PDF).
- (Spanish) "Ley General de Derechos Lingüísticos de los Pueblos Indígenas (General Law of the Rights of the Indigenous Peoples)" (PDF). CDI México. Archived from the original on September 25, 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Kikapúes — Kikaapoa". CDI México. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Aguacatecos, cakchiqueles, ixiles, kekchíes, tecos y quichés". CDI México. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2 October 2007.
- "Poblicación de 5 años y más por Entidad Federativa, sexo y grupos lengüa indígena quinquenales de edad, y su distribución según condición de habla indígena y habla española" (PDF). INEGI, México. Retrieved 13 December 2007.
- PDF (779 KB). Second article.
- CaracterĂsticas Socioculturales de los Pueblos IndĂgenas del PacĂfico, Centro y Norte. Pueblosindigenaspcn.net. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
- Dean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5, UPF.com
- Africa.euters.comdead link
- Harten, Sven (2011). The Rise of Evo Morales. Zed Books. ISBN 978-1-84813-523-9.
- Plenglish.comdead link
- A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups 12 (2). Genome Research. 2002. pp. Vol. 12(2), 339–348. doi:10.1101/gr.217602. PMC 155271. PMID 11827954. Retrieved 19 January 2010. (Detailed hierarchical chart)
- Griffiths, Anthony J. F. (1999). An Introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3771-X. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Learn about Y-DNA Haplogroup Q. Genebase Tutorials" (Verbal tutorial possible). Genebase Systems. 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2009.
- Orgel L (2004). "Prebiotic chemistry and the origin of the RNA world" (PDF). Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 39 (2): 99–123. doi:10.1080/10409230490460765. PMID 15217990. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- First Americans Endured 20,000-Year Layover — Jennifer Viegas, Discovery News. Discovery Channel. Retrieved 18 November 2009. page 2
- Than, Ker (2008). "New World Settlers Took 20,000-Year Pit Stop". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 23 January 2010.
- "Summary of knowledge on the subclades of Haplogroup Q". Genebase Systems. 2009. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- Ruhlen M (November 1998). "The origin of the Na-Dene". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (23): 13994–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.23.13994. PMC 25007. PMID 9811914.
- Zegura SL, Karafet TM, Zhivotovsky LA, Hammer MF (January 2004). "High-resolution SNPs and microsatellite haplotypes point to a single, recent entry of Native American Y chromosomes into the Americas". Molecular Biology and Evolution 21 (1): 164–75. doi:10.1093/molbev/msh009. PMID 14595095.
- "mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos. The Edge of the Beringian Expansion". Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research,University of Cambridge, Cambridge, University of Hamburg, Hamburg. 2000. doi:10.1086/303038. Retrieved 22 November 2009.
- "The peopling of the New World — Perspectives from Molecular Anthropology". Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania (Annual Review of Anthropology): Vol. 33, 551–583. 2004. doi:10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143932. Retrieved 3 February 2010.
- "Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations". Center for Genetics and Molecular Medicine and Departments of Biochemistry and Anthropology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia. Genetics Society of America. Vol 130, 153-162. Retrieved 28 November 2009.
- Peter N. Jones (October 2002). American Indian Mtdna, Y Chromosome Genetic Data, and the Peopling of North America. Bauu Institute. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9721349-1-0. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- Gaskins, S. (1999). Children’s daily lives in a Mayan village: A case study of culturally constructed roles and activities. Children’s engagement in the world: Sociocultural perspectives, 25-61.
- Nimmo, J. (2008). Young children's access to real life: An examination of the growing boundaries between children in child care and adults in the community. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 9(1), 3-13.
- Morelli, G., Rogoff, B., & Angelillo, C. (2003). Cultural variation in young children's access to work or involvement in specialised child-focused activities. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(3), 264-274.
- Woodhead, M. (1998). Children's perspectives on their working lives: A participatory study in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua.
- Rogoff, B., Morelli, G. A., & Chavajay, P. (2010). Children’s Integration in Communities and Segregation From People of Differing Ages. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(4), 431-440.
- Gaskins, S. (2006). 13 The Cultural Organization of Yucatec Mayan Children’s Social Interactions. Peer relationships in cultural context, 283.
- König, Eva (2002). Indianer 1858-1928, Photographische Reisen von Alaska bis Feuerland. Museum für Volkerkunde Hamburg: Edition Braus. ISBN 3-89904-021-X.
- Cappel, Constance (2007). The Smallpox Genocide of the Odawa Tribe at L'Arbre Croche, 1763: The History of a Native American People. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 978-0-7734-5220-6. OCLC 175217515.
- Cappel, Constance,(editor) (2006). Odawa Language and Legends: Andrew J. Blackbird and Raymond Kiogima. Xlibris. ISBN 1-59926-920-1.
- Churchill, Ward (1997). A Little Matter of Genocide: Holocaust and Denial in the Americas, 1492 to the Present. San Francisco: City Lights Books. ISBN 978-0-87286-323-1. OCLC 35029491.
- Dean, Bartholomew (2002). "State Power and Indigenous Peoples in Peruvian Amazonia: A Lost Decade, 1990–2000". In Maybury-Lewis, David. The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States. David Rockefeller Center series on Latin American studies, Harvard University 9. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University/David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies. pp. 199–238. ISBN 0-674-00964-9. OCLC 427474742.
- Dean, Bartholomew; Levi, Jerome M. (2003). At the Risk of Being Heard: Identity, Indigenous Rights, and Postcolonial States. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-09736-4. OCLC 50841012.
- Dean, Bartholomew (January 2006). "Salt of the Mountain: Campa Asháninka History and Resistance in the Peruvian Jungle (review)". The Americas 62 (3): 464–466. doi:10.1353/tam.2006.0013. ISSN 0003-1615.
- Kane, Katie (1999). "Nits Make Lice: Drogheda, Sand Creek, and the Poetics of Colonial Extermination". Cultural Critique (University of Minnesota Press) 42 (42): 81–103. doi:10.2307/1354592. ISSN 0882-4371. JSTOR 1354592.
- Krech, Shepard III (1999). The Ecological Indian: Myth and History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-04755-4. OCLC 318358852.
- Varese, Stefano; Ribeiro, Darcy (2004) . Salt of the Mountain: Campa Ashaninka History and Resistance in the Peruvian Jungle. trans. Susan Giersbach Rascón. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3512-3. OCLC 76909908.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indigenous peoples of the Americas.|
|Wikisource has the text of a 1905 New International Encyclopedia article about American Indians.|
- The Peopling of the American Continents, Early California History
- Indigenous Peoples in Brazil. Instituto Socioambiental (ISA)
- America's Stone Age explorers, PBS Nova
- A history of Native people of Canada - The Canadian Museum of Civilization
- Alexander Francis Chamberlain (1911). "Indians, North American". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.).