Indira Gandhi

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Indira Gandhi
Indira2.jpg
3rd Prime Minister of India
In office
14 January 1980 – 31 October 1984
President Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Zail Singh
Preceded by Charan Singh
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
24 January 1966 – 24 March 1977
President Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
Zakir Hussain
V. V. Giri
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed
Deputy Morarji Desai
Preceded by Gulzarilal Nanda (acting)
Succeeded by Morarji Desai
Minister of External Affairs
In office
9 March 1984 – 31 October 1984
Preceded by P. V. Narasimha Rao
Succeeded by Rajiv Gandhi
In office
22 August 1967 – 14 March 1969
Preceded by M. C. Chagla
Succeeded by Dinesh Singh
Minister of Defence
In office
14 January 1980 – 15 January 1982
Preceded by Chidambaram Subramaniam
Succeeded by R. Venkataraman
In office
30 November 1975 – 20 December 1975
Preceded by Sardar Swaran Singh
Succeeded by Bansi Lal
Minister of Home Affairs
In office
27 June 1970 – 4 February 1973
Preceded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Succeeded by Uma Shankar Dikshit
Minister of Finance
In office
16 July 1969 – 27 June 1970
Preceded by Morarji Desai
Succeeded by Yashwantrao Chavan
Personal details
Born Indira Priyadarshini Nehru
(1917-11-19)19 November 1917
Allahabad, United Provinces, British India
Died 31 October 1984(1984-10-31) (aged 66)
New Delhi, Delhi, India
Political party Indian National Congress
Spouse(s) Feroze Gandhi
Relations Jawaharlal Nehru (father)
Children Rajiv
Sanjay
Alma mater Somerville College, Oxford

Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Hindustani: [ˈɪnːdɪrə ˈɡaːnd̪ʱi] ( ); née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the third Prime Minister of India and a central figure of the Indian National Congress party. Gandhi, who served from 1966 to 1977 and then again from 1980 until her assassination in 1984, is the second-longest-serving Prime Minister of India and the only woman to hold the office.

Indira Gandhi was the only child of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. She served as the Chief of Staff of her father's highly centralized administration between 1947 and 1964 and came to wield considerable unofficial influence in government. Elected Congress President in 1959, she was offered the premiership in succession to her father. Gandhi refused and instead chose to become a cabinet minister in the government. She finally consented to become Prime Minister in succession to Lal Bahadur Shastri in 1966.

As Prime Minister, Gandhi became known for her political ruthlessness and unprecedented centralisation of power. She went to war with Pakistan in support of the independence movement in East Pakistan, which resulted in an Indian victory and the creation of Bangladesh, as well as increasing India's influence to the point where it became the regional hegemon of South Asia. Gandhi also presided over a state of emergency from 1975 to 1977 during which she ruled by decree and made lasting changes to the constitution of India. She was assassinated in the aftermath of Operation Blue Star.

In 2001, Gandhi was voted the greatest Indian Prime Minister in a poll organised by India Today. She was also named "Woman of the Millennium" in a poll organised by the BBC in 1999.1

Early life and career

Indira Nehru was born on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad.2 Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, led India's political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Union (and later Republic) of India.3 She was an only child (a younger brother was born, but died young),4 and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan; a large family estate in Allahabad.5 Indira had a lonely and unhappy childhood.6 Her father was often away, directing political activities or being incarcerated in prison, while her mother was frequently bed-ridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis.7 She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters.8

Indira was mostly taught at home by tutors, and intermittently attended school until matriculation in 1934.nb 1 She went on to study at the Viswa Bharati University in Shantiniketan.12 A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe.13 While there, it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford.14 After her mother died, she briefly attended the Badminton School before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history.15 Indira had to take the entrance examination twice; having failed at her first attempt, with a poor performance in Latin.15 At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor.1617

Gandhi fasting in 1924, with the young Indira, who is dressed in a khadi garment, following Gandhi's advocacy that khadi be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles.
Indira Nehru c. early 1930s

During her time in Europe, Ms. Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies. She was being treated by the famed Swiss doctor Auguste Rollier in 1940, when the Nazi armies rapidly conquered Europe. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. The university later conferred on her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford further honored her by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford.18

During her stay in the UK, young Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi, whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. The marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals though Feroze belonged to a Parsi family of Gujarat.19

In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first Prime Minister of India. After her father's death in 1964 she was appointed as a member of the Rajya Sabha (upper house) and became a member of Lal Bahadur Shastri's cabinet as Minister of Information and Broadcasting.20

Prime Minister

When Indira became Prime Minister in 1966, the Congress was split in two factions, the socialists led by Gandhi, and the conservatives led by Morarji Desai. Rammanohar Lohia called her Gungi Gudiya, which means 'Mute Doll'.citation needed The internal problems showed in the 1967 election where the Congress lost nearly 60 seats winning 297 seats in the 545-seat Lok Sabha. She had to accommodate Desai as Deputy Prime Minister of India and Minister of Finance. In 1969, after many disagreements with Desai, the Indian National Congress split. She ruled with support from Socialist and Communist Parties for the next two years. In the same year, in July 1969 she nationalised banks.

Foreign policy

South Asia

Indira Gandhi & Nicolae Ceauşescu

In 1971, Gandhi intervened in the Pakistani Civil War in support of East Pakistan. India emerged victorious in the resulting conflict to become the regional hegemon of South Asia.21 India had signed a treaty with the Soviet Union promising mutual assistance in the case of war, while Pakistan received active support from the United States during the conflict.22 U.S. President Richard Nixon disliked Gandhi personally, referring to her as a "witch" and "clever fox" in his private communication with Secretary of State Henry Kissinger.22 Relations with the U.S. became distant as Gandhi developed closer ties with the Soviet Union after the war. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi's premiership.23 Nixon later wrote of the war: "[Gandhi] suckered [America]. Suckered us.....this woman suckered us."24

India's new hegemonic position as articulated under the "Indira Doctrine" led to attempts to bring the Himalayan states under the Indian sphere of influence.25 Nepal and Bhutan remained aligned with India, while in 1975, after years of building up support, Gandhi annexed Sikkim to India.26 This was denounced as a "despicable act" by China.27

India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. Prime Minister Sheikh Mujibur Rahman recognized Gandhi's contributions to the independence of Bangladesh. However, Mujibur Rahman's pro-India policies antagonised many in Bangladeshi politics and the military, who feared that Bangladesh had become a client state of India.2829 The Assassination of Mujibur Rahman in 1975 led to the establishment of Islamist military regimes that sought to distance the country from India.30 Gandhi's relationship with the military regimes was strained, due to her alleged support of anti-Islamist leftist guerrilla forces in Bangladesh.30 Generally, however, there was a rapprochement between Gandhi and the Bangladeshi regimes, although issues such as border disputes and the Farakka Dam remained an irritant in bilateral ties.31 In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh conferred its highest state award posthumously on Gandhi for her "outstanding contribution" to the country's independence.32

Indira Gandhi with Jacqueline Kennedy in New Delhi, 1962

Gandhi's approach to dealing with Sri Lanka's ethnic problems was initially accommodating. She enjoyed cordial relations with Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike. In 1974, India ceded the tiny islet of Kachchatheevu to Sri Lanka in order to save Bandaranaike's socialist government from a political disaster.33 However, relations soured over Sri Lanka's turn away from socialism under Junius Jayewardene, whom Gandhi despised as a "western puppet."34 India under Gandhi was alleged to have supported LTTE militants in the 1980s to put pressure on Jayewardene to abide by Indian interests.35 Nevertheless, Gandhi rejected demands to invade Sri Lanka in the aftermath of Black July 1983, an anti-Tamil pogrom carried out by Sinhalese mobs.36 Gandhi made a statement emphasizing that she stood for the territorial integrity of Sri Lanka, although she also stated that India cannot "remain a silent spectator to any injustice done to the Tamil community."3637

India's relationship with Pakistan remained strained following the Shimla Accord in 1972. Gandhi's authorization of the detonation of a nuclear device at Pokhran in 1974 was viewed by Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as an attempt to intimidate Pakistan into accepting India's hegemony in the subcontinent. However, in May 1976, Gandhi and Bhutto both agreed to reopen diplomatic establishments and normalize relations.38 Following the rise to power of General Zia-ul-Haq in Pakistan in 1978, India's relations with its neighbour reached a nadir. Gandhi accused General Zia of supporting Khalistani militants in Punjab.38 Military hostilities recommenced in 1984 following Gandhi's authorization of Operation Meghdoot.39 India was victorious in the resulting Siachen conflict against Pakistan.39

Middle East

Indira Gandhi meeting the Shah of Iran Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Shahbanu Farah Pahlavi during their state visit to India in 1970.

Gandhi remained a staunch supporter of Palestinians in the Arab-Israeli conflict and was critical of the Middle East diplomacy sponsored by the United States.34 Israel was viewed as a religious state and thus an analogue to India's arch rival Pakistan. Indian diplomats also hoped to win Arab support in countering Pakistan in Kashmir. Nevertheless, Gandhi authorized the development of a secret channel of contact and security assistance with Israel in the late 1960s. Her lieutenant, Narasimha Rao, later became Prime Minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992.40

India's pro-Arab policy had mixed success. Establishment of close ties with the socialist and secular Baathist regimes to some extent neutralized Pakistani propaganda against India.41 However, the Indo-Pakistani war in 1971 put the Arab and Muslim states of the Middle East in a dilemma as the war was fought by two states both friendly to the Arabs.42 The progressive Arab regimes in Egypt, Syria, and Algeria chose to remain neutral, while the conservative pro-American Arab monarchies in Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates openly supported Pakistan.42 Egypt's stance was met with dismay by the Indians, who had come to expect close co-operation with the Baathist regimes.41 But, the death of Nasser in 1970 and Sadat's growing friendship with Riyadh, and his mounting differences with Moscow, constrained Egypt to a policy of neutrality.41 Gandhi's overtures to Muammar Gaddafi were rebuffed.42 Libya agreed with the Arab monarchies in believing that Gandhi's intervention in East Pakistan was an attack against Islam.42

The 1971 war temporarily became a stumbling block in growing Indo-Iranian ties.41 Although Iran had earlier characterized the Indo-Pakistani war in 1965 as Indian aggression, the Shah had launched an effort at rapprochement with India in 1969 as part of his effort to secure support for a larger Iranian role in the Persian Gulf.41 Gandhi's tilt towards Moscow and her dismemberment of Pakistan was perceived by the Shah as part of a larger anti-Iran conspiracy involving India, Iraq, and the Soviet Union.41 Nevertheless, Iran had resisted Pakistani pressure to activate the Baghdad Pact and draw in the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) into the conflict.41 Gradually, Indian and Iranian disillusionment with their respective regional allies led to a renewed partnership between the nations.43 Gandhi was unhappy with the lack of support from India's Arab allies during the war with Pakistan, while the Shah was apprehensive at the growing friendship between Pakistan and the Gulf states, specially Saudi Arabia, and the growing influence of Islam in Pakistani society.43 There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran during the 1970s.43 The 1974 India-Iranian agreement led to Iran supplying nearly 75 percent of India's crude oil demands.44 Gandhi appreciated the Shah's disregard of Pan-Islamism in diplomacy.43

Asia-Pacific

One of the major developments in Southeast Asia during Gandhi's premiership was the formation of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967. Relations between ASEAN and India was mutually antagonistic. ASEAN in the Indian perception was linked to the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), and it was therefore, seen as a pro-American organisation. On their part, the ASEAN nations were unhappy with Gandhi's support of the Viet Cong and India's strong links with the USSR. Furthermore, they were also apprehensions in the region about Gandhi's future plans, particularly after India played a big role in breaking up Pakistan and facilitating in the emergence of Bangladesh as a sovereign country in 1971. India's entry into the nuclear weapons club in 1974 contributed to tensions in Southeast Asia.45 Relations only began to improve following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN declaration and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance in the aftermath of Pakistani and American defeats in the region. Nevertheless, Gandhi's close relations with Vietnam and her decision to recognize the People's Republic of Kampuchea in 1980 meant that India and ASEAN were not able to develop a viable partnership.45

Africa

Although independent India was initially viewed as a champion of anti-colonialism, its cordial relationship with the Commonwealth of Nations and liberal views of British colonial policies in East Africa had harmed its image as a staunch supporter of the anti-colonial movements.46 Indian condemnation of militant struggles in Kenya and Algeria was in sharp contrast to China, who had supported armed struggle to win African independence.46 After reaching a high diplomatic point in the aftermath of Nehru's role in the Suez Crisis, India's isolation from Africa was complete when only four nations; Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria and Libya supported her during the Sino-Indian War in 1962.46 After Gandhi became Prime Minister, diplomatic and economic relations with the states which had sided with India during the Sino-Indian War were expanded.46 Gandhi began negotiations with the Kenyan government to establish the Africa-India Development Cooperation. The Indian government also started considering the possibility of bringing Indians settled in Africa within the framework of its policy goals to help recover its declining geo-strategic influence. Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassors of India."46 Efforts to rope in the Asian community to join Indian diplomacy, however, came to naught, partly because of the unwilligness of Indians to remain in politically insecure surroundings and partly due to the exodus of African Indians to Britain with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1968.46 In Uganda, the African Indian community even suffered presecution and eventually expulsion under the government of Idi Amin.47

Foreign and domestic policy successes in the 1970s enabled Gandhi to rebuild India's image in the eyes of African states.46 Victory over Pakistan and India's possession of nuclear weapons showed the degree of India's progress.46 Furthermore, the conclusion of the Indo-Soviet treaty in 1971 and threatening gestures by the major western power, the United States, to send its nuclear armed Task Force 74 into the Bay of Bengal at the height of the East Pakistan crisis had enabled India to regain its anti-imperialist image.46 Gandhi firmly tied Indian anti-imperialist interests in Africa to those of the Soviet Union.48 Unlike Nehru, she openly and enthusiastically supported liberation struggles in Africa.48 At the same time, Chinese influence in Africa had declined owing to its incessant quarrels with the Soviet Union.46 These developments permanently halted India's decline in Africa and helped reestablish its geo-strategic presence.46

Economic policy

Gandhi presided over three Five-Year plans as Prime Minister.49 All but one of them succeeding in meeting the targeted growth.49

There is considerable debate regarding whether Gandhi was a socialist on principle or out of political expediency.50 S. K. Datta-Ray described her as "a master of rhetoric...often more posture than policy", while The Times journalist, Peter Hazelhurst, famously quipped that Gandhi's socialism was "slightly left of self-interest."51 Critics have focused on the contradictions in the evolution of her stance towards communism; Gandhi being known for her anti-communist stance in the 1950s with Meghnad Desai even describing her as "the scourge of [India's] Communist Party."52 Yet, she later forged close relations with Indian communists even while using the army to break the Naxalites. In this context, Gandhi was accused of formulating populist policies to suit her political needs; being seemingly against the rich and big business while preserving the status quo in order to manipulate the support of the left at times of political insecurity, such as the late 1960s.5354 Although Gandhi came to be viewed in time as the scourge of the right-wing and reactionary political elements of India, leftist opposition to her policies emerged. As early as 1969, critics had began accusing her of insincerity and machiavellism. The Indian Libertarian wrote that: "it would be difficult to find a more machiavellian leftist than Mrs Indira Gandhi...for here is Machiavelli at its best in the person of a suave, charming and astute politician."55 Rosser wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress [leftist] dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right."50 In the 1980s, Gandhi was accused of "betraying socialism" after the beginning of Operation Forward, an attempt at economic reform.56 Nevertheless, others were more convinced of Gandhi's sincerity and devotion to socialism. Pankaj Vohra noted that "even the late prime minister’s critics would concede that the maximum number of legislations of social significance was brought about during her tenure...[and that] she lives in the hearts of millions of Indians who shared her concern for the poor and weaker sections and who supported her politics."57

In summarizing the biographical works on Gandhi, Blema S. Steinberg concluded she was decidedly non-ideological.58 Only 7.4% (24) of the total 330 biographical extractions posit ideology as a reason for her policy choices.58 Steinberg noted Gandhi's association with socialism was superficial; only having a general and traditional commitment to the ideology, by way of her political and family ties.58 Gandhi personally had a fuzzy concept of socialism. In one of the early interviews she had given as Prime Minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term...we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty. You can call it socialism; but if by using that word we arouse controversy, I don't see why we should use it. I don't believe in words at all."58 Regardless of the debate over her ideology or lack of thereof, Gandhi remains a left-wing icon. She has been described as the "arguably the greatest mass leader of the last century."57 Her campaign slogan, Garibi Hatao (Eng: Remove Poverty), has become the iconic motto of the Indian National Congress. To the rural and urban poor, untouchables, minorities and women in India, Gandhi was "Indira Amma or Mother Indira."59

Green Revolution and the Fourth Five Year Plan

Gandhi inherited a weak and troubled economy. Fiscal problems associated with the war with Pakistan in 1965, along with a drought-induced food crisis that spawned famines, had plunged India into the sharpest recession since independence.5060 The government responded by taking steps to liberalize the economy, and by agreeing to the devaluation of the currency in return for the restoration of foreign aid.60 The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969.5361 But, much of that growth was offset by the fact that the external aid promised by the United States government and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), meant to ease the short-run costs of adjustment to a liberalized economy, never materialized.60 American policy makers had complained of continued restrictions imposed on the economy.62 At the same time, Indo-US relations were straining due to Gandhi's criticism of the American bombing campaign in Vietnam, and because of President Johnson's policy of withholding food grain shipments to coerce Indian support for the war.62 In light of the circumstances, liberalization became politically suspect and was soon abandoned.60 Grain diplomacy and currency devaluation became matters of intense national pride in India. After the bitter experience with Johnson, Gandhi decided not to request food aid in the future. Moreover, Gandhi's government resolved never again to become "so vulnerably dependent" on aid, and painstakingly began building up substantial foreign exchange reserves.63 When food stocks slumped after poor harvests in 1972, the government made it a point to use foreign exchange to buy US wheat commercially rather than seek resumption of food aid.64

Indira Gandhi meeting President Lyndon B. Johnson in the Oval Office on 28 March 1966.

The period of 1967–75 was characterized by socialist ascendency in India which culminated in 1976 with the official declaration of state socialism. Gandhi not only abandoned the short lived liberalization programme but also aggressively expanded the public sector with new licensing requirements and other restrictions for industry. She began a new course by launching the Fourth Five-Year Plan in 1969. The government targeted growth at 5.7% while stating as its goals, "growth with stability and progressive achievement of self-reliance."5365 The rationale behind the overall plan was Gandhi's Ten Point Programme of 1967. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. The programme emphasized greater state control of the economy with the understanding that government control assured greater welfare than private control.53 Related to this point were a set of policies which were meant to regulate the private sector.53 By the end of the 1960s, the reversal of the liberalization process was complete, and India's policies were characterised as "protectionist as ever."63

To deal with India's food problems, Gandhi expanded the emphasis on production of inputs to agriculture that had already been initiated by her father, Jawaharlal Nehru.50 The Green Revolution in India subsequently culminated under her government in the 1970s and transformed the country from a nation heavily reliant on imported grains and prone to famine to being largely able to feed itself, and become successful in achieving its goal of food security. Gandhi had a personal motive in pursuing agricultural self-sufficiency, having found India's dependency on the U.S. for shipments of grains humiliating.66

The economic period of 1967–75 became significant for its major wave of nationalisations amidst the increased regulation of the private sector.50

Some of the other objectives of the economic plan for the period was to provide for the minimum needs of the community through a rural works program and the removal of the privy purses of the nobility.53 Both these, and many other goals of the 1967 program were accomplished by 1974–75. Nevertheless, the success of the overall economic plan was tempered by the fact that annual growth at 3.3–3.4% over 1969–74 fell short of the targeted figure.53

State of Emergency and the Fifth Five Year Plan

The Fifth Five Year Plan (1974–79) was enacted in the backdrop of the state of emergency and the Twenty Point Program of 1975.53 The latter was the economic rationale of the emergency, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds.53 In contrast to the reception of Gandhi's earlier economic plan, this one was criticized for being a "hastily thrown together wish list."53 Gandhi promised to reduce poverty by targeting the consumption levels of the poor and enact wide ranging social and economic reforms. The government additionally targeted an annual growth of 4.4% over the period of the plan.49

The measures of the emergency regime was able to halt the economic trouble of the early to mid-1970s, which had been marred by harvest failures, fiscal contraction, and the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchanged rate; the resulting turbulence in the foreign exchange markets being further accentuated by the oil shock of 1973.61 The government was even able to exceed the targeted growth figure with an annual growth rate of 5.0–5.2% over the five-year period of the plan (1974–79).4953 The economy grew at the rate of 9% in 1975–76 alone, and the Fifth Plan, became the first plan during which the per capita income of the economy grew by over 5%.67

Operation Forward and the Sixth Five Year Plan

Gandhi inherited a weak economy when she again became Prime Minister in 1980.68 The preceding year in 1979–80 under the Janata Party government had led to the strongest recession (−5.2%) in the history of modern India with inflation rampant at 18.2%.506769 Gandhi proceeded to abrogate the Janata Party government's Five Year Plan in 1980 and launched the Sixth Five Year Plan (1980–85). The government targeted an average growth of 5.2% over the period of the plan.49 Measures to check the inflation were also taken; by the early 1980s inflation was under control at an annual rate of about 5%.69

Although Gandhi continued professing socialist beliefs, the Sixth Five Year Plan was markedly different from the years of Garibi Hatao. Populist programs and policies were replaced by pragmatism.53 There was an emphasis on tightening public expenditures, greater efficiency of the State Owned Enterprises (SOE), which Gandhi qualified as a "sad thing", and in stimulating the private sector through deregulation and liberation of the capital market.70 The government subsequently launched Operation Forward in 1982, the first cautious attempt at reform.71 The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five Year plans yet; showing an average growth of 5.7% over 1980–85.49

Inflation and unemployment

The price of oil during the 1970s energy crisis. The graph shows sharp increases in 1973 and again in 1979.

During Lal Bahadur Shastri's last full year in office (1965), inflation averaged 7.7%, compared to 5.2% at the end of Gandhi's first stint in office (1977).72 On average, inflation in India had remained below 7% through the 1950s and 1960s.73 But, it then accelerated sharply in the 1970s, from 5.5% in 1970–71 to over 20% by 1973–74, due to the international oil crisis.72 Gandhi declared inflation the gravest of problems in 1974 (at 25.2%) and devised a severe anti-inflation program. The government was successful in bringing down inflation during the emergency; achieving negative figures of −1.1% by the end of 1975–76.6872

Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had again caused inflation to rise.68 During Charan Singh's last year in office (1980), inflation averaged 18.2%, compared to 6.5% during Gandhi's last year in office (1984).6972 General economic recovery under Gandhi led to an average inflation at 6.5% from 1981–82 to 1985–86; the lowest since the beginning of India's inflation problems in the 1960s.73

Unemployment stayed constant at 9% over a nine-year period (1971–80) before declining to 8.3% in 1983.5374

Domestic policy

Nationalisation

Despite the provisions, control and regulations of Reserve Bank of India, most banks in India had continued to be owned and operated by private persons.75 Businessmen who owned the banks were often accused of channeling the deposits into their own companies, and ignoring the priority sector. Furthermore, there was a great resentment against class banking in India, which had left the poor (the majority population) unbanked.76 After becoming Prime Minister, Gandhi expressed the intention of nationalising the banks in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation" in order to alleviate poverty.77 The paper received the overwhelming support of the public.77 In 1969, Gandhi moved to nationalise fourteen major commercial banks. After the nationalisation of banks, the branches of the public sector banks in India rose to approximate 800 percent in deposits, and advances took a huge jump by 11,000 percent.78 Nationalisation also resulted in a significant growth in the geographical coverage of banks; the number of bank branches rose from 8,200 to over 62,000, most of which were opened in the unbanked, rural areas. The nationalization drive not only helped to increase household savings, but it also provided considerable investments in the informal sector, in small and medium-sized enterprises, and in agriculture, and contributed significantly to regional development and to the expansion of India’s industrial and agricultural base.79 Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, was solid in his praise for her bank nationalisations.76

Having been re-elected in 1971 on a nationalisation platform, Gandhi proceeded to nationalise the coal, steel, copper, refining, cotton textiles, and insurance industries.50 Most of these nationalisations were made to protect employment and the interest of the organised labour.50 The remaining private sector industries were placed under strict regulatory control.50

During the 1971 war against Pakistan, foreign owned private oil companies had refused to supply fuel to the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. In response, Gandhi nationalised oil companies in 1973. After nationalisation the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed.80

Administration

Administrative divisions of India 1961–1975. Gandhi established six states, Haryana (1966), Himachal Pradesh (1971), Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura (all 1972), and finally Sikkim (1975), bringing up the total of states to 22. She also established Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram (1972) as Union Territories.

In 1966, Gandhi accepted the demands of the Akali's to reorganize Punjab on linguistic lines. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the north east were joined to Himachal Pradesh.81 In doing so, she had hoped to ward off the growing political conflict between Hindu and Sikh groups in the region.81 However, a contentious issue that was considered unresolved by the Akali's was the status of Chandigarh, a prosperous city on the Punjab-Haryana border, which Gandhi declared a union territory to be shared as a capital by both the states.82

Victory over Pakistan in 1971 consolidated Indian power in Kashmir. Gandhi indicated that she would make no major concessions on Kashmir. The most prominent of the Kashmiri separatists, Sheikh Abdullah, had to recognize India's control over Kashmir in light of the new order in South Asia. The situation was normalized in the years following the war after Abdullah agreed to an accord with Gandhi, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in return for a special autonomous status for Kashmir. In 1975, Gandhi declared the state of Jammu and Kashmir as a constituent unit of India. The Kashmir conflict remained largely peaceful if frozen under Gandhi's premiership.83

In 1972, Gandhi granted statehood to Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura, while the North-East Frontier Agency was declared a union territory and renamed Arunachal Pradesh. The transition to statehood for these territories was successfully overseen by her administration.84 This was followed by the annexation of Sikkim in 1975.26

Social reform

The principle of equal pay for equal work for both men and women was enshrined in the Indian Constitution under the Gandhi administration.85

Gandhi questioned the continued existence of a privy purse for Indian monarchs. She argued the case for abolition based on equal rights for all citizens and the need to reduce the government's revenue deficit. The nobility responded by rallying around the Jana Sangh and other right-wing parties that stood in opposition to Gandhi's attempts to abolish royal privileges.54 The motion to abolish privy purses, and the official recognition of the titles, was originally brought before the Parliament in 1970. It was passed in the Lok Sabha but felt short of the two-thirds majority in the Rajya Sabha by a single vote.86 Gandhi responded by having a Presidential proclamation issued; de-recognizing the princes; with this withdrawal of recognition, their claims to privy purses were also legally lost.86 However, the proclamation was struck down by the Supreme Court of India.86 In 1971, Gandhi again motioned to abolish the privy purse. This time, it was successfully passed as the 26th Amendment to the Constitution of India.54 Many royals tried to protest the abolition of the privy purse, primarily through campaigns to contest seats in elections. They, however, received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins.

Gandhi claimed that only "clear vision, iron will and the strictest discipline" can remove poverty.54 She justified the imposition of the state of emergency in 1975 in the name of the socialist mission of the Congress.54 Armed with the power to rule by decree and without constitutional constraints, Gandhi embarked on a massive redistribution program.54 The provisions included rapid enforcement of land ceilings, housing for landless labourers, the abolition of bonded labour and a moratorium on the debts of the poor.54 North India was at the centre of the reforms; millions of acres of land were acquired and redistributed.54 The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; according to Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone.54 Nevertheless, others have disputed the success of the program and criticized Gandhi for not doing enough to reform land ownership. The political economist, Jyotindra Das Gupta, cryptically questioned "...whether or not the real supporters of land-holders were in jail or in power?"54 Critics also accused Gandhi of choosing to "talk left and act right", referring to her concurrent pro-business decisions and endeavours.54 Rosser wrote that "some have even seen the declaration of emergency rule in 1975 as a move to suppress dissent against Gandhi's policy shift to the right."50 Regardless of the controversy over the nature of the reforms, the long term effects of the social changes gave rise to prominence of middle-ranking farmers from intermediate and lower castes in North India.54 The rise of these newly empowered social classes challenged the political establishment of the Hindi Belt in the years to come.54

Language policy

Under the Indian Constitution of 1950, Hindi was to have become the official national language by 1965. This was not acceptable to many non-Hindi speaking states, who wanted the continued use of English in government. In 1967, Gandhi made a constitutional amendment that guaranteed the de facto use of both Hindi and English as official languages. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states.58 Gandhi thus put herself forward as a leader with a pan-Indian vision.87 Nevertheless, critics alleged that her stance was actually meant to weaken the position of rival Congress leaders from the northern states such as Uttar Pradesh, where there had been strong, sometimes violent, pro-Hindi agitations.58 Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace.87

National security

In the late 1960s and 1970s, Gandhi had the Indian army crush militant Communist uprisings in the Indian state of West Bengal. The communist insurgency in India was completely suppressed during the state of emergency.88899091

Gandhi considered the north-eastern regions important, because of its strategic situation.92 In 1966, the Mizo uprising took place against the government of India and overran almost the whole of the Mizoram region. Gandhi ordered the Indian army to launch massive retaliatory strikes in response. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force even carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own civilian territory.8493 The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. In 1972, after the less extremist Mizo leaders came to the negotiating table, Gandhi upgraded Mizoram to the status of a union territory. A small-scale insurgency by some militants continued into the late 1970s but was successfully dealt with by the government.84 The Mizo conflict was definitively resolved during the administration of Indira's son Rajiv Gandhi. Today, Mizoram is considered as one of the most peaceful states in the north-east.94

Responding to the insurgency in Nagaland, Gandhi "unleashed a powerful military offensive" in the 1970s.95 Finally, a massive crackdown on the insurgents took place during the state of emergency ordered by Gandhi. The insurgents soon agreed to surrender and signed the Shillong Accord in 1975.96 While the agreement was considered a victory for the Indian government and ended large-scale conflicts,97 there has since been spurts of violence by rebel holdouts and ethnic conflict amongst the tribes.97

Nuclear Program of India

Gandhi contributed and further carried out the vision of Jawarharalal Nehru, former Premier of India to develop the program. Gandhi authorised the development of nuclear weapons in 1967, in response to the Test No. 6 by People's Republic of China. Gandhi saw this test as Chinese nuclear intimidation, therefore, Gandhi promoted the views of Nehru to establish India's stability and security interests as independent from those of the nuclear superpowers.

The program became fully mature in 1974, when Dr. Raja Ramanna reported to Gandhi that India had the ability to test its first nuclear weapon. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation of this test, and preparations were made in a long-constructed army base, the Indian Army Pokhran Test Range. In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named as "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. As the world was quiet by this test, a vehement protest came forward from Pakistan. Great ire was raised in Pakistan, Pakistan's Prime minister Zulfi Ali Bhutto described this test as "Indian hegemony" to intimidate Pakistan. Gandhi directed a letter to Bhutto and, later to the world, describing the test for peaceful purposes and India's commitment to develop its programme for industrial and scientific use.

1971 election victory and second term

The government faced major problems after her tremendous mandate of 1971. The internal structure of the Congress Party had withered following its numerous splits, leaving it entirely dependent on her leadership for its election fortunes. Garibi Hatao (Eradicate Poverty) was the theme for Gandhi's 1971 bid. The slogan and the proposed anti-poverty programs that came with it were designed to give Gandhi an independent national support, based on rural and urban poor. This would allow her to bypass the dominant rural castes both in and of state and local government; likewise the urban commercial class. And, for their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight.

The programs created through Garibi Hatao, though carried out locally, were funded, developed, supervised, and staffed by New Delhi and the Indian National Congress party. "These programs also provided the central political leadership with new and vast patronage resources to be disbursed... throughout the country."98

Verdict on electoral malpractice

On 12 June 1975 the High Court of Allahabad declared Indira Gandhi's election to the Lok Sabha void on grounds of electoral malpractice. In an election petition filed by Raj Narain (who later on defeated her in 1977 parliamentary election from Rae Bareily), he had alleged several major as well as minor instances of using government resources for campaigning.citation needed The court thus ordered her stripped of her parliamentary seat and banned from running for any office for six years. The Prime Minister must be a member of either the Lok Sabha (the lower house in the Parliament of India) or the Rajya Sabha (the upper house). Thus, this decision effectively removed her from office. Mrs Gandhi had asked one of her colleagues in government, Mr Ashoke Kumar Sen to defend her in court.

But Gandhi rejected calls to resign and announced plans to appeal to the Supreme Court. The verdict was delivered by Mr Justice Jagmohanlal Sinha at Allahabad High Court. It came almost four years after the case was brought by Raj Narain, the premier's defeated opponent in the 1971 parliamentary election. Gandhi, who gave evidence in her defence during the trial, was found guilty of dishonest election practices, excessive election expenditure, and of using government machinery and officials for party purposes.99 The judge rejected more serious charges of bribery against her.

With Richard Nixon, 1971

Gandhi insisted the conviction did not undermine her position, despite having been unseated from the lower house of parliament, Lok Sabha, by order of the High Court. She said: "There is a lot of talk about our government not being clean, but from our experience the situation was very much worse when [opposition] parties were forming governments". And she dismissed criticism of the way her Congress Party raised election campaign money, saying all parties used the same methods. The prime minister retained the support of her party, which issued a statement backing her. After news of the verdict spread, hundreds of supporters demonstrated outside her house, pledging their loyalty. Indian High Commissioner BK Nehru said Gandhi's conviction would not harm her political career. "Mrs Gandhi has still today overwhelming support in the country," he said. "I believe the prime minister of India will continue in office until the electorate of India decides otherwise".

State of Emergency (1975–1977)

Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Accordingly, Ahmed declared a State of Emergency caused by internal disorder, based on the provisions of Article 352(1) of the Constitution, on 25 June 1975.

Rule by decree

Within a few months, President's Rule was imposed on the two opposition party ruled states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu thereby bringing the entire country under direct Central rule or by governments led by the ruling Congress party.100 Police were granted powers to impose curfews and indefinitely detain citizens and all publications were subjected to substantial censorship by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Finally, impending legislative assembly elections were indefinitely postponed, with all opposition-controlled state governments being removed by virtue of the constitutional provision allowing for a dismissal of a state government on recommendation of the state's governor.

Indira Gandhi used the emergency provisions to change conflicting party members.

"Unlike her father Jawaharlal Nehru, who preferred to deal with strong chief ministers in control of their legislative parties and state party organizations, Mrs. Gandhi set out to remove every Congress chief minister who had an independent base and to replace each of them with ministers personally loyal to her...Even so, stability could not be maintained in the states..."101

President Ahmed issued ordinances that did not require debate in the Parliament, allowing Gandhi to rule by decree.

Elections

In 1977, after extending the state of emergency twice, Indira Gandhi called elections, to give the electorate a chance to vindicate her rule. Gandhi may have grossly misjudged her popularitycitation needed by reading what the heavily censored press wrote about her. In any case, she was opposed by the Janata Party. Janata, led by her long-time rival Desai and with Jai Prakash Narayan as its spiritual guide, claimed the elections were the last chance for India to choose between "democracy and dictatorship." Gandhi's Congress party was crushed soundly in the elections which followed. Indira and Sanjay Gandhi both lost their seats, and Congress was cut down to 153 seats (compared with 350 in the previous Lok Sabha), 92 of which were in the south.

Removal, arrest, and return

1984 USSR commemorative stamp

The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram, Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity, CFD (Congress for Democracy), primarily due to intra-party politicking and also due to circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. The prevailing rumour was that Sanjay had intentions of dislodging Gandhi and the trio stood between that.

A coalition of opposition, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came into power after the State of Emergency was lifted. The coalition parties later merged to form the Janata Party under the guidance of Gandhian leader, Jayaprakash Narayan. The other leaders of the Janata Party Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The Janata government's Home Minister, Choudhary Charan Singh, ordered the arrest of Indira and Sanjay Gandhi on several charges, none of which would be easy to prove in an Indian court. The arrest meant that Indira Gandhi was automatically expelled from Parliament. These allegations included that she “‘had planned or thought of killing all opposition leaders in jail during the Emergency’”.102 In response to her arrest, Indira Gandhi's supporters hijacked an Indian Airlines jet and demanded her immediate release.103 However, this strategy backfired disastrously. Her arrest and long-running trial, however, gained her great sympathy from many people. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). With so little in common, the Morarji Desai government was bogged down by infighting. Desai resigned in June 1979 after Charan Singh and Raj Narain formed their own breakaway party. Charan Singh was appointed Prime Minister, by President Reddy, after Gandhi promised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside. After a short interval, Congress withdrew support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in the winter of 1979.

Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes.104 In the elections held in January, Congress was returned to power with a landslide majority.

In 1979, when she visited Madurai, some hooligans attacked her. Nedumaran saved her from the attacks.105106

Operation Blue Star

In the 1977 elections, a coalition led by the Sikh-majority Akali Dal came to power in the northern Indian state of Punjab. In an effort to split the Akali Dal and gain popular support among the Sikhs, Indira Gandhi's Congress helped bring the orthodox religious leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale to prominence in the Punjab politics.107108 Later, Bhindranwale's organisation Damdami Taksal became embroiled in violence with another religious sect called the Sant Nirankari Mission, and he was accused of instigating the murder of the Congress leader Jagat Narain.109 After being arrested in this matter, Bhindranwale disassociated himself from Congress and joined hands with the Akali Dal.110 In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Sahib Resolution, which demanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state. Meanwhile, a small section of the Sikhs including some of Bhindranwale's followers, turned to militancy in support of the Khalistan movement, which aimed to create a separate sovereign state for the Sikhs.111 In 1983, Bhindranwale and his militant followers headquartered themselves in the Golden Temple, the holiest shrine of the Sikhs, and started accumulating weapons.111 After several futile negotiations, Indira Gandhi ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden temple in order to subdue Bhindranwale and his followers. In the resulting Operation Blue Star, the shrine was damaged and many civilians were killed. The State of Punjab was closed to international media, its phone and communication lines shut. To this day the events remain controversial with a disputed number of victims; Sikhs seeing the attack as unjustified and Bhindrawale being declared the greatest Sikh martyr of the 21st century by Akal Takht (Sikh Political Authority) in 2003.

Assassination

The day before her death Indira Gandhi visited Orissa on 30 October 1984 where she gave her last speech:

"I am alive today, I may not be there tomorrow. I shall continue to serve till my last breath and when I die every drop of my blood will strengthen India and keep a united India alive."112

Indira Gandhi delivered her last speech at the then Parade Ground in front of the Secretariat of Orissa. After her death, the Parade Ground was converted to the Indira Gandhi Park which was inaugurated by her son, Rajiv Gandhi.

Samadhi of Indira Gandhi
Shakti Sthala, the place where Indira Gandhi was cremated at New Delhi
Today, the spot where Indira Gandhi was assassinated is marked by a glass opening in the crystal pathway at the Indira Gandhi Memorial

On 31 October 1984, two of Gandhi's bodyguards, Satwant Singh and Beant Singh, shot her with their service weapons in the garden of the Prime Minister's residence at 1 Safdarjung Road, New Delhi. The shooting occurred as she was walking past a wicket gate guarded by Satwant and Beant. She was to have been interviewed by the British actor Peter Ustinov, who was filming a documentary for Irish television. Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm, and Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds.citation needed Beant Singh and Satwant Singh dropped their weapons and surrendered. Afterwards they were taken away by other guards into a closed room where Beant Singh was shot dead. Kehar Singh was later arrested for conspiracy in the attack. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar jail.

Indira Gandhi was brought at 9:30 AM to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, where doctors operated on her. She was declared dead at 2:20 PM. The post-mortem examination was conducted by a team of doctors headed by Dr. T.D. Dogra. Dr. Dogra stated that as many as 30 bullet wounds were sustained by Indira Gandhi, from two sources, a Sten gun113114 and a pistol. The assailants had fired 31 bullets at her, of which 30 had hit; 23 had passed through her body while 7 were trapped inside her. Dr. Dogra extracted bullets to establish the identity of the weapons and to correlate each weapon with the bullets recovered by ballistic examination. The bullets were matched with respective weapons at CFSL Delhi. Subsequently Dr. Dogra appeared in the court of Shri Mahesh Chandra as an expert witness (PW-5), and his testimony lasted several sessions. The cross examination was conducted by Shri P. N. Lekhi, the defence counsel.115 Salma Sultan gave the first news of assassination of Indira Gandhi on Doordarshan's evening news on October 31, 1984, more than 10 hours after she was shot.116117

Gandhi was cremated on 3 November near Raj Ghat. The site where she was cremated is today known as Shakti Sthala. Her funeral was televised live on domestic and international stations, including the BBC. Following her cremation, millions of Sikhs were displaced and nearly three thousand were killed in anti-Sikh riots.118 Rajiv Gandhi on a live TV show said of the carnage, "When a big tree falls, the earth shakes."citation needed

Family and personal life

Personal Life
Portrait of Feroze and Indira Gandhi.

A member of the Nehru-Gandhi family, she was married to Feroze Gandhi. Firstly, her younger son Sanjay had been her chosen heir; but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, his mother persuaded a reluctant elder son Rajiv Gandhi to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. Over a decade later, Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated.

Gandhi's yoga guru, Dhirendra Brahmachari, helped her in making certain decisions and also executed certain top level political tasks on her behalf, especially from 1975 to 1977 when Gandhi "dissolved Parliament, declared a state of emergency and suspended civil liberties."119120

Awards

Just like her father, Jawaharlal Nehru in 1955, Indira Gandhi was also awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna in 1971 whilst serving as Prime Minister.121

Legacy

Indira Gandhi is associated with fostering a culture of nepotism in Indian politics and in India's institutions.122

The Indira Awaas Yojana, a central government low-cost housing programme for the rural poor, is named after her. The international airport at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour. The Indira Gandhi National Open University, the largest university in the world, is also named after her. Indian National Congress established the annual Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration in 1985, given in her memory on her death anniversary. The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust also constituted the annual Indira Gandhi Prize.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Gandhi was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad, the Ecole Internationale in Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay.91011

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Indira Gandhi 'greatest woman'". BBC News. 1999-12-01. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  2. ^ Frank 2010, p. 13.
  3. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 3.
  4. ^ Frank 2010, p. 31.
  5. ^ Frank 2010, p. 16.
  6. ^ Frank 2010, p. 25.
  7. ^ Frank 2010, p. 32.
  8. ^ Frank 2010, p. 55.
  9. ^ Frank 2010, p. 29.
  10. ^ Frank 2010, p. 75.
  11. ^ Frank 2010, p. 83.
  12. ^ Frank 2010, p. 90.
  13. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 170.
  14. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 181.
  15. ^ a b Frank 2010, p. 116.
  16. ^ Somervill 2007, p. 36.
  17. ^ Gupte 2012, p. 184.
  18. ^ "Exhibit celebrates 120 years of South Asians at Oxford". University of Oxford. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2012. 
  19. ^ "Sonia assures help for father-in-law’s grave". Indianexpress.com. 2005-11-21. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  20. ^ Gandhi, Indira. (1982) My Truth
  21. ^ Kulke, Hermann (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 359. ISBN 978-0415329194. 
  22. ^ a b Nixon's dislike of 'witch' Indira, BBC News, 29 June 2005. BBC News (29 June 2005). Retrieved on 18 June 2011.
  23. ^ Racioppi, Linda (1994). Soviet Policy towards South Asia since 1970. Cambridge University Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0521414579. 
  24. ^ "This woman suckered us, said Nixon of Indira Gandhi". Hindustantimes.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  25. ^ Kapur, Harish (2009). Foreign Policies Of India's Prime Ministers. Lancer Publishers. p. 138. ISBN 978-0979617485. 
  26. ^ a b Malik 1988, p. 120-121.
  27. ^ Bajpai, G. S. (1999). China's Shadow Over Sikkim: The Politics of Intimidation. Lancer Publishers. p. 210. ISBN 978-1897829523. 
  28. ^ Nair, P. Sukumaran (2008). Indo-Bangladesh Relations. APH Publishing. p. 47. ISBN 978-8131304082. 
  29. ^ "Mujib's downfall". Countrystudies.us. 1975-08-15. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  30. ^ a b "Bangladesh's relations with India". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  31. ^ Jayapalan, N (2000). India And Her Neighbours. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. p. 134. ISBN 978-8171569120. 
  32. ^ Former PM Indira Gandhi honoured with Bangladesh's highest award, The Economic Times, 25 July 2011. The Economic Times (25 July 2011). Retrieved on 25 December 2012.
  33. ^ Suryanarayan, Venkateswaran (2005). Conflict Over Fisheries In The Palk Bay Region. Lancer Publishers. p. 65. ISBN 978-8170622420. 
  34. ^ a b Gupte 2012, p. 5.
  35. ^ "LTTE: the Indian connection". Sunday Times. 1997. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  36. ^ a b Bandarage, Asoka (2009). The Separatist Conflict in Sri Lanka: Terrorism, Ethnicity, Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. p. 111. ISBN 978-0415776783. 
  37. ^ Dissanayaka, T.D.S.A. (2005). War Or Peace in Sri Lanka. Popular Prakashan. p. 84. ISBN 978-8179911990. 
  38. ^ a b Grover, Verinder (1999). Events and Documents of Indo-Pak Relations: Includes Chronology of All Important Events & Documents from 1947 to 1998. Deep and Deep Publications. pp. 100–113. ISBN 978-8176290593. 
  39. ^ a b Kapur, S. Paul (Stanford University Press). Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia. Stanford University Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0804755504. 
  40. ^ Kapur, Ashok (2006). India: From Regional to World Power. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 978-0415328043. 
  41. ^ a b c d e f g Ghosh, Anjali (2009). India's Foreign Policy. Pearson. pp. 306–307. ISBN 978-8131710258. 
  42. ^ a b c d Kaur, Ranjit (1993). Islamic Co-Operation and Unity. Deep and Deep Publications. pp. 168–170. ISBN 978-8171005642. 
  43. ^ a b c d Hunter, Shireen (2010). Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order. ABC-CLIO. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0804755504. 
  44. ^ Pande, Aparna (2011). Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy. Taylor & Francis, 2011. p. 146. ISBN 978-1136818943. 
  45. ^ a b Nanda, Prakash (2003). Rediscovering Asia: Evolution of India's Look-East Policy. Lancer Publishers. pp. 220–226. ISBN 978-8170622970. 
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Ghosh, Anjali (2009). India's Foreign Policy. Pearson. pp. 422–424. ISBN 978-8131710258. 
  47. ^ Oonk, Gijsbert (2007). Global Indian Diasporas: Exploring Trajectories of Migration and Theory. Amsterdam University Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-9053560358. 
  48. ^ a b Mawdsley, Emma; Gerard McCann (2011). India in Africa: Changing Geographies of Power. Fahamu & Pambazuka. pp. 51–52. ISBN 978-1906387655. 
  49. ^ a b c d e f L. N. Dash (2000). World bank and economic development of India. APH Publishing. p. 375. ISBN 81-7648-121-1. 
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rosser, J. Barkley; Marina V. Rosser (2004). Comparative Economics in Transforming the World Economy. MIT Press. pp. 468–470. ISBN 978-0262182348. 
  51. ^ "Indira – terror personified or goddess?". Timeshighereducation.co.uk. 2001-12-07. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  52. ^ Desai, Meghnad (2011). The Rediscovery Of India. Penguin Books India. p. 346. ISBN 978-0143417354. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Malik 1988, p. 60-72.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Jaffrelot, Christoph (2003). India's Silent Revolution: The Rise of the Lower Castes in North India. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 131–142. ISBN 978-1850653981. 
  55. ^ The Indian Libertarian, Volume 15–17. 1969. University of Virginia.
  56. ^ Sunanda K. Datta-Ray; Indira Gandhi: Enigma, Mother-Goddess and Terror Incernate. November 3, 1994. The Straits Times (Singapore).
  57. ^ a b "The original aam aadmi leader". Hindustantimes.com. 2009-11-01. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  58. ^ a b c d e f Steinberg, Blema (2008). Women in Power: The Personalities and Leadership Styles of Indira Gandhi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher. McGill-Queen's Press. pp. 79–95. ISBN 9780-773533561. 
  59. ^ Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee, Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India Since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 335. ISBN 978-0143104094. 
  60. ^ a b c d Kapila, Raj; Uma Kapila (2004). Understanding India's economic Reforms. Academic Foundation. p. 126. ISBN 978-8171881055. 
  61. ^ a b Nayak, Pulin; Bishwanath Goldar, Pradeep Agrawal (2010). India's Economy and Growth. SAGE Publications. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-8132104520. 
  62. ^ a b Oliver, Robert W. (1995). George Woods and the World Bank. p. 144. ISBN 978-1555875039. 
  63. ^ a b Kirk, Jason A. (2011). India and the World Bank: The Politics of Aid and Influence. Anthem Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0857284129. 
  64. ^ Kux, Dennis (1992). India and the United States: Estranged Democracies, 1941–1991. DIANE Publishing. p. 311. ISBN 978-0788102790. 
  65. ^ Gupta, K. L.; Harvinder Kaur (2004). New Indian Economy and Reforms. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 7. ISBN 978-8176295598. 
  66. ^ Chadda, Maya (2000). Building Democracy in South Asia. London: Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 150. ISBN 978-1555878597. 
  67. ^ a b Kelly, D. David A.; Ramkishen S. Raj, Gillian H. L. Goh (2010). Managing Globalisation: Lessons from China And India. World Scientific. p. 62. ISBN 9789812564948. 
  68. ^ a b c Harley, Keith; Todd Sandler (1990). The Economics of Defence Spending: An International Survey. Routledge. p. 192. ISBN 978-0415001618. 
  69. ^ a b c Lal, Deepak (2004). The Hindu Equilibrium: India c.1500 B.C. – 2000 A.D. Oxford University Press. p. 314. ISBN 978-0199275793. 
  70. ^ Waterbury, John (1993). Exposed to Innumerable Delusions: Public Enterprise and State Power in Egypt, India, Mexico, and Turkey. Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0521434973. 
  71. ^ "Sunanda K Datta Ray: Rendezvous with Ronniel". Business-standard.com. 2004-06-12. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  72. ^ a b c d Centre for Monitoring the Indian Economy; Basic Statistics Relating to the Indian Economy. Economic Intelligence Service. August 1993.
  73. ^ a b Kapila, Uma (2009). Indian Economy Since Independence. Academic Foundation. p. 838. ISBN 978-8171887088. 
  74. ^ Chandhoke, Neera; Praveen Priyadarshi (2009). Contemporary India: Economy, Society, Politics. Pearson. p. 60. ISBN 978-8131719299. 
  75. ^ Gomez, Clifford (2008). Financial Markets Institutions And Financial Services. PHI. p. 283. ISBN 978-8120335370. 
  76. ^ a b Akshat Kaushal (2011-05-28). "Off the record". Business-standard.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  77. ^ a b Muralidharan (2009). Modern Banking: Theory And Practice. PHI. p. 364. ISBN 978-8120336551. 
  78. ^ Muralidharan (2009). Modern Banking: Theory And Practice. PHI. p. 4. ISBN 978-8120336551. 
  79. ^ Singh, Kavaljit (2005). Questioning Globalization. Zed Books. p. 45. ISBN 978-1842772799. 
  80. ^ Luthra, Ved (2005). Poverty And Economic Reforms. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons. p. 293. ISBN 978-8178901367. 
  81. ^ a b Gupte 2012, p. 302.
  82. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 315. ISBN 978-1615302017. 
  83. ^ Kumar Ray, Jayanta (2007). Aspects of India's International Relations, 1700 to 2000: South Asia and the World. Pearson. p. 493. ISBN 978-8131708347. 
  84. ^ a b c Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee, Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India Since Independence. Penguin Books India. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0143104094. 
  85. ^ Sarkar, Sumit; Tanika Sarkar (2008). Women and Social Reform in Modern India: A Reader. Indiana University Press. p. 490. ISBN 978-0253352699. 
  86. ^ a b c Jayakar 1997, p. 214.
  87. ^ a b Chandra, Bipan; Aditya Mukherjee, Mridula Mukherjee (2008). India Since Independence. Penguin Books India. p. 122. ISBN 978-0143104094. 
  88. ^ "Hamlet and the Naxals". Sify.com. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  89. ^ Naxalites: who are they and what are their demands?
  90. ^ "History of Naxalism". Hindustantimes.com. 2005-12-15. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  91. ^ "Indira Gandhi used Army to break Naxals: Retired General". Ndtv.com. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  92. ^ Gandhi, Indira (1985). Selected Thoughts of Indira Gandhi: A Book of Quotes. Mittal Publications. p. 224. 
  93. ^ "Don't bomb the Naxals!: IAF last strafed Indian territory in 1966". Rediff.com. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 27 December 2012. 
  94. ^ Stepan, Alfred; Juan J. Linz, Yogendra Yadav (2011). Crafting State-Nations: India and Other Multinational Democracies. JHU Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0801897238. 
  95. ^ Das, Samir (2005). Peace Processes and Peace Accords. Sage. p. 207. ISBN 978-0761933915. 
  96. ^ "Nagaland Accord – The Shillong Agreement of November 11, 1975". satp.org/. Retrieved 27 December 2012. "representatives of the underground organisations met the Governor of Nagaland, Shri L.P. Singh representing the Government of India, at Shillong on 10th and 11th November, 1975." 
  97. ^ a b "Dawn of Peace in Nagaland – SHILLONG ACCORD". nagaland.nic.in. Retrieved April 27, 2012. "the historic "Shillong" signed at Shillong on November 11, 1975, by the Governor of Nagaland Mr. L.P Singh representing the Government of India and the underground leadership represented by Mr. Assa and Mr. Kevi Yalley" 
  98. ^ Rath, Nilakantha (1985). "'Garibi Hatao': Can IRDP Do It?". Economic and Political Weekly 20 (6): 238–246. JSTOR 4374060. 
  99. ^ "1975: Gandhi found guilty of corruption". BBC News. 12 June 1975. 
  100. ^ Kochanek, Stanely, Mrs. Gandhi's Pyramid: The New Congress, (Westview Press, Boulder, CO 1976) p. 98
  101. ^ Brass, Paul R., The Politics of India Since Independence, (Cambridge University Press, England 1995) p. 40
  102. ^ Malhotra, Inder. Indira Gandhi. New York: Coronet Books, 1991.
  103. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=2245&dat=19781221&id=ZOAzAAAAIBAJ&sjid=lDIHAAAAIBAJ&pg=3674,5934855
  104. ^ S. K. Agnihotri; B. Datta Ray (2002). Perspective Of Security And Development In North East India. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-81-8069-165-2. Retrieved 28 June 2013. 
  105. ^ "A voice for Nedumaran". Tehelka (India). 14 May 2005. 
  106. ^ "Veerappan has promised to give up violence". The Hindu (Bangalore, India). 19 November 2000. 
  107. ^ Gus Martin (15 June 2011). The SAGE Encyclopedia of Terrorism, Second Edition. SAGE. pp. 543–545. ISBN 978-1-4129-8016-6. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  108. ^ C. Christine Fair; Sumit Ganguly (29 September 2008). Treading on Hallowed Ground: Counterinsurgency Operations in Sacred Spaces. Oxford University Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-19-534204-8. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  109. ^ William Gould (30 November 2011). Religion and Conflict in Modern South Asia. Cambridge University Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-521-87949-1. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  110. ^ Harnik Deol (2 October 2012). Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab. Psychology Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-415-20108-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  111. ^ a b Martin E. Marty; R. Scott Appleby (1 May 2004). Fundamentalisms Comprehended. University of Chicago Press. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-226-50888-7. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  112. ^ "Last speech of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi prior to her assassination". India Study Channel. 21 Jun 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2013. 
  113. ^ Indira Gandhi: Death in the GardenTIME
  114. ^ Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants – Cynthia Keppley Mahmood – Google Books
  115. ^ Dr. T D Dogra's Expert Evidence in trial of assassination of Late Mrs Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (Witness No. PW 5) Raina Anupuma, Lalwani Sanjeev, Dogra TD, Dept. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi. Indian Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Year : 2009, Volume : 7, Issue : 4
  116. ^ http://www.indianexpress.com/news/the-riots-that-could-not-be-televised/536471/
  117. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/We+the+eyeballs/1/1328.html
  118. ^ "Indira Gandhi's death remembered". BBC News. 1 November 2009. 
  119. ^ Dhirendra Brahmachari, Yoga Master, 7, The New York Times, 10 June 1994
  120. ^ Mrs G's String of Beaus, Outlook India, 26 March 2001
  121. ^ "Padma Awards Directory (1954–2007)". Ministry of Home affairs. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  122. ^ Adina Campu (2009). "History as a marker of otherness in Rohinton Mistry's "A fine balance"". Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov. Series IV: Philology and Cultural Studies 2 (51): 47. 

Bibliography

  • Barbara Somervill (2007). Indira Gandhi: Political Leader in India. Capstone Publishers. ISBN 978-0756518851. 
  • Katherine Frank (2010). Indira: the life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0007372508. 
  • Meena Agrawal (2005). Indira Gandhi. Diamond Pocket Books. ISBN 81-288-0901-6. 
  • Pranay Gupte (2012). Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0143068266. 
  • Pupul Jayakar (1997). Indira Gandhi: A Biography. Penguin Books. ISBN 978-0140114621. 
  • Yogendra Kumar Malik (1988). India: The Years of Indira Gandhi. Brill Publishers. ISBN 978-9004086814. 

Further reading

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
Uchharangrai Navalshankar Dhebar
President of the Indian National Congress
1959
Succeeded by
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy
Preceded by
Dev Kant Baruah
President of the Indian National Congress
1978–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi
Political offices
Preceded by
Gulzarilal Nanda
Acting
Prime Minister of India
1966–1977
Succeeded by
Morarji Desai
Chairperson of the Planning Commission
1966–1977
Preceded by
Mahommedali Currim Chagla
Minister of External Affairs
1967–1969
Succeeded by
Dinesh Singh
Preceded by
Morarji Desai
Minister of Finance
1969–1970
Succeeded by
Yashwantrao Chavan
Minister of Home Affairs
1970–1973
Preceded by
Sardar Swaran Singh
Minister of Defence
1975
Succeeded by
Bansi Lal
Preceded by
Charan Singh
Prime Minister of India
1980–1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi
Chairperson of the Planning Commission
1980–1984
Preceded by
Chidambaram Subramaniam
Minister of Defence
1980–1982
Succeeded by
Ramaswamy Venkataraman
Preceded by
Narasimha Rao
Minister of External Affairs
1984
Succeeded by
Rajiv Gandhi







Creative Commons License