Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
Indonesian Army insignia
|Active||1945 – present|
|Part of||Indonesian National Armed Forces|
|Motto||Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit:"Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals")
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
|Indonesian Army Chief of Staff||General Budiman
(30 August 2013-present)
|Army Aviation Roundel|
The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel.1 The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.2
Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.34
The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 12 military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and various adjunct units. The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel.5
- 1 Military Area Commands
- 2 Operational Commands
- 3 Equipment
- 4 List of Army Chief of Staffs
- 5 Notes and references
- 6 External links
Military Area Commands
The Armed Forces' operational sections were established by General Soedirman, following the model of the German Wehrkreise system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine by General Soedirman in November 1948.
The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952, the Army was organised into set divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958-59, the Army was organised into seven Tentara & Teritoriums. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial command. There were then established sixteen Kodams, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.6
A reorganization in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defense Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defense structure, re-establishing the Military Area Command (Kodam), or regional command, as the key organization for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services.7 The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief to the ten Kodam commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.
The Kodams incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers.8 Some have Raider battalions attached. Currently there are 12 Military Area Commands, and these are:
- Kodam Iskandar Muda, overseeing Aceh province as part of the Aceh special autonomy law. Previously under the Kodam I/Bukit Barisan.
- Kodam I/Bukit Barisan, overseeing northern Sumatra provinces of North Sumatra, West Sumatra, Riau and Riau Islands.
- In 1997, before the split of Kodam I into Kodam I and Kodam Iskandar Muda, territorial military district commands included Korem 011 (HQ Lhokseumawe), Korem 012 (HQ Banda Aceh), Korem 022 (HQ Pematang Siantar), Korem 023 (HQ Sibolga), Korem 031 (HQ Pekanbaru), and Korem 032 (HQ Padang).9
- Kodam II/Sriwijaya, overseeing southern provinces on Sumatra island of Jambi, Bengkulu, Bangka Belitung, South Sumatra and Lampung.
- Korems in 1997 included Korem 041 (HQ Palembang), Korem 042 (HQ Jambi), Korem 043 (HQ Lampung), and Korem 044 (HQ Serong).9
- Kodam Jaya, overseeing Jakarta as the capital city of Indonesia. Kodam Jaya also oversees three regions outside Jakarta of Bekasi and Depok which actually in West Java province and Tangerang which is in Banten province.
- Kodam III/Siliwangi, overseeing West Java and Banten provinces.
- Kodam IV/Diponegoro, overseeing Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces.
- Kodam V/Brawijaya, overseeing East Java province.
- Kodam VI/Tanjungpura, overseeing all provinces on Kalimantan island (Borneo) of Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, South Kalimantan and West Kalimantan.
- Kodam VII/Wirabuana, overseeing all provinces on Sulawesi island of Gorontalo, Central Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi and West Sulawesi.
- Units include Batalyon Infanteri 714
- Kodam IX/Udayana, overseeing provinces of Bali, East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The former Indonesian province of East Timor was also under the jurisdiction of Kodam IX/Udayana.
- Kodam XVI/Pattimura, overseeing Maluku and North Maluku provinces.
- Kodam XVII/Cendrawasih, overseeing West Papua and Papua provinces.10
- Special Forces Command (Kopassus), est 5,530 divided is composed of five groups, Grup 1/Parakomando (Para Commando), Grup 2/Parakomando (Para Commando), Pusat Pendidikan Pasukan Khusus (Training), Grup 3/Sandhi Yudha (Combat Intelligence), SAT 81/Penanggulangan Teror (Counter-terrorism); plus the Presidential Guard (Paspampres) and headquarters.11 Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are para-commando qualified. Of note is the unusual nature of Group IV, possibly also called "Sandhy Yudha," which consists of select members from Groups I, II, and III. The duties of these specially trained personnel include attacking behind enemy lines (Infiltration tactics). Group IV also, reportedlywho?, works with the Joint Intelligence Unit on interrogations, and carries out clandestine operations around the country.
- Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad), is the Indonesian Army's Strategic Reserve Command. Kostrad is a Corps level command which has around 40,000 troops.12 It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander.
- Infantry Division 1 Kostrad, with 13th Infantry Brigade and the 17th Airborne Brigade, plus Field Artillery Regiment 2
- 2nd Division, with 6th and 9th Infantry, and the 18th Airborne Brigades, plus a field artillery regiment
- 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade, Ujung Pandang (ex-Kopassus 3rd Group)13
- KOSTRAD also commands several combat service support units such as combat engineers.
- Army Aviation Command (id:Pusat Penerbangan Angkatan Darat) The army had its own small air arm that performs attack, liaison and transport duties. It operates 100 aircraft in three helicopter and aircraft squadrons composed mostly of light aircraft and small transports, such as the IPTN produced CN-235.
- Squadron 11 Heli Serbu (light assault) (Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
- Squadron 21 Sena (support) (Pondok Cabe, Jakarta)
- Squadron 31 Heli Serbu (heavy assault squadron)(Semarang, Jawa Tengah)
Small arms and infantry weapons
|M203 grenade launcher 'Pindad SPG1'||Indonesia||Under barrel grenade launcher||First locally produced grenade Launcher.|
|M79 grenade launcher||United States||Single-shot grenade launcher|
|AT-13 Metis M||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|AT-5 Sprandel||Russia||Anti tank missile launchers|
|MBT LAW||Sweden||Anti tank missile launchers||161718|
|FGM-148 Javelin||United States||Anti tank guided missile||On order192021|
|C90-CR (M3)||Spain||Anti tank rocket launchers|
|PF-89||China||Anti tank rocket launcher|
|M80 Rocket Launcher22||Yugoslavia||Shoulder-fired missile|
|Leopard 2||Main Battle Tank||10323||With approximately U.S. $ 287 million, Indonesia purchased 40 units of the Leopard 2A4 and 63 units of the Leopard 2 Revolution plus 10 units supporting Leopard 2 tanks.24 Two delivered.2526|
|AMX-13||Light tank||27527||Including self-propelled artillery variants. Not all operational and the remaining tanks will be upgraded.|
|FV101 Scorpion 90||Light tank||9028||Armed with 90mm cockerill|
Infantry Fighting Vehicles and Armored Personnel Carriers
|Marder 1A3||Infantry fighting vehicle||5029||With the assistance of German Rheinmetall, PT Pindad will make the production line from the early stages until finished.303132|
|AMX-VTT||Armoured Personnel Carrier||20033||less than 200 operational|
|Alvis Stormer||Armoured Personnel Carrier||4034||Includes the armoured personnel carrier, command post, ambulance, recovery, logistics and bridge laying variants.35|
|Doosan DST Tarantula (6x6)||Amphibious Armored Fighting Vehicle||2836||37383940
|Pindad Panser (6x6)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||22641|
|Pindad Panser APR-1V (4x4)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||14||Early predecessor to the Pindad PS-3. Based on a commercial Isuzu truck chassis. Follow on orders cancelled following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.|
|Véhicule de l'Avant Blindé (VAB)(4x4)||Armoured Personnel Carrier||4642||14 were originally supplied. Another 32 were acquired in 2006 for the Indonesian peacekeeping mission in Lebanon.43|
|Cadillac Gage Commando (4x4)||Light Armoured Car||20044|
|FV601 Saladin||Armoured Car||6945|
|Pindad Komodo||Light Tactical Vehicle||5646||.||The Indonesian Army has officially ordered 6 Komodos. The Mistral Mobile SAM launcher is also scheduled for orders with the Indonesian Army with a total of 56 Komodos.4748 An additional fifty Komodos are ordered from Pindad.49 8 Komodos modified to house communications equipments were also ordered.5051|
|Renault Sherpa 2||Light Tactical Vehicle||125253||Announced in July 2011.54|
|BTR-40||Light Tactical Vehicle||8555||Locally modified from armoured personnel carrier to armoured reconnaissance variants.56|
Utility and logistics vehicles
|M151 MUTT||Light utility vehicle|
|Land Rover LWB||Light utility vehicle|
|Steyr Puch Haflinger 700 AP||Light utility vehicle|
|Nissan Q4W73||Light truck|
|DAF YA400||Transport truck|
|Isuzu Elf5758||Medium truck|
|Steyr 680M||Medium truck|
|Bedford MK||Light truck|
|Steyr 17M29||Medium truck|
|Cakra FAV||Fast attack vehicle|
Artillery and Air Defence Systems
|Boeing AH-64 Apache||Attack helicopter||AH-64E||884||Deal finalized85|
|Mil Mi-35||Attack helicopter||Mi-35||886||87|
|Eurocopter Fennec||Utility helicopter||AS550,AS350,AS355||1288||on order|
|Mil Mi-17||Transport Helicopter||Mi-17-V5||15||One lost to crash 2013.89|
|Bell UH-1 Iroquois||Utility helicopter||UH-1D||10|
|Eurocopter Bo 105||Utility helicopter||1590||Built under license by PTDI|
|Bell 412||Utility helicopter||412
|Built under license by PTDI91|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Tactical transport||4|
|Cessna 310||Light transport||4|
|Aero Commander||Light transport||680||3|
List of Army Chief of Staffs
- Col. GPH Djatikusumo (1948–1949)
- Col. AH Nasution (1949–1952)
- Col. / Maj. Gen. Bambang Sugeng (1952–1955)
- Maj. Gen. Bambang Utoyo (1955)
- Maj. Gen. AH Nasution (1955–1962)
- Let. Gen. Ahmad Yani (1962–1965)
- Maj. Gen. Pranoto Reksosamudra (temporary) (1965)92
- Maj. Gen. Suharto (1965–1967)
- Gen. Maraden Panggabean (1967–1969)
- Gen. Umar Wirahadikusumah (1969–1973)
- Gen. Surono (1973–1974)
- Gen. Makmun Murod (1974–1978)
- Gen. Widodo (1978–1980)
- Gen. Poniman (1980–1983)
- Gen. Rudini (1983–1986)
- Gen. Try Sutrisno (1986–1988)
- Gen. Edi Sudrajat (1988–1993)
- Gen. Wismoyo Arismunandar (1993–1995)
- Gen. Hartono (1995–1997)
- Gen. Wiranto (1997–1998)
- Gen. Subagyo Hadi Siswoyo (1998–1999)
- Gen. Tyasno Sudarto (1999–2000)
- Gen. Endriartono Sutarto (2000–2002)
- Gen. Ryamizard Ryacudu (2002–2005)
- Gen. Djoko Santoso (2005–2008)
- Gen. Agustadi Sasongko Purnomo (2008–2009)
- Gen. George Toisutta (2009–2011)
- Gen. Pramono Edhie Wibowo (2011–2013)
- Gen. Moeldoko (May 2013–August 2013)
- Gen. Budiman (2013–present)93
Notes and references
- IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
- Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
- Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
- Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
- IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
- Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
- Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
- The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
- Huxley 1997, p.39
- BBC, RI Military Area Commander Files Complaint Over Political Candidates, January 2009
- For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
- International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
- Independent status of 3rd Airborne Infantry Brigade is as reported in Tim Huxley, 'Indonesia's armed forces face up to new threats,' Jane's Intelligence Review, January 1997, p.40
- "TNI Angkatan Darat - Situs Resmi TNI Angkatan Darat" (in Indonesian). 19 March 2011.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska - Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Retrieved 2010-06-12.
- "TNI-AD Uji Terima Roket Anti Tank NLAW". March 21, 2013.
- Indonesia & Jordan; Javelin missile order - Dmilt.com, May 26, 2013
- "TNI Borong Rudal Anti-Tank Buatan Amerika Serikat". June 10, 2013.
- "Raytheon - Lockheed Martin's Javelin JV Gets Contract to Produce Block I Javelin Missile for Indonesia and Other Countries". November 18, 2013.
- ANNUAL REPORT ON THE TRANSFERS OF CONTROLLED GOODS IN 2008 - Serbia, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 24 September 2010
- "Approves Sale of Tanks to Indonesia". May 8, 2013.
- Indonesia takes delivery of first Leopard 2A4 tanks and Marder armoured vehicles from Germany - Armyrecognition.com, 25 September 2013
- "Tank Kelas Berat Perkuat TNI-AD". September 23, 2013.
- Marder, Lapis Baja One Stop Services
- "Beli 114 tank Leopard, Indonesia dapat 50 tank". May 15, 2013.
- "Stormer - Light Armoured Vehicles - Jane's Land Forces". Jane's Information Group. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009.
- "Production of Tarantula 6x6 has been Completed". May 21, 2013.
- "Korea Selatan Segera Kirim Panser Tarantula Pesanan TNI AD". May 25, 2013.
- "Tarantula 6×6 Armoured Fire Support Vehicle". June 12, 2013.
- "[Foto] Sengatan sang Laba-Laba". October 10, 2013.
- "TNI defends purchase of 32 armored vehicles". The Jakarta Post. 2006-09-18. Retrieved 2009-07-10.
- "Mistral Komodo Akan Memperkuat Arhanud". October 6, 2012.
- "Pindad Produksi Lima Varian Rantis Komodo". November 13, 2012.
- "Kopassus & Brimob, Pengguna Pertama Komodo Tempur" (in Bahasa Indonesia). Medan Bisnis. 2013-04-22. Archived from the original on 2013-06-08. Retrieved 2013-06-08.
- "PINDAD Kebut Pesanan KOMODO". January 13, 2013.
- "Komodo, Other Milestone for PT Pindad?". May 5, 2013.
- BTR-40 series of wheeled armoured vehicles
- "Kemhan dan Isuzu Bahas Pengadaan Truk Militer". April 4, 2013.
- "TNI Pesan 965 Truk Isuzu". November 15, 2013.
- "Senjata Oerlikon Skyshield TNI AU". May 28, 2013.
- "Perkuat Dirgantara, Indonesia Beli Perisai Udara". May 29, 2013.
- "Indonesia has ordered Rheinmetall-made Oerlikon Skyshield air defence system". February 11, 2014.
- "Indonesia orders more German air defense systems". February 20, 2014.
- Songsong Kedatangan PSU Baru, Korpaskhas akan Kirim Personil untuk Berlatih di Swiss
- "Paskhas Akan Dapat OERLIKON 35 mm, Denhanud disiapkan". May 18, 2013.
- Saab AB Tawarkan Giraffe AMB dan RBS-70NG kepada TNI AD
- Uji terima ulang Sista Hanud Terintegrasi TD-2000B Rudal Meriam
- "Thales Announces Order for FORCESHIELD Integrated Air Defence System and STARSTREAK Missiles for Indonesian Ministry of Defence". January 15, 2014.
- "Sistem Pertahanan Udara Terintegrasi ForceSHIELD". January 20, 2014.
- "Lanud Supadio Kini Dilengkapi dengan Rudal QW-3". June 6, 2013.
- "World Military Aircraft Inventory", Aerospace Source Book 2007, Aviation Week & Space Technology, January 15, 2007.
- USA and Indonesia formalise AH-64E Apache deal - Flightglobal.com, 26 August 2013
- "PT DI Serahkan 3 CN 295 dan 6 Bell 412 EP kepada Kemenhan". December 17, 2013.
- "Letjen Budiman Ditunjuk Gantikan Jenderal Moeldoko". August 30, 2013.
- IndoWiki KODAMs
- Official website of TNI-AD (Army)
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Armed Forces
- Unofficial site of Indonesian Special Forces
- Jane's Intelligence Review - January 1997 and March 1997
- Indonesian Civil-Military Relations - Civil-Military Relations in Post-Suharto Indonesia and the Implications for Democracy Today: A Preliminary Analysis
- Israel, Fauzi. Tactical Assault & Combat Training. 2008
- "ASEAN Armies Rifle Meet"