The jackalope is a mythical animal of North American folklore (a so-called "fearsome critter") described as a jackrabbit with antelope horns or deer antlers and sometimes a pheasant's tail (and often hind legs). The word "jackalope" is a portmanteau of "jackrabbit" and "antelope". A group of jackalopes is called a flaggerdoot.1
The story of the jackalope was popularised in Wyoming in the 1930s after a local hunter used taxidermy skills to graft deer antlers onto a jackrabbit carcass, selling the creature to a local hotel. It is possible that the tales of jackalopes were inspired by sightings of rabbits infected with the Shope papilloma virus, which causes the growth of horn- and antler-like tumors in various places on the rabbit's head and body.23 However, the concept of an animal hybrid occurs in many cultures, for example as the griffin and the chimera.
The jackalope has led to many outlandish (and largely tongue-in-cheek) claims as to the creature's habits. It is given the pseudo-taxonomic descriptor Lepus temperamentalus.4 It is said to be a hybrid of the pygmy-deer and a species of "killer rabbit". Reportedly, jackalopes are extremely shy unless approached. Legend also has it that female jackalopes can be milked as they sleep belly up and that the milk can be used for a variety of medicinal purposes.5 One of the few ways a Jackalope can be caught is by leaving out a bottle of whiskey, as it is the Jackalopes sustenance of choice.6 It has also been said that the jackalope can convincingly imitate any sound, including the human voice. It uses this ability to elude pursuers, chiefly by using phrases such as "There he goes! That way!" During days of the Old West, when cowboys gathered by the campfires singing at night, jackalopes could often be heard mimicking their voices.7 Legend has it that they are dangerous if approached. It has also been said that jackalopes will only breed during winter electrical storms, explaining their rarity.
The New York Times attributes the story's origin to a 1932 hunting outing involving Douglas Herrick (1920–2003) of Douglas, Wyoming. Herrick and his brother had studied taxidermy by mail order as teenagers,8 and when the brothers returned from a hunting trip for jackrabbits, Herrick tossed a carcass into the taxidermy store, where it came to rest beside a pair of deer antlers. The accidental combination of animal forms sparked Herrick's idea for a jackalope.9 The first jackalope the brothers put together was sold for $10 to Roy Ball, who displayed it in Douglas' La Bonte Hotel. The mounted head was stolen in 1977.10 The jackalope became a popular local story, and Douglas Chamber of Commerce has issued thousands of Jackalope Hunting Licenses to tourists. The tags are good for hunting only during official Jackalope season, which occurs for only one day: June 31 (a nonexistent date as June has 30 days), from midnight to 2 AM. The hunter may not have an IQ greater than 72.11 In Herrick's home town of Douglas there is a statue of a jackalope, and the town celebrates Jackalope Day every year.12 In 2005, the House of the Wyoming state legislature passed a bill to declare the jackalope the "official mythological creature" of Wyoming, by a vote of 45-12 and referred it to the state Senate, where the bill was indefinitely postponed on March 2, 2005.13
Mythological references to a horned rabbit creature can be found in the Huichol legends. The Huichol oral tradition has passed down tales of the sharing of horns between the deer and the horned rabbit.citation needed This folklore may originate in sightings of rabbits affected by the papilloma viral infection, which was reported in the Western United States and Mexico from the 1880s - 1930's.14 The rabbit and deer have also been paired up as far back as the Mesoamerican period of the Aztecs15 as twins, brothers, even the sun and moon.16
Similar creatures have been recognized for centuries in alpine and Scandinavian regions of Europe (Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland,Sweden), including the following: Wolpertinger (Bayern, Germany), Blutschink (Tirol, Austria), Dahu (Switzerland, France), Dilldapp (some specific regions), Elwetritsch (Pfalz, Germany), Hanghuhn (Thüringen, Germany), Raurakl (Schwarzau im Gebirge, Austria),Rasselbock (Thüringen and Sachsen, Germany)and Skvader (Medelpad in northern Sweden).
In 2005, the state legislature of Wyoming considered a bill to make the jackalope the state's official mythological creature. It passed the house by a 45-12 margin, but the session ended before the senate could take up the bill, and so it died. In 2013, following the death of the bill's sponsor, Dave Edwards, the state legislature reintroduced the bill.17 It again passed the House but died in the rules committee of the senate.18
Since Herrick and his brother began selling manipulated taxidermy heads in the 1930s, such trophies can be found in many bars and homes across the United States. Herrick's postcards of the jackalope also increased the myth's popularity.12 Ronald Reagan was given a rabbit head with antlers by South Dakotan senator James Abdnor in 1986.19
Jackalope have also appeared in video games. In Red Dead Redemption, the player is able to hunt and skin jackalope as an in-game challenge. In Redneck Rampage, jackalope are an aggressive enemy encountered early on in the game.citation needed Jackalopes play part in an in game event and is also one of the rarest purchasable mini pet in Guild Wars 2.
"The Jackalope" or "Jack Ching Bada Bing" was a recurring character in a series of sketches on the American TV show America's Funniest People (1990-1994), where he would play pranks on his nemesis, in a similar style to a Bugs Bunny Cartoon.22 In the animated television series Gravity Falls, Jackalopes occasionally appear in the opening sequence and photos.
Popular children’s author Bruce Larkin incorporates jackalopes into many of his books and poetry. He is known by some as “The Jackalope Man.” 24
- Larkin, Bruce. "Sightings and Human Interaction." 50 Facts About Jackalopes. West Chester: Wilbooks, Inc. , 2013. p7. Print.
- Jacks for Real
- Eberhart, George M. "Mysterious Creatures: Creating A Cryptozoological Encyclopedia." 2005. Journal of Scientific Exploration. Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 103-113
- "The Jackalope Conspiracy". Sudftw.com. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "Jackalope, The Legend « Kristal Lee". Kristalleeromances.com. 2011-04-11. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "Ghost Knight" Karen Coats From: Bulletin of the Center for Children's Books Volume 65, Number 10, June 2012 pp. 509-510
- "The Jackalopes of Wyoming - Myth or Reality?". Legendsofamerica.com. 2006-11-16. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "The Jackalope : Austin, Tx". Jackalopebar.com. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- Archived May 13, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Los Angeles Times, 23 Jan 2003". Articles.latimes.com. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "New York Times Obituary, 19 Jan 2003, Section 1, Page 23". Nytimes.com. 2003-01-19. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "The Jackalope". Museumofhoaxes.com. 2003-01-06. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- "Wyoming Legislature Journal Digest". Legisweb.state.wy.us. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- Barbour, Erwin H. 1901 "A Peculiar Disease of Birds' Feet Observed in Central Nebraska." Proceedings of the Nebraska Ornithological Union 2:61-63
- Codex Borgia 1976:33
- Furst, J.L. "Horned Rabbit: Natural History and Myth in West Mexico." Journal of Latin American Lore 15:1 (1989), 137-149
- "Wyoming lawmakers consider declaring jackalope state's official mythical creature". Trib.com. 2013-01-12. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
- "House Bill 149". Trib.com. 2013-02-26. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
- "Jakalope". Jakalope.ca. Retrieved 2014-04-14.
- Madison, Lucy. "Putting the I's in Miike Snow". Interview. Retrieved 2012-11-25.
- Video on YouTube
- "New Craft Beer Digs in Newcastle". Beerandbrewer.com. Retrieved 2014-03-14.
- Larkin, Bruce. "Jackalope Research Institute." Jackalope Research Institute. Wilbooks, Inc., n.d. Web. <http://jackaloperesearchinstitute.org/>.
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