James Lawrence

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
James Lawrence
JamesLawrenceATcommons.jpg
Captain James Lawrence, United States Navy
Born (1781-10-01)October 1, 1781
Burlington, New Jersey
Died June 4, 1813(1813-06-04) (aged 31)
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
Years of service 1798—1813
Rank Captain
Battles/wars Quasi-War
First Barbary War
War of 1812

James Lawrence (October 1, 1781 He was an American naval officer. During the War of 1812, he commanded the USS Chesapeake in a single-ship action against HMS Shannon (commanded by Philip Broke). He is probably best known today for his last words or "dying command" "Don't give up the ship!", which is still a popular naval battle cry, and which was invoked by Oliver Hazard Perry's personal battle flag, adopted to commemorate his dead friend.12

Biography

Lawrence was born on october,1,1781 in Burlington, New Jersey but raised in Woodbury, New Jersey, the son of John and Martha (Tallman) Lawrence. His mother died when he was an infant and his Loyalist father fled to Canada during the American Revolution, leaving his half-sister to care for the infant. Though Lawrence studied law, he entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1798.

During the Quasi-War with France, he served on USS Ganges and the frigate USS Adams in the Caribbean. He was commissioned a lieutenant on April 6, 1802 and served aboard USS Enterprise in the Mediterranean, taking part in a successful attack on enemy craft on 2 June 1803.

In February 1804, he was second in command during the expedition to destroy the captured frigate USS Philadelphia. Later in the conflict he commanded Enterprise and a gunboat in battles with the Tripolitans. He was also First Lieutenant of the frigate Adams and, in 1805, commanded the small Gunboat No. 6 during a voyage across the Atlantic to North Africa.

Although Gunboats No. 2 through 10 (minus No. 7) arrived in the Mediterranean too late to see action, they remained there with Commodore Rodgers's squadron until summer 1806, at which time they sailed back to the United States. On 12 June 1805 Gunboat No. 6 encountered a Royal Navy vessel that impressed three seamen.34

Subsequently, Lieutenant Lawrence commanded the warships USS Vixen, USS Wasp and USS Argus. In 1810, he also took part in trials of an experimental spar torpedo.citation needed Promoted to the rank of Master Commandant in November 1810, he took command of the sloop of war USS Hornet a year later and sailed her to Europe on a diplomatic mission. From the beginning of the War of 1812, Lawrence and Hornet cruised actively, capturing the privateer Dolphin in July 1812. Later in the year Hornet blockaded the British sloop HMS Bonne Citoyenne at Bahia, Brazil, and on 24 February 1813 captured HMS Peacock.

USS Chesapeake by F. Muller. US Navy Art Collection
Battle flag used by Oliver Hazard Perry.

Upon his return to the United States in March, Lawrence learned of his promotion to Captain. Two months later he took command of the frigate USS Chesapeake, then preparing for sea at Boston, Massachusetts. He left port on 1 June 1813 and immediately engaged the blockading Royal Navy frigate HMS Shannon in a fierce battle. Although slightly smaller, the British ship disabled Chesapeake with gunfire within the first few minutes. Captain Lawrence, mortally wounded by small arms fire, ordered his officers, "Don't give up the ship. Fight her till she sinks."5 Or "Tell them to fire faster; don't give up the ship."1 Men carried him below, and his crew was overwhelmed by a British boarding party shortly afterward. James Lawrence died of his wounds on 4 June 1813, while his captors directed the Chesapeake to Halifax, Nova Scotia.

After Lawrence's death was reported to his friend and fellow officer Oliver Hazard Perry, he ordered a large blue battle ensign, stitched with the phrase "Dont Give Up The Ship" sic in bold white letters. The Perry Flag was displayed on his flagship during a victorious engagement against the British on Lake Erie in September 1813. The original flag is displayed in the Naval Academy Museum and a replica is displayed in Memorial Hall at the United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland.

James Lawrence's grave at Trinity Church Cemetery.

1

Lawrence was buried with military honors at present-day CFB Halifax, Nova Scotia, but reinterred at Trinity Church Cemetery in New York City. He was survived by his wife, Julia (Montaudevert) Lawrence, who lived until 1865, and their two-year-old daughter, Mary Neill Lawrence. In 1838 Mary married a Navy officer, Lt. William Preston Griffin.

Namesakes and honors

Lawrence's last words are memorialized on the Ticonderoga class cruiser USS Lake Erie (CG-70)

He was honored with a Congressional Gold Medal6 and the Thanks of Congress.

Many places are named for Captain Lawrence, including:

His birthplace of Burlington, New Jersey, has a Captain James Lawrence Elementary School.9

In addition, the U.S. Navy has named five ships USS Lawrence.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Famous Navy Quotes: Who Said Them and When.
  2. ^ Dudley, William S., ed. The Naval War of 1812: A Documentary History. vol.2 (Washington, DC.: US Government Printing Office, 1992), p. 559.
  3. ^ Smith (1995), pp.95-86.
  4. ^ Tucker (1993), pp. 77-9.
  5. ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-4000-5363-6. 
  6. ^ J. F. Loubat, LL.D. (1831-1927), Jaquemart, Jules Fredinand (1837-1880), illustrator. (1888) THE MEDALLIC HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 1776—1876. Volume II Project Gutenberg or here for text at Internet archive.
  7. ^ City of Lawrence website: History
  8. ^ The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, Volume 1. Kentucky State Historical Society. 1903. p. 35. 
  9. ^ The City of Burlington School District. URL accessed 5 January 2005; verified 12 September 2006.

References

This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships.
  • Gleaves, Albert. (1804) James Lawrence, Captain, United States Navy, Commander of the 'Chesapeake'.
  • Padfield, Peter (1968) Broke and the Shannon.
  • Pullen, H.F. (1970) The Shannon and the Chesapeake. 1970.
  • Hancock, James R.[1]
  • Smith, Gene A. (1995) "For the Purposes of Defense": The Politics of the Jeffersonian Gunboat Program. (Newark, DE: University of Delaware Press). ISBN 0-87413-559-1
  • Tucker, Spencer (c.1993) The Jeffersonian Gunboat Navy. (Columbia: University of South Carilina Press). ISBN 978-0-87249-849-5

External links








Creative Commons License