Javanese script

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Aksara Jawa
ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ
Aksara Jawa.png
Type Abugida
Languages Javanese
Sundanese (as Cacarakan)
Madurese
Sasak
Time period
c. 13th–present
Parent systems
Sister systems
Balinese
Batak
Baybayin
Kulitan
Buhid
Hanunó'o
Lontara
Old Sundanese
Rencong
Rejang
Tagbanwa
ISO 15924 Java, 361
Direction Left-to-right
Unicode alias
Javanese
U+A980U+A9DF

The Javanese script, natively known as Aksara Jawa (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮ - lit. "the script of Java"),1 Hanacaraka (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ - the first five letters), or Carakan (ꦕꦫꦏꦤ꧀),2 is a pre-colonial script used to write Javanese and several other native languages of Indonesia. It is closely related to the Balinese script. The letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, in which the letters form a perfect pangram narrating the Javanese myth of Aji Saka.

In everyday use, Javanese script has been almost entirely supplanted by Latin script which was introduced by the Dutch during the 19th century.2 Javanese script was added to Unicode version 5.2 in 2009. Even so, since its complex script can only be displayed using SIL Graphite technology, only available in the Firefox browser, Thunderbird email client, and several open source word processors, writing and rendering Javanese on a computer is still not as easy as writing with Latin script. The difficulties encountered when trying to use this script in a digital environment is one of main reasons for its lack of currency except among preservationists.

Characteristics

The syllable /ka/ is represented with a single letter. Diacritics either change, add, or eliminate vowel of said syllable. The letter has several related form for proper names, foreign pronunciation, and consonant clusters

The Javanese script is an abugida written from left to right. Each letter is a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/ which could be determined by the letter's position to others. Characters are written without word boundaries (Scriptio continua).3 Therefore the reader of Javanese script has to be familiar with the text to know the word boundaries.

Letters are divided into sets according to their function. The basic set contains 20 consonants used for writing modern Javanese language, other sets include capital, archaic, and modified letters. All of these letters in turn have appended form for writing consonant clusters.

Most non-basic letters are originally aspirated or retroflex consonants present in the early development of Old Javanese language. As the language develops, these letters are dropped of their original sound representation and are used instead for a number of different functions concerning proper spelling in contemporary orthography.

Diacritics are placed around the letter to indicate different vowels, final consonants, or foreign pronunciation.3 Diacritics may be used with one another, though not all combination is valid.

Punctuation includes a comma, period, colon, quotation marks, as well as marks to introduce chapters of a poem, song, or letter.4

The Javanese script has its own digit, containing number 0-9. Numbers are marked with certain punctuation to distinguish them within text,1 though the used of Arabic numeral are also acceptable.

History

Javanese script being used in colonial period school.

Javanese and Balinese are modern variants of Kawi, a Brahmic script developed in Java from the earlier Pallava script. Kawi is first attested in a legal document from 804 CE, and was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called lontar.1 Over the Hindu-Buddhist period of Indonesia the shape transients into Javanese, though much of the orthography stays the same. By the 17th century, the script is identified as Carakan5 or Hanacaraka based on its first five letters.

Carakan was mainly used by scribes centered around Surakarta and Yogyakarta to write various manuscripts such as historical accounts (babad), stories (serat), ancient verses (kakawin), and divination guides (primbon) among many others.6 The most popular of texts are copied and rewritten over the centuries.7 Manuscripts commissioned by nobility are often illuminated or illustrated, which ranges from simple embellished stanza markers to elaborate frontispiece or textual gateways called wadana. Illustrations also vary in style; some used highly stylized wayang depiction, others used more naturalistic lines.7

In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued Wewaton Sriwedari or "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography.8 After Indonesian independence, many guidelines have been published regarding the correct orthography of the Javanese script, including Patokan Panoelise Temboeng Djawa or "Guide for writing Javanese words" issued by the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture in 1946,8 as well as numerous guidelines issued by the Congress of Javanese Language (Kongres Bahasa Jawa, abbreviated as KBJ) from 1991 to 2006.910 KBJ is also responsible for the registration of Javanese script into Unicode.

However, usage of the Javanese script has declined since the invention of a Latin orthography based on Dutch in 1926,2 and it is now more common to write Javanese in Latin alphabet. Currently, there are only a few newspapers and magazines being printed in the Javanese script, such as Jaka Lodhang. It is still taught in most elementary school and some junior high school as compulsory subject in Javanese language areas.

Letters

A basic letter in hanacaraka is called aksara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), and each letter stands for a syllable with inherent vowel /a/ or /ɔ/ which could be determined by the letter's position to other letters.3 However, it also depends on the speaker's dialect; Western Javanese dialects tends to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while Eastern Javanese prefers /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter is described in Wewaton Sriwedari as follows:

  1. A basic character stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ when the character is preceded by another character containing a sandhangan swara.
  2. A basic character stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ when the character is immediately followed by a character containing a sandhangan swara.
  3. The first basic letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other basic characters, in which case the first basic character has the /a/ vowel.

Consonants

There are up to 34 consonants in Javanese, however not all of them are in use. The table below shows Javanese letters with their original pronunciation in Old Javanese:

Aksara wianjana (Consonants)
Place of articulation Pancawalimukha Semivowels Sibilants Glottal
Unvoiced Voiced Nasal
Guttural
Nglegena ka.png
(Ka)
Uniform height Murda ka.png
(Kha)
Nglegena ga.png
(Ga)
Uniform height Murda ga.png
(Gha)
Nglegena nga.png
(Nga)
Palatal
Nglegena ca.png
(Ca)
Uniform height Murda ca.png
(Cha) 1
Nglegena ja.png
(Ja)
Mahaprana ja.png
(Jha)
Nglegena nya.png
(Nya)
Nglegena ya.png
(Ya)
Uniform height Murda sa.png
(Śa)
Retroflex
Nglegena tha.png
(Ṭa)2
Uniform height Mahaprana tha.png
(Ṭha)
Nglegena dha.png
(Ḍa)2
Uniform height Mahaprana dha.png
(Ḍha)
Uniform height Murda na.png
(Ṇa)
Nglegena ra.png
(Ra)
Uniform height Mahaprana sa.png
(Ṣa)
Dental
Nglegena ta.png
(Ta)
Uniform height Murda ta.png
(Tha)
Nglegena da.png
(Da)
Uniform height Murda da.png
(Dha)
Nglegena na.png
(Na)
Nglegena la.png
(La) 3
Nglegena sa.png
(Sa)
Labial
Nglegena pa.png
(Pa)
Uniform height Murda pa.png
(Pha)
Nglegena ba.png
(Ba)
Uniform height Murda ba.png
(Bha)
Nglegena ma.png
(Ma)
Nglegena wa.png
(Wa)
Aproximant
Nglegena ha.png
(Ha) 4

^1 Only found in non-initial position as a pasangan.1
^2 Ḍa and ṭa are usually written dha and tha. Here they are used to differentiate retroflex dha (ɖa) and tha (ʈa) in modern Javanese with aspirated dha (d̪ha) and tha (t̪ha) in old Javanese.
^3 Actually an alveolar consonant, but classified as dental by tradition.
^4 May also represent zero consonant, in which the /h/ is not pronounced.

Modern orthography discards many, particularly aspirated, letters of their original sounds and instead used them for punctuation. Out of 33, only 20 letters retain their sounds and became basic letters while others are categorized into murda and mahaprana as shown below:

Aksara wianjana (Consonants)
Transcription Ha Na Ca Ra Ka Da Ta Sa Wa La Pa Dha Ja Ya Nya Ma Ga Ba Tha Nga
Nglegéna
Nglegena ha.png
Nglegena na.png
Nglegena ca.png
Nglegena ra.png
Nglegena ka.png
Nglegena da.png
Nglegena ta.png
Nglegena sa.png
Nglegena wa.png
Nglegena la.png
Nglegena pa.png
Nglegena dha.png
Nglegena ja.png
Nglegena ya.png
Nglegena nya.png
Nglegena ma.png
Nglegena ga.png
Nglegena ba.png
Nglegena tha.png
Nglegena nga.png
Murda
Uniform height Murda na.png
Uniform height Murda ca.png
Uniform height Murda ka.png
Uniform height Murda da.png
Uniform height Murda ta.png
Uniform height Murda sa.png
Uniform height Murda pa.png
Murda nya.png
Uniform height Murda ga.png
Uniform height Murda ba.png
Mahaprana
Uniform height Mahaprana sa.png
Uniform height Mahaprana dha.png
Mahaprana ja.png
Uniform height Mahaprana tha.png
  • Aksara nglegéna (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦔ꧀ꦊꦒꦺꦤ) are basic letters for writing modern Javanese
  • Aksara murda (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦩꦸꦂꦢ) or aksara gedé is used similarly to Latin capital letters, though they are not used to indicate the beginning of a sentence. They are used in the first syllable of proper names, usually of a respected person or a place. Not all letter has murda form, and if murda letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a murda either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may all be capitalized if corresponding murda is available.
  • Aksara mahaprana (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦩꦲꦥꦿꦤ) are letters which roughly translates as "to be read with deep breath". Mahaprana are often poorly attested1 and omitted from books discussing the script.

Additional Consonants

Aksara Tambahan (Additional Consonants)
Name Ganten Ka Sasak Ra Agung
Nga Lelet Nga Lelet Raswadi Pa Cerek
Ganten nga lelet.png
Ganten nga lelet raswadi.png
Ganten pa cerek.png
Tall margin Lain-lain ka sasak.png
Lain-lain ra agung.png

Additionally, there are several letters which are treated as consonants. Pa cerek, nga lelet, and nga lelet raswadi were originally vocalic /r̥/, /l̥/, and /l̥:/ present in the early development of the script due to the influence of Brahmic scripts. Contemporary orthography established both as consonant letters1 called aksara ganten, "replacement letters", syllables with vowel value /ə/ which replaces ra+pepet, la+pepet, and la+pepet+tarung combinations.11 As it already carry a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

Other additional letters includes ka sasak and ra agung.Ka sasak is a traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language. Ra agung was historically used by some writers as a replacement when addressing or discussing royal persons.1

Most sounds not native to the Javanese language are indicated by writing the diacritic mark cecak telu over similar sounding Javanese letters.14 These letters are called rekan or rekaan letters, and they are divided by the language they originated. The most common is Arabic and Dutch or European rekan. Two other less known rekan are used for transcribing Sundanese and Chinese loan words.

Vowels

Aksara Swara (Vowels)
a i u é o
Short
Vowel akara.png
Vowel ikara.png
1
Vowel ukara.png
Vowel ekara.png
Vowel okara.png
Long
Vowel aakara.png
Vowel iikara.png
Vowel uukara.png
Vowel aikara.png
(ai)2
Vowel aukara.png
(au)2

^1 In older texts, Vowel ikara.png was used for long /i/ while another letter now called i kawi Vowel i kawi.png was used for short /i/
^2 Actually a diphthong.

Pure vowels are commonly produce by using letter ha as a zero consonant and corresponding diacritics to change the vowel. Otherwise, there are also letters that represent pure vowels called aksara swara (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦱ꧀ꦮꦫ),1 which is used to differentiate proper names in similar matter to murda. For example, ayu (graceful) is written with the letter ha. But when writing a person named Ayu, swara is used. Swara Is also used for names that are foreign of origin. The element Argon for example, is written with swara. Whether or not a word is considered foreign depends on dictionary definition.811

Pangkon and Pasangan

Pangkon
Sandangan pangkon.png

Pangkon is parallel to a virama in other Brahmic scripts, and are used to mute the inherent vowel of a syllable. Several final consonants however is represented by specific diacritics, in which pangkon may not be used. For example, final consonant -r is written with layar, and may not be written as ra with pangkon. Consonant diacritic may not be used more than one in a letter, but it can be used together with vowel diacritics.

However, pangkon may only be used at the end of a sentence, and if a closed syllable occurs in the middle of a sentence, pasangan (ꦥꦱꦔꦤ꧀) letters are used instead. Pasangan is a subscript form of nglegéna letters that eliminate the inherent vowel of the letter it is attached to. For example, if the letter na is attached with pasangan da, it will be read as nda. Each base letter has a corresponding pasangan form with varied shape and placement.1

Pasangan can be attached with diacritics, similar to their aksara counterpart, with several exception in its placement. Upper diacritics are attached to the aksara above, while lower diacritics are attached to the pasangan. Preceding and succeeding diacritics are put in the same line as the aksara. An aksara may only hold one pasangan each, while the pasangan may be attached with a number of diacritics. In older texts, pasangan wa was excepted for being attached to another pasangan, as it was considered to be a diacritic.

Pasangan Wianjana (Appended Consonants)
Transcription Ha Na Ca Ra Ka Da Ta Sa Wa La Pa Dha Ja Ya Nya Ma Ga Ba Tha Nga
Nglegena
Pasangan nglegena ha.png
Pasangan nglegena na.png
Pasangan nglegena ca.png
Pasangan nglegena ra.png
Pasangan nglegena ka.png
Pasangan nglegena da.png
Pasangan nglegena ta.png
Pasangan nglegena sa.png
Pasangan nglegena wa.png
Pasangan nglegena la.png
Pasangan nglegena pa.png
Pasangan nglegena dha.png
Pasangan nglegena ja.png
Pasangan nglegena ya.png
Pasangan nglegena nya.png
Pasangan nglegena ma.png
Pasangan nglegena ga.png
Pasangan nglegena ba.png
Pasangan nglegena tha.png
Pasangan nglegena nga.png
Murda
Pasangan murda na.png
Pasangan murda ca.png
Pasangan murda ka.png
Pasangan murda da.png
Pasangan murda ta.png
Pasangan murda sa.png
Pasangan murda pa.png
Pasangan murda nya.png
Pasangan murda ga.png
Pasangan murda ba.png
Mahaprana
Pasangan mahaprana sa.png
Pasangan mahaprana dha.png
Pasangan mahaprana ja.png
Pasangan mahaprana tha.png
Others Ganten Ka Sasak Ra Agung
Nga Lelet Nga Lelet Raswadi Pa Cerek
Pasangan ganten nga lelet.png
Pasangan ganten nga lelet raswadi.png
Pasangan ganten pa cerek.png
Pasangan lain-lain ka sasak.png
Pasangan lain-lain ra agung.png

Diacritics

Diacritics are called sandhangan (ꦱꦤ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are mainly used to change the vowel of a syllable and a number of different functions.

Swara

Sandhangan Swara (Vowel Diacritics)
a i u é o e
Short
Sandangan wulu.png
wulu
Sandangan suku.png
suku
Sandangan taling.png
taling
Sandangan taling-tarung.png
taling-tarung
Sandangan pepet.png
pepet
Long
Sandangan tarung.png
tarung
Sandangan wulu melik.png
wulu melik
Sandangan suku mendut.png
suku mendut
Sandangan dirga mure.png
dirga muré
(ai) 1
Sandangan dirga mure-tarung.png
dirga muré-tarung
(au) 1
Sandangan pepet-tarung.png
pepet-tarung
(eu) 2

^1 Actually a diphthong.
^2 Only used in Sundanese transcription.

Vowel diacritics called sandhangan swara (ꦱꦤ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀ꦱ꧀ꦮꦫ) is the most common type of diacritics used to change the vowel of a syllable. There are five sandhangan for modern Javanese. Vowel diacritics may not be used more than one in a syllable, except for tarung which may be combined with few others in a limited combination, the most obvious of which is taling-tarung. Combination pepet-tarung also exist, though they are used in Sundanese transcription. A standalone tarung can also represent long a (/aː/), though they are only used in Old Javanese.11 Vowel diacritics may be used with consonant diacritics.

In some texts, wulu and pepet are only differentiate by their size; wulu being smaller and pepet larger, drastically sometimes. This is somewhat less obvious in handwritten or calligraphic texts, and distinguishing both can difficult.

Sesigeg

Sandhangan sesigeg (ꦱꦤ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀ꦱꦶꦱꦼꦒꦶꦒ꧀) are vowel killers. The diacritic panyangga, cecak, and wignyan are analogues to Devanagari candrabindu, anusvara, and visarga and behave in much the same way.1

Sandhangan Sesigeg (Syllable-final Diacritics)
-m -ang -ah -ar
Sandangan panyangga.png
panyangga 1
Sandangan cecak.png
cecak
Sandangan wignyan.png
wignyan
Sandangan layar.png
layar

^1 Panyangga is only used in religious syllable Simbol aum.png Om.11

Wyanjana

Sandhangan wyanjana (ꦱꦤ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀ꦮꦾꦤ꧀ꦗꦤ) are used to form consonant clusters. Cakra, keret, and pengkal were formerly pasangan forms of ra, pa cerek, and ya respectively. The distinction helps differentiate words such as pakraman ("membership", which read pa-kra-man) and Pak Raman ("Mr. Raman", which read pak-ra-man).

Sandhangan Wyanja (Syllable-medial Diacritics)
-r- -re -y-
Sandangan cakra.png
cakra 1
Sandangan keret.png
keret 2
Sandangan pengkal.png
pengkal

^1 Cakra has two form, initial and ligature, in which the former is shown here.
^2 Keret may not be attached with vowel diacritics, as it already carry a vowel /ə/ by default.

Numerals

The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.3

Angka (Numerals)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0
Angka 1.png siji Angka 2.png loro Angka 3.png telu Angka 4.png papat Angka 5.png limo Angka 6.png enem Angka 7.png pitu Angka 8.png wolu Angka 9.png songo Angka 0.png nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, simply combine the above numbers as one would using the Arabic numerals. For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.3

Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters, namely, 1 with ga, 2 with nga lelet, 6 with e, 7 with la, 8 with pa murda, and 9 with ya. To avoid confusions, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral markers" called pada pangkat, which is written both before and after the number,3 following the pattern: text - numeral marker - numbers - numeral marker - text. For example; Tuesday, 27 March 2013 would be written as:

ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (selasa 19 maret 2013)

In some cases, pada lungsi is used as numeral markers,11 and sometimes Javanese numerals are replaced by Arabic numerals to avoid similarities.

Punctuation

Punctuation can be divided into two categories: primary and special.

Primary Pada
Symbol Name Function
Pada adeg2.png
Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks
Pada adeg-adeg.png
Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section
Pada piseleh.png and Pada piseleh terbalik.png Pada piseleh Functions similarly to pada adeg
Pada lingsa1.png
Pada lingsa Comma or abbreviation marker
Pada lungsi1.png
Pada lungsi Period
Pada pangkat1.png
Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon
Pada rangkep.png
Pada rangkep Iteration mark 3
Special pada4
Symbol Name Function
Pada rerengan kiri.png and Pada rerengan kanan.png Rerengan Flanks title
Pada surat luhur.png
Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank
Pada surat madya.png
Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank
Pada surat andhap.png
Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank
Special Pada (Combination)
Pada guru1.png
Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction
Pada pancak1.png
Pada pancak Ends a letter
Pada tembang purwa.png
or
Pada tembang purwa1.png
Purwapada Introduces a poem
Pada tembang madya.png
Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem
Pada tembang wasana.png
Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.34

^1 Two special rules apply to the usage of the comma, and the period.3

a. The comma is not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon.
b. The comma is used instead for period after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a pangkon.

^2 See numerals.
^3 Pada rangkep functions similarly to 2 or 2 in old Indonesian orthography to indicate repeated words,11 such as orang-orang (people) which would be written as orang2. The character derives from the Arabic digit 2 but in Javanese it does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.1
^4 Numerous variants of special pada may be found in Javanese texts as they are often ornamental, decorated according to the scribe's taste and ability.1

Archaic Punctuation

Symbol Name Function
Pada tirta tumetes.png
Tirta tumétés Correction mark used in Yogyakarta
Pada isen-isen.png
Isèn-isèn Correction mark used in Surakarta

Tirta tumétés and isèn-isèn is used by scribes to indicate error in writing,11 which is preferable than strike through. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included into the Unicode range for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. Tirta tumétés is used in Yogyakarta, while isèn-isèn is used in Surakarta. For example, a scribe wants to write pada luhur, but wrote pada wu..., a scribe from Yogyakarta would write:

ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧞꧞꧞ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ

Pada wu---luhur

In Surakarta, it would be:

ꦥꦢꦮꦸ꧟꧟꧟ꦭꦸꦲꦸꦂ1

Collation

Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the hanacaraka sequence, as follows:

ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ

The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka and the mythical story of the Javanese script's origin.112 However, the hanacaraka sequence only includes 20 basic letters, excluding murda and mahaprana letters. The poem reads:

of which the line-by-line translation3 would be:

There (were) two messengers. (They) had animosity (among each other). (They were) equally powerful (in fight). Here are the corpses.

The script can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit1 (called the kaganga sequence), which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode range. In this way, each letter represent sounds used to write Sanskrit and old Javanese. The arrangement is as follow:

ꦏꦑꦒꦓꦔꦕꦖꦗꦙꦚꦛꦜꦝꦞꦟꦠꦡꦢꦣꦤꦥꦦꦧꦨꦩꦪꦫꦭꦮꦯꦰꦱꦲ

Relation with other languages

Sundanese

Javanese script is also used for writing Sundanese. But the script was modified and called Cacarakan instead. It differs from Javanese by omitting the dha and tha. Difference can also be seen from the use pepet-tarung for the vowel /ɤ/,11 since the sound doesn't exist in Javanese, simplification of the vowel /o/ into a single diacritic called tolong,11 and different "nya" form11 (see rekan for Sundanese).

Balinese

The Javanese and Balinese script are essentially typographic variants. Like Sundanese, Balinese omit consonant dha and tha. However, obsolete characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit or Old Javanese.13

Javanese Script
Balinese Script
Javanese script Balinese script

Indonesian and English

A mall in Surakarta, Central Java.

Javanese script is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta and its surrounding area. Since Javanese script is an oral script, words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they were pronounced, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo gren mɔl/).

Font

Comparison of several Javanese fonts
꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦂꦲꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉
JG Aksara Jawa, by Jason Glavy
Sample JG Aksara Jawa.png
Tuladha Jejeg, by R.S. Wihananto
Sample Tuladha Jejeg.png
Aturra, by Aditya Bayu
Sample Aturra.png
Adjisaka, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten
Sample Adjisaka.png

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based Hanacaraka/Pallawa by Teguh Budi Sayoga,14 Adjisaka by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten,15 JG Aksara Jawa by Jason Glavy,16 Carakan Anyar by Pavkar Dukunov,17 and Tuladha Jejeg by R.S. Wihananto,18 which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes Surakarta made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac's screen font,19 and Tjarakan developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000.20 There is also a symbol-based font called Aturra developed by Aditya Bayu from 2012-2013.21

Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input method compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing system, as the font use code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before Javanese implementation in Unicode.22

Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method, displaying complex syllable structure, and support extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard form which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex feature, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType word processor. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script in the Javanese Wikipedia.11

Unicode

Javanese script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 codepoints for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuations, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points:

Javanese[1]
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+A98x
U+A99x
U+A9Ax
U+A9Bx ꦿ
U+A9Cx
U+A9Dx
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 6.3

Gallery


See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Proposal for encoding the Javanese script in the UCS
  2. ^ a b c AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Info on script
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Soemarmo, Marmo. "Javanese Script." Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14.Winter (1995): 69-103.
  4. ^ a b c Daniels, Peter T and William Bright. The World's Writing Systems. Ed. Peter T Daniels and William Bright. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
  5. ^ Campbell, George L. Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol. 1. New York: Routledge, 2000.
  6. ^ McGlynn, John H. The Indonesian Heritage Vol. 10: Language and Literature. Grolier International, 2002.
  7. ^ a b Gallop, Annabel T. Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation, 2012. (read online here)
  8. ^ a b c Provincial Government of DI Yogyakarta, Central Java, and East Java. Guidelines of Writing Javanese Script. Yogyakarta:Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara, 2003. (read online here)
  9. ^ Paper from the Javanese Language Congress I
  10. ^ Paper from the Javanese Language Congress III
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Wihananto, R.S. Guide to Javanese Script Unicode Font (download PDF here)
  12. ^ "Javanese Characters and Aji Saka". Joglosemar. Retrieved 29 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa (14 May 2003). "The Balinese Alphabet, v0.6". Yayasan Bali Galang. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  14. ^ Teguh Budi Sayoga (September 2004). "Hanacaraka". Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  15. ^ Ki Demang Sokowanten (1 November 2009). "Adjisaka". Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  16. ^ Jason Glavy (16 December 2006). "JG Aksara Jawa". Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  17. ^ Pavkar Dukunov (Nov 25, 2011). "Carakan Anyar". Hanang Hundarko. Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  18. ^ R.S. Wihananto. "Tuladha Jejeg, Javanese Unicode font". Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  19. ^ Matthew Arciniega's page
  20. ^ AGFA Monotype: Javanese. Glyph repertoire
  21. ^ Aditya Bayu Perdana (1 September 2013). "Aturra, font for Javanese". Retrieved 9 November 2013. 
  22. ^ Pitulung: Aksara Jawa

External links








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