|Rulers of Judah|
Jehoiakim (pronounced //; Hebrew יְהוֹיָקִים "he whom Jehovah has set up", also sometimes spelled Jehoikim (Greek: Ιωακιμ; Latin: Joakim), c. 635-597 BC, was a king of Judah. He was the second son of king Josiah by Zebidah, the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah.1 His birth name was Eliakim (אֶלְיָקִים Greek: Ελιακιμ; Latin: Eliakim).
On Josiah's death, Jehoiakim's younger brother Jehoahaz (or Shallum) was proclaimed king, but after three months pharaoh Necho II deposed him and replaced him with the eldest son, Eliakim,2 who adopted the name Jehoiakim and became king at the age of twenty-five.1 Jehoahaz died in exile in Egypt.3
Jehoiakim was twenty-five years old when he became king, and reigned for eleven years to 598 BC 14 and was succeeded by his son Jeconiah, (also known as Jehoiachin), who reigned for only three months.56
Jehoiakim was installed as king of Judah by pharaoh Necho II in 608 BC, who deposed his younger brother Jehoahaz after a reign of only three months and took him to Egypt, where he died.2 Jehoiakim ruled originally as a vassal of the Egyptians, paying a heavy tribute. To raise the money he "taxed the land and exacted the silver and gold from the people of the land according to their assessments."7
After three years, with the Egyptians and Babylonians still at war, he switched back to the Egyptians and ceased paying the tribute to Babylon. In 599 BC, Nebuchadnezzar II invaded Judah and laid siege to Jerusalem. In 598 BC, Jehoiakim died 4 and his body was thrown out of the walls.8 He was succeeded by his son Jeconiah (also known as Jehoiachin). Jerusalem fell within three months.56 Jeconiah was deposed by Nebuchadnezzar, who installed Zedekiah, Jehoiakim's younger brother, in his place. Jeconiah, his household, and many of the elite and craftsmen of Judah were exiled to Babylon.9 while Zedekiah was compelled to pay tribute, and continued to be king of the devastated kingdom.
The seventh year (of Nebuchadnezzar-599 BC.) in the month Chislev (Nov/Dec) the king of Babylon assembled his army, and after he had invaded the land of Hatti (Syria/Palestine) he laid siege to the city of Judah. On the second day of the month of Adar (16 March) he conquered the city and took the king (Jeconiah) prisoner. He installed in his place a king (Zedekiah) of his own choice, and after he had received rich tribute, he sent (them) forth to Babylon.11
Jehoiakim is remembered for burning the manuscript of one of the prophecies of Jeremiah.12 Jeremiah had criticised the king's policies, insisting on repentance and strict adherence to the law. Another prophet, Uriah ben Shemaiah, proclaimed a similar message and was executed on the orders of the king. Jeremiah was spared from this fate, perhaps because he was well-connected.13
|King of Judah
- 2 Kings 24:1-6, 24:19
- 1 Chronicles 3:15-16
- 2 Chronicles 36:4-5, 36:8
- Jeremiah 1:3
- Jeremiah 22:1,
- Jeremiah 26:1, 26:21-23
- Jeremiah 27:1, 27:20
- Jeremiah 28:4
- Jeremiah 35:1
- Jeremiah 36:1, 36:9, 36:28-32
- Daniel 1:1
- 2 Kings 23:36
- 2 Kings 23:34
- Philip J. King, Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), page 20.
- Dan Cohn-Sherbok, The Hebrew Bible, Continuum International, 1996, page x. ISBN 0-304-33703-X
- 2 Chronicles 36:9
- Philip J. King, Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), page 23.
- 2 Kings 23:35
- Jeremiah 22, 19.
- Philip J. King, Jeremiah: An Archaeological Companion' (Westminster John Knox Press, 1993), page 21.
- Geoffrey Wigoder, The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible Pub. by Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. (2006)
- No 24 WA21946, The Babylonian Chronicles, The British Museum
- Jeremiah 36:1-32
- James Maxwell Miller, John Haralson Hayes, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (Westminster John Knox Press, 1986) page 404-405.