International headquarters in Brooklyn, New York
|Founder||Charles Taze Russell|
|Origin||1870s: Bible Student movement
1931: Jehovah's witnesses
Pennsylvania and New York, US
|Branched from||Bible Student movement|
|Statistics from 2013 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses1|
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.2 The organization reports worldwide membership of over 7.78 million adherents involved in evangelism,3 convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual Memorial attendance of over 19 million.45 They are directed by the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, a group of elders in Brooklyn, New York, that establishes all doctrines.678 Jehovah's Witnesses' beliefs are based on their interpretations of the Bible910 and they prefer to use their own translation, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures.11121314 They believe that the destruction of the present world system at Armageddon is imminent, and that the establishment of God's kingdom on earth is the only solution for all problems faced by humanity.15
The group emerged from the Bible Student movement—founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell with the formation of Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society—with significant organizational and doctrinal changes under the leadership of Joseph Franklin Rutherford.1617 The name Jehovah's witnesses, based on Isaiah 43:10–12,18 was adopted in 1931 to distinguish themselves from other Bible Student groups and symbolize a break with the legacy of Russell's traditions.
Jehovah's Witnesses are best known for their door-to-door preaching, distributing literature such as The Watchtower and Awake!, and refusing military service and blood transfusions. They consider use of the name Jehovah vital for proper worship. They reject Trinitarianism, inherent immortality of the soul, and hellfire, which they consider to be unscriptural doctrines. They do not observe Christmas, Easter, birthdays, or other holidays and customs they consider to have pagan origins incompatible with Christianity. Adherents commonly refer to their body of beliefs as "the truth" and consider themselves to be "in the truth".1920 They consider secular society to be morally corrupt and under the influence of Satan, and most limit their social interaction with non-Witnesses.21 Congregational disciplinary actions include disfellowshipping, their term for formal expulsion and shunning.22 Baptized individuals who formally leave are considered disassociated and are also shunned. Disfellowshipped and disassociated individuals may eventually be reinstated if deemed repentant.
The religion's position regarding conscientious objection to military service and refusal to salute national flags has brought it into conflict with some governments. Consequently, some Jehovah's Witnesses have been persecuted and their activities are banned or restricted in some countries. Persistent legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses have influenced legislation related to civil rights in several countries.23
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Beliefs
- 4 Practices
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Sociological analysis
- 7 Opposition
- 8 Criticism
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
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|Watch Tower presidents|
|Notable former members|
In 1870, Charles Taze Russell and others formed an independent group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to study the Bible.24 During the course of his ministry, Russell disputed many beliefs of mainstream Christianity including immortality of the soul, hellfire, predestination, the fleshly return of Jesus Christ, the Trinity, and the burning up of the world.25 In 1876 Russell met Nelson H. Barbour; later that year they jointly produced the book Three Worlds, which combined restitutionist views with end time prophecy. The book taught that God's dealings with humanity were divided dispensationally, each ending with a "harvest," that Christ had returned as an invisible spirit being in 187425 inaugurating the "harvest of the Gospel age," and that 1914 would mark the end of a 2520-year period called "the Gentile Times,"26 at which time world society would be replaced by the full establishment of God's kingdom on earth.272829 Beginning in 1878 they jointly edited a religious journal, Herald of the Morning.30 In June 1879 the two split over doctrinal differences and in July Russell began publishing the magazine Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence,31 stating that its purpose was to demonstrate the world was in "the last days," and that a new age of earthly and human restitution under the reign of Christ was imminent.32
From 1879, Watch Tower supporters gathered as autonomous congregations to study the Bible topically. Thirty congregations were founded, and during 1879 and 1880 Russell visited each to provide the format he recommended for conducting meetings.33 As congregations continued to form during Russell's ministry, they each remained self-administrative, functioning under the congregationalist style of church governance.3435 In 1881 Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society was presided over by William Henry Conley, and in 1884 Charles Taze Russell incorporated the society as a non-profit business to distribute tracts and Bibles.363738 By about 1900 Russell had organized thousands of part- and full-time colporteurs,31 and was appointing foreign missionaries and establishing branch offices. By the 1910s, Russell's organization maintained nearly a hundred "pilgrims," or traveling preachers.39 Russell engaged in significant global publishing efforts during his ministry,404142 and by 1912 he was the most distributed Christian author in the United States.4143
Russell moved the Watch Tower Society's headquarters to Brooklyn, New York, in 1909, combining printing and corporate offices with a house of worship; volunteers were housed in a nearby residence he named Bethel. He identified the religious movement as "Bible Students," and more formally as the International Bible Students Association.44 By 1910, about 50,000 people worldwide were associated with the movement45 and congregations re-elected him annually as their "pastor."46 Russell died October 31, 1916, at the age of 64 while returning from a ministerial speaking tour.47
In January 1917, the Watch Tower Society's legal representative, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, was elected as its next president. His election was disputed, and members of the Board of Directors accused him of acting in an autocratic and secretive manner.4849 The divisions between his supporters and opponents triggered a major turnover of members over the next decade.5051 In June 1917 he released The Finished Mystery as a seventh volume of Russell's Studies in the Scriptures series. The book, published as the posthumous work of Russell, was a compilation of his commentaries on the Bible books of Ezekiel and Revelation, plus numerous additions by Bible Students Clayton Woodworth and George Fisher.52535455 It strongly criticized Catholic and Protestant clergy and Christian involvement in the Great War.56 As a result, Watch Tower Society directors were jailed for sedition under the Espionage Act in 1918 and members were subjected to mob violence; charges against the directors were dropped in 1920.57
Rutherford centralized organizational control of the Watch Tower Society. In 1919 he instituted the appointment of a director in each congregation, and a year later all members were instructed to report their weekly preaching activity to the Brooklyn headquarters.58 At an international convention held at Cedar Point, Ohio, in September 1922, a new emphasis was made on house-to-house preaching.59 Significant changes in doctrine and administration were regularly introduced during Rutherford's twenty-five years as president, including the 1920 announcement that the Jewish patriarchs (such as Abraham and Isaac) would be resurrected in 1925, marking the beginning of Christ's thousand-year Kingdom.606162 Disappointed by the changes, tens of thousands of defections occurred during the first half of Rutherford's tenure, leading to the formation of several Bible Student organizations independent of the Watch Tower Society,6364 most of which still exist.65 By mid-1919 as many as one in seven of Russell-era Bible Students had ceased their association with the Society, and as many as two-thirds by the end of the 1920s.6667686970
On July 26, 1931, at a convention in Columbus, Ohio, Rutherford introduced the new name—Jehovah's witnesses—based on Isaiah 43:10: "Ye are my witnesses, saith Jehovah, and my servant whom I have chosen"—which was adopted by resolution. The name was chosen to distinguish his group of Bible Students from other independent groups that had severed ties with the Society, as well as symbolize the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh evangelizing methods.717273 In 1932, Rutherford eliminated the system of locally elected elders and in 1938 introduced what he called a "theocratic" (literally, God-ruled) organizational system, under which appointments in congregations worldwide were made from the Brooklyn headquarters.58
From 1932 it was taught that the "little flock" of 144,000 would not be the only people to survive Armageddon. Rutherford explained that in addition to the 144,000 "anointed" who would be resurrected—or transferred at death—to live in heaven to rule over earth with Christ, a separate class of members, the "great multitude," would live in a paradise restored on earth; from 1935, new converts to the movement were considered part of that class.7475 By the mid-1930s, the timing of the beginning of Christ's presence (Greek: parousía), his enthronement as king, and the start of the "last days" were each moved to 1914.76
As their interpretations of scripture developed, Witness publications decreed that saluting national flags is a form of idolatry, which led to a new outbreak of mob violence and government opposition in the United States, Canada, Germany, and other countries.7778
Continued development (1942–present)
Nathan Knorr was appointed as third president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1942. Knorr commissioned a new translation of the Bible, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, the full version of which was released in 1961. He organized large international assemblies, instituted new training programs for members, and expanded missionary activity and branch offices throughout the world.81 Knorr's presidency was also marked by an increasing use of explicit instructions guiding Witnesses in their lifestyle and conduct, and a greater use of congregational judicial procedures to enforce a strict moral code.8283
From 1966, Witness publications and convention talks built anticipation of the possibility that Christ's thousand-year reign might begin in late 19758485 or shortly thereafter.86878889 The number of baptisms increased significantly, from about 59,000 in 1966 to more than 297,000 in 1974. By 1975 the number of active members exceeded two million. Membership declined during the late 1970s after expectations for 1975 were proved wrong.90919293 Watch Tower Society literature did not state dogmatically that 1975 would definitely mark the end,86 but in 1980 the Watch Tower Society admitted its responsibility in building up hope regarding that year.9495
The offices of elder and ministerial servant were restored to Witness congregations in 1972, with appointments made from headquarters96 (and later, also by branch committees). In a major organizational overhaul in 1976, the power of the Watch Tower Society president was diminished, with authority for doctrinal and organizational decisions passed to the Governing Body.97 Reflecting these organizational changes, publications of Jehovah's Witnesses began using the capitalized name, Jehovah's Witnesses.98 Since Knorr's death in 1977, the position of president has been occupied by Frederick Franz (1977–1992) and Milton Henschel (1992–2000), both members of the Governing Body, and since 2000 by Don A. Adams, not a member of the Governing Body.
Jehovah's Witnesses are organized under a hierarchical arrangement, which their leadership calls a "theocratic organization", reflecting their belief that it is God's "visible organization" on earth.99100101 The organization is led by the Governing Body—an all-male group that varies in size, but since November 2012 has comprised eight members,note 1 all of whom profess to be of the "anointed" class with a hope of heavenly life—based in the Watch Tower Society's Brooklyn headquarters.102103 There is no election for membership; new members are selected by the existing body.104 Until late 2012, the Governing Body described itself as the representative105106 and "spokesman" for God's "faithful and discreet slave class" (approximately 10,000 self-professed "anointed" Jehovah's Witnesses).107108 At the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Society, the "faithful and discreet slave" was defined as referring to the Governing Body only.109 The Governing Body directs several committees that are responsible for administrative functions, including publishing, assembly programs and evangelizing activities.101 It appoints all branch committee members and traveling overseers, after they have been recommended by local branches, with traveling overseers supervising districts or circuits of congregations within their jurisdictions. Branch offices appoint local elders and ministerial servants, and may appoint regional committees for matters such as Kingdom Hall construction or disaster relief.110
Each congregation has a body of appointed unpaid male elders and ministerial servants. Elders maintain general responsibility for congregational governance, setting meeting times, selecting speakers and conducting meetings, directing the public preaching work, and creating "judicial committees" to investigate and decide disciplinary action for cases involving sexual misconduct or doctrinal breaches.111 New elders are appointed by branch offices after recommendation by the existing body of elders. Ministerial servants—appointed in a similar manner to elders—fulfill clerical and attendant duties, but may also teach and conduct meetings.101 Witnesses do not use elder as a title to signify a formal clergy-laity division,112 though elders may employ ecclesiastical privilege such as confession of sins.113
Baptism is a requirement for being considered a member of Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses do not practice infant baptism,114 and previous baptisms performed by other denominations are not considered valid.115 Individuals undergoing baptism must affirm publicly that dedication and baptism identify them "as one of Jehovah’s Witnesses in association with God's spirit-directed organization,"115 though Witness publications say baptism symbolizes personal dedication to God and not "to a man, work or organization."116117 Watch Tower Society publications emphasize the need for members to be obedient and loyal to Jehovah and to "his organization,"118119note 2 stating that individuals must remain part of it to receive God's favor and to survive Armageddon.120121122
Funding for all activities of the organization is provided by donations, primarily from members. There is no tithing or collection.94123 In 2001 Newsday listed the Watch Tower Society as one of New York's forty richest corporations, with revenues exceeding $950 million.124 The organization reported for the same year that it "spent over 70.9 million dollars in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments."125note 3
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Sources of doctrine
Jehovah's Witnesses believe their religion is a restoration of first-century Christianity.126 Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body, which assumes responsibility for interpreting and applying scripture.51127128 The Watch Tower Society does not issue any single, comprehensive "statement of faith", but prefers to express its doctrinal position in a variety of ways in its publications.129 Its publications teach that doctrinal changes and refinements result from a process of progressive revelation, in which God gradually reveals his will and purpose,130131132133 and that such enlightenment results from the application of reason and study,134 the guidance of the holy spirit, and direction from Jesus Christ and angels.135 The Society also teaches that members of the Governing Body are helped by the holy spirit to discern "deep truths", which are then considered by the entire Governing Body before it makes doctrinal decisions.136 The religion's leadership, while disclaiming divine inspiration and infallibility,137 is said to provide "divine guidance"138 through its teachings described as "based on God's Word thus ... not from men, but from Jehovah."139140
The entire Protestant canon of scripture is considered the inspired, inerrant word of God.141 Jehovah's Witnesses consider the Bible to be scientifically and historically accurate and reliable142 and interpret much of it literally, but accept parts of it as symbolic.143 They consider the Bible to be the final authority for all their beliefs,144 although sociologist Andrew Holden's ethnographic study of the religion concluded that pronouncements of the Governing Body, through Watch Tower Society publications, carry almost as much weight as the Bible.145 Regular personal Bible reading is frequently recommended; Witnesses are discouraged from formulating doctrines and "private ideas" reached through Bible research independent of Watch Tower Society publications, and are cautioned against reading other religious literature.146147148 Adherents are told to have "complete confidence" in the leadership, avoid skepticism about what is taught in the Watch Tower Society's literature, and "not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding."149150151152 The religion makes no provision for members to criticize or contribute to official teachings153 and all Witnesses must abide by its doctrines and organizational requirements.154
Jehovah and Jesus Christ
Jehovah's Witnesses emphasize the use of what they consider to be God's name, represented in the Old Testament by the Tetragrammaton.155156 In English they prefer to use the name Jehovah.157 They believe that Jehovah is the only true God, the creator of all things, and the "Universal Sovereign". They believe that all worship should be directed toward him, and that he is not part of a Trinity;158 consequently, the religion places more emphasis on God than on Christ.159160 They believe that the holy spirit is God's applied power or "active force", rather than a person.161162
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus is God's only direct creation, that everything else was created by means of Christ, and that the initial unassisted act of creation uniquely identifies Jesus as God's "only-begotten Son".163 Jesus served as a redeemer and a ransom sacrifice to pay for the sins of humanity.164 They believe Jesus died on a single upright torture stake rather than the traditional cross.165 They believe that references in the Bible to the Archangel Michael, Abaddon (Apollyon), and the Word all refer to Jesus.166 Jesus is considered to be the only intercessor and high priest between God and humanity, and appointed by God as the king and judge of his kingdom.167 His role as a mediator (referred to in 1 Timothy 2:5) is applied to the 'anointed' class, though the 'other sheep' are said to also benefit from the arrangement.168
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan was originally a perfect angel who developed feelings of self-importance and craved worship. Satan caused Adam and Eve to disobey God, and humanity subsequently became participants in a challenge involving the competing claims of Jehovah and Satan to universal sovereignty.169 Other angels who sided with Satan became demons.
Jehovah's Witnesses teach that Satan and his demons were cast down to earth from heaven after October 1, 1914,170 at which point the end times began. Witnesses believe that Satan is the ruler of the current world order,169 that human society is influenced and misled by Satan and his demons, and that they are a cause of human suffering. They believe that human governments are controlled by Satan,171 but that he does not directly control each human ruler.172
Life after death
Jehovah's Witnesses believe death is a state of non-existence with no consciousness. There is no Hell of fiery torment; Hades and Sheol are understood to refer to the condition of death, termed the common grave.173 Jehovah's Witnesses consider the soul to be a life or a living body that can die.174 Watch Tower Society publications teach that humanity is in a sinful state,174 from which release is only possible by means of Jesus' shed blood as a ransom, or atonement, for the sins of humankind.175
Witnesses believe that a "little flock" go to heaven, but that the hope for life after death for the majority of "other sheep" involves being resurrected by God to a cleansed earth after Armageddon. They interpret Revelation 14:1–5 to mean that the number of Christians going to heaven is limited to exactly 144,000, who will rule with Jesus as kings and priests over earth.176 Jehovah's Witnesses teach that only they meet scriptural requirements for surviving Armageddon, but that God is the final judge.177178179 During Christ's millennial reign, most people who died prior to Armageddon will be resurrected with the prospect of living forever; they will be taught the proper way to worship God to prepare them for their final test at the end of the millennium.180181
Watch Tower Society publications teach that God's kingdom is a literal government in heaven, ruled by Jesus Christ and 144,000 Christians drawn from the earth.182 The kingdom is viewed as the means by which God will accomplish his original purpose for the earth, transforming it into a paradise without sickness or death.183 It is said to have been the focal point of Jesus' ministry on earth.184 They believe the kingdom was established in heaven in 1914,185 and that Jehovah's Witnesses serve as representatives of the kingdom on earth.186187
A central teaching of Jehovah's Witnesses is that the current world era, or "system of things", entered the "last days" in 1914 and faces imminent destruction through intervention by God and Jesus Christ, leading to deliverance for those who worship God acceptably.188 They consider all other present-day religions to be false, identifying them with "Babylon the Great", or the "harlot", of Revelation 17,189 and believe that they will soon be destroyed by the United Nations, which they believe is represented in scripture by the scarlet-colored wild beast of Revelation chapter 17. This development will mark the beginning of the "great tribulation".190 Satan will subsequently attack Jehovah's Witnesses, an action that will prompt God to begin the war of Armageddon, during which all forms of government and all people not counted as Christ's "sheep", or true followers, will be destroyed. After Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include earth, which will be transformed into a paradise similar to the Garden of Eden.191 After Armageddon, most of those who had died before God's intervention will gradually be resurrected during "judgment day" lasting for one thousand years. This judgment will be based on their actions after resurrection rather than past deeds. At the end of the thousand years, a final test will take place when Satan is released to mislead perfect mankind. The end result will be a fully tested, glorified human race. Christ will then hand all authority back to God.192
Watch Tower Society publications teach that Jesus Christ began to rule in heaven as king of God's kingdom in October 1914, and that Satan was subsequently ousted from heaven to the earth, resulting in "woe" to humanity. They believe that Jesus rules invisibly, from heaven, perceived only as a series of "signs". They base this belief on a rendering of the Greek word parousia—usually translated as "coming" when referring to Christ—as "presence". They believe Jesus' presence includes an unknown period beginning with his inauguration as king in heaven in 1914, and ending when he comes to bring a final judgment against humans on earth. They thus depart from the mainstream Christian belief that the "second coming" of Matthew 24 refers to a single moment of arrival on earth to judge humans.193194
Meetings for worship and study are held at Kingdom Halls, which are typically functional in character, and do not contain religious symbols.195 Witnesses are assigned to a congregation in whose "territory" they usually reside and attend weekly services they refer to as "meetings" as scheduled by congregation elders. The meetings are largely devoted to study of Watch Tower Society literature and the Bible. The format of the meetings is established by the religion's headquarters, and the subject matter for most meetings is the same worldwide.195 Congregations meet for two sessions each week comprising five distinct meetings that total about three-and-a-half hours, typically gathering mid-week (three meetings) and on the weekend (two meetings). Prior to 2009, congregations met three times each week; these meetings were condensed, with the intention that members dedicate an evening for "family worship".196197 Gatherings are opened and closed with kingdom songs (hymns) and brief prayers. Each year, Witnesses from a number of congregations that form a "circuit" gather for one-day, and two-day assemblies. Several circuits meet once a year for a three-day "district convention", usually at rented stadiums or auditoriums. Their most important and solemn event is the commemoration of the "Lord's Evening Meal", or "Memorial of Christ's Death" on the date of the Jewish Passover.198
Jehovah's Witnesses are perhaps best known for their efforts to spread their beliefs, most notably by visiting people from house to house,199200201 distributing literature published by the Watch Tower Society; some literature is available in 500 languages.202 The objective is to start a regular Bible study with any person who is not already a member.203 Once the course is completed, the individual is expected to become baptized as a member of the group.204 Witnesses are told they are under a biblical command to engage in public preaching.205206 They are instructed to devote as much time as possible to their ministry and are required to submit an individual monthly "Field Service Report".207208 Baptized members who fail to submit a report every month are termed "irregular" and may be counseled by elders;209210 those who do not submit a report for six consecutive months are termed "inactive".211
Ethics and morality
Their views of morality reflect conservative Christian values. All sexual relations outside of marriage are grounds for expulsion if the individual is not deemed repentant;212213 homosexual activity is considered a serious sin, and same-sex marriages are forbidden. Abortion is considered murder.214 Modesty in dress and grooming is frequently emphasized. Gambling, drunkenness, illegal drugs, and tobacco use are forbidden.215 Drinking of alcoholic beverages is permitted in moderation.214
The family structure is patriarchal. The husband is considered to have authority on family decisions, but is encouraged to solicit his wife's thoughts and feelings, as well as those of his children. Marriages are required to be monogamous and legally registered.216217 Marrying a non-believer, or endorsing such a union, is strongly discouraged and carries religious sanctions.218219 Divorce is discouraged, and remarriage is forbidden unless a divorce is obtained on the grounds of adultery, termed "a scriptural divorce".220 If a divorce is obtained for any other reason, remarriage is considered adulterous unless the prior spouse has died or is since considered to have committed fornication.221 Extreme physical abuse, willful non-support of one's family, and what the religion terms "absolute endangerment of spirituality" are considered grounds for legal separation.222223
Formal discipline is administered by congregation elders. When a baptized member is accused of committing a serious sin—usually cases of sexual misconduct111224 or charges of apostasy for disputing the Watch Tower Society's doctrines225226—a judicial committee is formed to determine guilt, provide help and possibly administer discipline. Disfellowshipping, a form of shunning, is the strongest form of discipline, administered to an offender deemed unrepentant.227 Contact with disfellowshipped individuals is limited to direct family members living in the same home, and with congregation elders who may invite disfellowshipped persons to apply for reinstatement;228229 formal business dealings may continue if contractually or financially obliged.230 Witnesses are taught that avoiding social and spiritual interaction with disfellowshipped individuals keeps the congregation free from immoral influence and that "losing precious fellowship with loved ones may help [the shunned individual] to come 'to his senses,' see the seriousness of his wrong, and take steps to return to Jehovah."231 The practice of shunning may also serve to deter other members from dissident behavior.232 Members who disassociate (formally resign) are described in Watch Tower Society literature as wicked and are also shunned.233234235 Expelled individuals may eventually be reinstated to the congregation if deemed repentant by elders in the congregation in which the disfellowshipping was enforced.236 Reproof is a lesser form of discipline given formally by a judicial committee to a baptized Witness who is considered repentant of serious sin; the reproved person temporarily loses conspicuous privileges of service, but suffers no restriction of social or spiritual fellowship.237 Marking, a curtailing of social but not spiritual fellowship, is practiced if a baptized member persists in a course of action regarded as a violation of Bible principles but not a serious sin.note 4
Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible condemns the mixing of religions, on the basis that there can only be one truth from God, and therefore reject interfaith and ecumenical movements.238239240 They believe that only their religion represents true Christianity, and that other religions fail to meet all the requirements set by God and will soon be destroyed.241 Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that it is vital to remain "separate from the world." Watch Tower Society publications define the "world" as "the mass of mankind apart from Jehovah's approved servants" and teach that it is morally contaminated and ruled by Satan.242243244 Witnesses are taught that association with "worldly" people presents a "danger" to their faith,245 and are instructed to minimize social contact with non-members to better maintain their own standards of morality.246247248249
Jehovah's Witnesses believe their highest allegiance belongs to God's kingdom, which is viewed as an actual government in heaven, with Christ as king. They remain politically neutral, do not seek public office, and are discouraged from voting, though individual members may participate in uncontroversial community improvement issues.250251 They do not celebrate religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter, nor do they observe birthdays, nationalistic holidays, or other celebrations they consider to honor people other than Jesus. They feel that these and many other customs have pagan origins or reflect a nationalistic or political spirit. Their position is that these traditional holidays reflect Satan's control over the world.252253254 Witnesses are told that spontaneous giving at other times can help their children to not feel deprived of birthdays or other celebrations.255
They do not work in industries associated with the military, do not serve in the armed services,256 and refuse national military service, which in some countries may result in their arrest and imprisonment.257 They do not salute or pledge allegiance to flags or sing national anthems or patriotic songs.258 Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as a worldwide brotherhood that transcends national boundaries and ethnic loyalties.259260 Sociologist Ronald Lawson has suggested the religion's intellectual and organizational isolation, coupled with the intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline and considerable persecution, has contributed to the consistency of its sense of urgency in its apocalyptic message.261
Rejection of blood transfusions
Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusions, which they consider a violation of God's law based on their interpretation of Acts 15:28, 29 and other scriptures.262263264 Since 1961 the willing acceptance of a blood transfusion by an unrepentant member has been grounds for expulsion from the religion.265266 Watch Tower Society literature directs Witnesses to refuse blood transfusions, even in "a life-or-death situation".267268269 Jehovah's Witnesses accept non-blood alternatives and other medical procedures in lieu of blood transfusions, and the Watch Tower Society provides information about current non-blood medical procedures.270
Though Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions of whole blood, they may accept some blood plasma fractions at their own discretion.271272273 The Watch Tower Society provides pre-formatted Power of Attorney documents prohibiting major blood components, in which members can specify which allowable fractions and treatments they will personally accept.274275 Jehovah's Witnesses have established Hospital Liaison Committees as a cooperative arrangement between individual Jehovah's Witnesses and medical professionals and hospitals.276277
Jehovah's Witnesses have an active presence in most countries, but do not form a large part of the population of any country.
As of August 2012, Jehovah's Witnesses report an average of 7.53 million publishers—the term they use for members actively involved in preaching—in 111,719 congregations.1 In 2012, these reports indicated over 1.74 billion hours spent in preaching and "Bible study" activity. Since the mid-1990s, the number of peak publishers has increased from 4.5 million to 7.78 million.278 Jehovah's Witnesses estimate their current worldwide growth rate to be 2.4% per year.1
The official published membership statistics, such as those mentioned above, include only those who submit reports for their personal ministry; official statistics do not include inactive and disfellowshipped individuals or others who might attend their meetings. As a result, only about half of those who self-identified as Jehovah's Witnesses in independent demographic studies are considered active by the faith itself.279280 The 2008 US Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey found a low retention rate among members of the religion: about 37% of people raised in the religion continued to identify themselves as Jehovah's Witnesses.281282
Sociologist James A. Beckford, in his 1975 study of Jehovah's Witnesses, classified the religion's organizational structure as Totalizing, characterized by an assertive leadership, specific and narrow objectives, control over competing demands on members' time and energy, and control over the quality of new members. Other characteristics of the classification include likelihood of friction with secular authorities, reluctance to co-operate with other religious organizations, a high rate of membership turnover, a low rate of doctrinal change, and strict uniformity of beliefs among members.283 Beckford identified the religion's chief characteristics as historicism (identifying historical events as relating to the outworking of God's purpose), absolutism (conviction that the Watch Tower Society dispenses absolute truth), activism (capacity to motivate members to perform missionary tasks), rationalism (conviction that Witness doctrines have a rational basis devoid of mystery), authoritarianism (rigid presentation of regulations without the opportunity for criticism) and world indifference (rejection of certain secular requirements and medical treatments).284
- "exists in a state of tension with the wider society;"
- "imposes tests of merit on would-be members;"
- "exercises stern discipline, regulating the declared beliefs and the life habits of members and prescribing and operating sanctions for those who deviate, including the possibility of expulsion;"
- "demands sustained and total commitment from its members, and the subordination, and perhaps even the exclusion of all other interests."
A sociological comparative study by the Pew Research Center found that Jehovah's Witnesses in the United States ranked highest in statistics for getting no further than high school graduation, belief in God, importance of religion in one's life, frequency of religious attendance, frequency of prayers, belief their prayers are answered, belief that their religion can only be interpreted one way, belief that theirs is the only one true faith leading to eternal life, opposition to abortion, and opposition to homosexuality. In the study, Jehovah's Witnesses ranked lowest in statistics for having earned a graduate degree and interest in politics.286
Controversy surrounding various beliefs, doctrines and practices of Jehovah's Witnesses has led to opposition from local governments, communities, and religious groups. Religious commentator Ken Jubber wrote that "Viewed globally, this persecution has been so persistent and of such intensity that it would not be inaccurate to regard Jehovah's witnesses as the most persecuted group of Christians of the twentieth century."287
Political and religious animosity against Jehovah's Witnesses has at times led to mob action and government oppression in various countries. Their doctrine of political neutrality and their refusal to serve in the military has led to imprisonment of members who refused conscription during World War II and at other times where national service has been compulsory. In 1933, there were approximately 20,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in Germany,288 of whom about 10,000 were imprisoned. Of those, 2000 were sent to concentration camps, where they were identified by purple triangles; as many as 1200 died, including 250 who were executed.289290291292 In Canada, Jehovah's Witnesses were interned in camps293 along with political dissidents and people of Chinese and Japanese descent.294 In the former Soviet Union, about 9300 Jehovah's Witnesses were deported to Siberia as part of Operation North in April 1951.295 Their religious activities are currently banned or restricted in some countries, including China, Vietnam and some Islamic states.296297
Authors including William Whalen, Shawn Francis Peters and former Witnesses Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Alan Rogerson and William Schnell, have claimed the religion incited opposition to pursue a course of martyrdom under Rutherford's leadership during the 1930s, in a bid to attract dispossessed members of society, and to convince members that persecution from the outside world was evidence of the "truth" of their struggle to serve God.298 Watch Tower Society literature of the period directed Witnesses to "avoid unnecessary opposition or prejudice", stating that their purpose is not to get arrested.299
Several cases involving Jehovah's Witnesses have been heard by Supreme Courts throughout the world.300 The cases generally relate to their right to practice their religion, displays of patriotism and military service, and blood transfusions.301
In the United States, their persistent legal challenges prompted a series of state and federal court rulings that reinforced judicial protections for civil liberties.302 Among the rights strengthened by Witness court victories in the United States are the protection of religious conduct from federal and state interference, the right to abstain from patriotic rituals and military service, the right of patients to refuse medical treatment, and the right to engage in public discourse.303 Similar cases in their favor have been heard in Canada.304
Jehovah's Witnesses have attracted criticism over issues surrounding their Bible translation, doctrines, their handling of sexual abuse cases, and what is claimed to be coercion of members. Many of the claims are denied by Jehovah's Witnesses and some have also been disputed by courts and religious scholars.
Suppression of free speech and thought
Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body, without consultation with other members.6 The religion does not tolerate dissidence about doctrines and practices;140305306307 members who openly disagree with the religion's teachings are shunned.226 Watch Tower Society publications strongly discourage followers from questioning its doctrines and counsel, reasoning that the Society is to be trusted as "God's organization".307308309310 It also warns members to "avoid independent thinking", claiming such thinking "was introduced by Satan the Devil"311312 and would "cause division".313 Those who openly disagree with official teachings are condemned as "apostates" and "mentally diseased".314315316
Former members Heather and Gary Botting compare the cultural paradigms of the religion to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four,317 and Alan Rogerson describes the religion's leadership as totalitarian.318 Other critics charge that by disparaging individual decision-making, the Watch Tower Society cultivates a system of unquestioning obedience146319 in which Witnesses abrogate all responsibility and rights over their personal lives.320321 Critics also accuse the Watch Tower Society of exercising "intellectual dominance" over Witnesses,322 controlling information226323324 and creating "mental isolation",325 which former Governing Body member Raymond Franz argued were all elements of mind control.325
Watch Tower Society publications state that consensus of faith aids unity,326 and deny that unity restricts individuality or imagination.326 Historian James Irvin Lichti has rejected the description of the religion as "totalitarian".327
Sociologist Rodney Stark states that while Jehovah's Witness leaders are "not always very democratic" and members are expected to conform to "rather strict standards," enforcement tends to be informal, sustained by close bonds of friendship and that Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as "part of the power structure rather than subject to it."92 Sociologist Andrew Holden states that most members who join millenarian movements such as Jehovah's Witnesses have made an informed choice.328 However, he also states that defectors "are seldom allowed a dignified exit",314 and describes the administration as autocratic.6
New World Translation
Some Bible scholars including Bruce M. Metzger, former Professor and Bible editor at Princeton Theological Seminary, have said that the translation of certain texts in its New World Translation of the Bible is biased in favor of Witness practices and doctrines.329330331332333 A British Bible editor, Harold H. Rowley, criticized the pre-release edition of the first volume (Genesis to Ruth) published in 1953 as "a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated."334 On the other hand, in his study on nine of "the Bibles most widely in use in the English-speaking world", Bible scholar Jason BeDuhn, Professor of Religious Studies at the Northern Arizona University, said that the New World Translation was not bias free, but that he considered it to be "the most accurate of the translations compared" and "a remarkably good translation".335
Metzger said, "on the whole, one gains a tolerably good impression of the scholarly equipment of the translators", but goes on to criticize their insertion of the name Jehovah in the New Testament since it does not appear in the extant Greek manuscripts.336337 Watch Tower Society publications have said the name was "restored" on a sound basis, particularly when New Testament writers used the Greek Kyrios (Lord) when translating Old Testament Hebrew scriptures that contained the Tetragrammaton.338 BeDuhn said that the insertion of the name Jehovah in the New Testament "violate[s] accuracy in favor of denominationally preferred expressions for God".335
Watch Tower Society publications have claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses (and formerly, the International Bible Students) to declare his will339340 and has provided advance knowledge about Armageddon and the establishment of God's kingdom.341342343 Some publications also claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses and the International Bible Students as a modern-day prophet.note 5 Jehovah's Witnesses' publications have made various predictions about world events they believe were prophesied in the Bible.344345 Failed predictions have led to the alteration or abandonment of some doctrines.346347 Some failed predictions that the Watch Tower Society had claimed were presented as "beyond doubt" or "approved by God".348
The Watch Tower Society rejects accusations that it is a false prophet,349 stating that its teachings are not inspired or infallible,350351352 and that it has not claimed its predictions were "the words of Jehovah."349 George D. Chryssides has suggested that with the exception of statements about 1914, 1925 and 1975, the changing views and dates of the Jehovah's Witnesses are largely attributable to changed understandings of biblical chronology than to failed predictions.84 Chryssides further states, "it is therefore simplistic and naïve to view the Witnesses as a group that continues to set a single end-date that fails and then devise a new one, as many counter-cultists do."353 However, sociologist Andrew Holden states that since the foundation of the movement around 140 years ago, "Witnesses have maintained that we are living on the precipice of the end of time."354
Handling of sexual abuse cases
Critics have accused Jehovah's Witnesses of employing organizational policies that make the reporting of sexual abuse difficult for members. Some victims of sexual abuse have asserted that they were ordered by certain local elders to maintain silence so as to avoid embarrassment to both the accused and the organization.355356357358 Jehovah's Witnesses maintain that they have no policy of silence, and that elders are directed to report abuse to authorities when there is evidence of abuse, and when required to by law. In 1997, Jehovah's Witnesses' Office of Public Information published their policy359 for elders to report allegations of child abuse to the authorities where required by law to do so, even if there was only one witness.360361 Individuals known to have sexually abused a child are generally prohibited from holding any position of responsibility inside the organization.362 Unless considered by the congregation elders to demonstrate repentance, such a person is typically disfellowshipped.213
In June 2012, the Superior Court of Alameda, California, ordered the Watch Tower Society to pay $21 million in punitive damages, in addition to compensatory damages, after finding that the Society's policy to not disclose child abuse history of a member to parents in the congregation or to report abuse to authorities contributed to the sexual abuse of a nine-year-old girl.363364 A subsequent motion in September 2012 resulted in a reduction of the punitive damages to $8.61 million.365 The Watch Tower Society appealed the revised ruling, and the case is ongoing.366
- Explanatory notes
- Twelve members as of September 2005 (See The Watchtower, March 15, 2006, page 26)
Schroeder died March 8, 2006. (See The Watchtower, September 15, 2006, page 31)
Sydlik died April 18, 2006. (See The Watchtower, January 1, 2007, page 8)
Barber died April 8, 2007. (See The Watchtower, October 15, 2007, page 31)
Jaracz died June 9, 2010. (See The Watchtower, November 15, 2010, page 23)
Barr died December 4, 2010. (See The Watchtower, May 15, 2011, page 6)
Sanderson appointed September 1, 2012. (See The Watchtower, July 15, 2013, page 26)
- Raymond Franz (In Search of Christian Freedom, 2007, p.449) cites various Watch Tower Society publications that stress loyalty and obedience to the organization, including: "Following Faithful Shepherds with Life in View", The Watchtower, October 1, 1967, page 591, "Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect."; The Watchtower, September 1, 2006, pg 15, "Have we formed a loyal attachment to the organization that Jehovah is using today?"; "Your Reminders Are What I Am Fond Of", The Watchtower, June 15, 2006, pg 26, "We too should remain faithful to Jehovah and to his organization regardless of injustices we suffer and regardless of what others do."; "Are You Prepared for Survival?", The Watchtower, May 15, 2006, pg 22, "Just as Noah and his God-fearing family were preserved in the ark, survival of individuals today depends on their faith and their loyal association with the earthly part of Jehovah’s universal organization."; Worship The Only True God (Watch Tower Society, 2002), pg 134, "Jehovah is guiding us today by means of his visible organization under Christ. Our attitude toward this arrangement demonstrates how we feel about the issue of sovereignty ... By being loyal to Jehovah’s organization, we show that Jehovah is our God and that we are united in worship of him."
- 2013 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. p. 178. "During the 2012 service year, Jehovah’s Witnesses spent over $184 million in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments."
- A common example given is a baptized Witness who dates a non-Witness; see The Watchtower, July 15, 1999, p. 30.
- Raymond Franz cites numerous examples. In Crisis of Conscience, 2002, pg. 173, he quotes from "They Shall Know That a Prophet Was Among Them", (The Watchtower, April 1, 1972,) which states that God had raised Jehovah's Witnesses as a prophet "to warn (people) of dangers and declare things to come" He also cites "Identifying the Right Kind of Messenger" (The Watchtower, May 1, 1997, page 8) which identifies the Witnesses as his "true messengers ... by making the messages he delivers through them come true", in contrast to "false messengers", whose predictions fail. In In Search of Christian Freedom, 2007, he quotes The Nations Shall Know That I Am Jehovah—How? (1971, pg 70, 292) which describes Witnesses as the modern Ezekiel class, "a genuine prophet within our generation". The Watch Tower book noted: "Concerning the message faithfully delivered by the Ezekiel class, Jehovah positively states that it 'must come true' ... those who wait undecided until it does 'come true' will also have to know that a prophet himself had proved to be in the midst of them." He also cites "Execution of the Great Harlot Nears", (The Watchtower, October 15, 1980, pg 17) which claims God gives the Witnesses "special knowledge that others do not have ... advance knowledge about this system's end".
- 2013 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2012. p. 55.
- Sources for descriptors:
• Millenarian: Beckford, James A. (1975). The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 118–119, 151, 200–201. ISBN 0-631-16310-7.
• Restorationist: Stark et al.; Iannaccone, Laurence (1997). "Why Jehovah's Witnesses Grow So Rapidly: A Theoretical Application". Journal of Contemporary Religion 12 (2): 133–157. doi:10.1080/13537909708580796.
• Christian: "Religious Tolerance.org". "Statistics on Religion".
• Denomination: "Jehovah's Witnesses at a Glance"."The American Heritage Dictionary"."Memorial and Museum AUSCHWITZ-BIRKENAU".
- "Jehovah's Witnesses Official Media Web Site: Our History and Organization: Membership". Office of Public Information of Jehovah's Witnesses. "While other religious groups count their membership by occasional or annual attendance, this figure reflects only those who are actively involved in the public Bible educational work [of Jehovah's Witnesses]."
- "Guided by God's Spirit". Awake!: 32. June 2008. Retrieved 2012–06–16.
- "Statistics at Jehovah's Witnesses official website, 2010".
- Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. p. 22. ISBN 0-415-26609-2.
- Beckford, James A. (1975). The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 221. ISBN 0-631-16310-7. "Doctrine has always emanated from the Society's elite in Brooklyn and has never emerged from discussion among, or suggestion from, rank-and-file Witnesses."
- "Focus on the Goodness of Jehovah's Organization". The Watchtower: 20. July 15, 2006. Retrieved 2012-06-16.
- "Jehovah's Witnesses". The Columbia Encyclopedia. Columbia University Press. 2011. ISBN 978-0-7876-5015-5. "The Witnesses base their teaching on the Bible."
- Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Continuum. p. 100. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5. "Predictably, mainstream Christians accuse the New World Translation of inaccuracy, as if their own translations were thoroughly reliable. Jehovah's Witnesses will engage in discussion with others using whatever translation is available."
- Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. pp. 70, 123. "This was the Witnesses' own translation of the New Testament ... now that the Society has decreed that they should use the New World Translation of the Bible in preference other versions, they are convinced their translation is the best."
- Tess Van Sommers, Religions in Australia, Rigby, Adelaide, 1966, page 92: "Since 1870, the Watch Tower Society has used more than seventy Bible translations. In 1961 the society released its own complete Bible in modern English, known as The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. This is now the preferred translation among English-speaking congregations."
- Edwards, Linda (2001). A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 438. ISBN 0-664-22259-5. "The Jehovah's Witnesses' interpretation of Christianity and their rejection of orthodoxy influenced them to produce their own translation of the Bible, The New World Translation."
- Our Kingdom Ministry, November 1992, "When we read from our Bible, the householder may comment on the clarity of language used in the New World Translation. Or we may find that the householder shows interest in our message but does not have a Bible. In these cases we may describe the unique features of the Bible we use and the reasons why we prefer it to others."
- "Jehovah's Witness". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. ISBN 978-1-59339-293-2.
- Michael Hill, ed. (1972). "The Embryonic State of a Religious Sect's Development: The Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain (5): 11–12. "Joseph Franklin Rutherford succeeded to Russell's position as President of Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society, but only at the expense of antagonizing a large proportion of the Watch Towers subscribers. Nevertheless, he persisted in moulding the Society to suit his own programme of activist evangelism under systematic central control, and he succeeded in creating the administrative structure of the present-day sect of Jehovah's Witnesses."
- Leo P. Chall (1978). "Sociological Abstracts". Sociology of Religion 26 (1–3): 193. "Rutherford, through the Watch Tower Society, succeeded in changing all aspects of the sect from 1919 to 1932 and created Jehovah's Witnesses—a charismatic offshoot of the Bible student community."
- Isaiah 43:10–12
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 64
- Singelenberg, Richard (1989). "It Separated the Wheat From the Chaff: The 1975 Prophecy and its Impact Among Dutch Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Analysis 50 (Spring 1989): 23–40, footnote 8. doi:10.2307/3710916. "'The Truth' is Witnesses' jargon, meaning the Society's belief system."
- Penton, M.J. (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 280–283. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. "Most Witnesses tend to think of society outside their own community as decadent and corrupt ... This in turn means to Jehovah's Witnesses that they must keep themselves apart from Satan's "doomed system of things." Thus most tend to socialize largely, although not totally, within the Witness community."
- Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Continuum. p. 5. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5. "The Jehovah's Witnesses are well known for their practice of 'disfellowshipping' wayward members."
- Gary Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1993), pg 1–13.
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 6. ISBN 978-0094559400.
- Beckford 1975, p. 2
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 37–39. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.
- Bible Examiner October, 1876 "Gentile Times: When Do They End?" pp 27–8: "The seven times will end in A.D. 1914; when Jerusalem shall be delivered forever ... when Gentile Governments shall have been dashed to pieces; when God shall have poured out of his fury upon the nations and they acknowledge him King of Kings and Lord of Lords."
- Studies in the Scriptures volume 4, "The Battle of Armageddon", 1897, pg xii
- C. T. Russell, The Time is at Hand, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1889, page 101.
- Heather and Gary Botting, The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, p. 36.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 18
- Zion's Watch Tower, July 1, 1879, pg 1: "This is the first number of the first volume of "Zion's Watch Tower," and it may not be amiss to state the object of its publication. That we are living "in the last days"—"the day of the Lord"—"the end" of the Gospel age, and consequently, in the dawn of a "new" age."
- 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses, Watch Tower, pages 38–39
- Zion's Watch Tower, September 1884, pp. 7–8
- Studies in the Scriptures volume 6 "The New Creation" pp. 195–272
- C.T. Russell, "A Conspiracy Exposed", Zion's Watch Tower Extra edition, April 25, 1894, page 55–60, "This is a business association merely ... it has no creed or confession ... it is merely a business convenience in disseminating the truth."]
- Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses by George D. Chryssides, Scarecrow Press, 2008, page xxxiv, "Russell wanted to consolidate the movement he had started. ...In 1880, Bible House, a four-story building in Allegheny, was completed, with printing facilities and meeting accommodation, and it became the organization's headquarters. The next stage of institutionalization was legal incorporation. In 1884, Russell formed the Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society, which was incorporated in Pennsylvania... Russell was concerned that his supporters should feel part of a unified movement."
- Religion in the Twentieth Century by Vergilius Ture Anselm Ferm, Philosophical Library, 1948, page 383, "As the [unincorporated Watch Tower] Society expanded, it became necessary to incorporate it and build a more definite organization. In 1884, a charter was granted recognizing the Society as a religious, non-profit corporation."
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 19
- A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States Greenwood Press: 1996. pg. 35: "Russell is naturally media literate, and the amount of literature he circulates proves staggering. Books, booklets, and tracts are distributed by the hundreds of millions. This is supplemented by well-publicized speaking tours and a masterful press relations effort, which gives him widespread access to general audiences."
- The Overland Monthly, January 1910 pg. 130
- Penton 1997, p. 26–29
- W.T. Ellis, The Continent, McCormick Publishing Company, vol. 43, no. 40, October 3, 1912 pg. 1354
- Religious Diversity and American Religious History by Walter H. Conser, Sumner B. Twiss, University of Georgia Press, 1997, page 136, "The Jehovah's Witnesses...has maintained a very different attitude toward history. Established initially in the 1870s by Charles Taze Russell under the title International Bible Students Association, this organization has proclaimed..."
- The New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1910, vol 7, pg 374
- Penton 1997, p. 26
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 31. ISBN 978-0094559400.
- Penton 1997, p. 53
- A.N. Pierson et al, Light After Darkness, 1917, page 4.
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. p. 101. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.
- Penton 1997, pp. 58, 61–62
- The Bible Students Monthly, vol. 9 no. 9, pp 1, 4: "The following article is extracted mainly from Pastor Russell's posthumous volume entitled "THE FINISHED MYSTERY," the 7th in the series of his STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES and published subsequent to his death."
- Lawson, John D., American State Trials, vol 13, Thomas Law Book Company, 1921, pg viii: "After his death and after we were in the war they issued a seventh volume of this series, entitled "The Finished Mystery," which, under the guise of being a posthumous work of Pastor Russell, included an attack on the war and an attack on patriotism, which were not written by Pastor Russell and could not have possibly been written by him."
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0-227-67939-3. "One of Rutherford's first actions as president ... was, without reference either to his fellow directors or to the editorial committee which Russell had nominated in his will, to commission a seventh volume of Studies in the Scriptures. Responsibility for preparing this volume was given to two of Russell's close associates, George H. Fisher and Clayton J. Woodworth. On the face of it, their brief was to edit for publication the notes left by Russell ... and to draw upon his published writings ... It is obvious ... that it was not in any straightforward sense the result of editing Russell's papers, rather it was in large measure the original work of Woodworth and Fisher at the behest of the new president."
- "Publisher's Preface". The Finished Mystery. "But the fact is, he did write it. This book may properly be said to be a posthumous publication of Pastor Russell. Why?... This book is chiefly a compilation of things which he wrote and which have been brought together in harmonious style by properly applying the symbols which he explained to the Church."
- Penton 1997, p. 55
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 44. ISBN 978-0094559400.
- Franz, Raymond (2007). "Chapter 4". In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1993. pp. 72–77.
- Chryssides, George D. (2010). "How Prophecy Succeeds: The Jehovah’s Witnesses and Prophetic Expectations". International Journal for the Study of New Religions 1 (1): 39. doi:10.1558/ijsnr.v1i1.27. ISSN 2041-952X.
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. p. 144. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.
- Salvation, Watch Tower Society, 1939, as cited in Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, page 76
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. pp. 39, 52. ISBN 978-0094559400.
- Herbert H. Stroup, The Jehovah's Witnesses, Colombia University Press, New York, 1945, pg 14,15: "Following his election the existence of the movement was threatened as never before. Many of those who remembered wistfully the halcyon days of Mr Russell's leadership found that the new incumbent did not fulfill their expectations of a saintly leader. Various elements split off from the parent body, and such fission continued throughout Rutherford's leadership."
- Reed, David, Whither the Watchtower? Christian Research Journal, Summer 1993, pg 27: "By gradually replacing locally elected elders with his own appointees, he managed to transform a loose collection of semi-autonomous, democratically run congregations into a tight-knit organizational machine controlled from his office. Some local congregations broke away, forming such groups as the Chicago Bible Students, the Dawn Bible Students, and the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement, all of which continue to this day."
- Thirty Years a Watchtower Slave, William J. Schnell, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1956, as cited by Rogerson, page 52. Rogerson notes that it is not clear exactly how many Bible Students left, but quotes Rutherford (Jehovah, 1934, page 277) as saying "only a few" who left other religions were then "in God's organization".
- The Present Truth and Herald of Christ's Epiphany, P.S.L. Johnson (April 1927, pg 66). Johnson stated that between late 1923 and early 1927, "20,000 to 30,000 Truth people the world over have left the Society."
- Tony Wills (A People For His Name, pg. 167) cites The Watch Tower (December 1, 1927, pg 355) in which Rutherford states that "the larger percentage" of original Bible Students had by then departed.
- Penton 1997, p. 50
- Rogerson 1969, p. 37
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. London: Constable. p. 55. "In 1931 came an important milestone in the history of the organisation. For many years Rutherford's followers had been called a variety of names: 'International Bible Students', 'Russellites', or 'Millennial Dawners'. In order to distinguish clearly his followers from the other groups who had separated in 1918 Rutherford proposed that they adopt an entirely new name—Jehovah's witnesses."
- Beckford 1975, p. 30
- "A New Name". The Watch Tower: 291. October 1, 1931. "Since the death of Charles T. Russell there have arisen numerous companies formed out of those who once walked with him, each of these companies claiming to teach the truth, and each calling themselves by some name, such as "Followers of Pastor Russell", "those who stand by the truth as expounded by Pastor Russell," "Associated Bible Students," and some by the names of their local leaders. All of this tends to confusion and hinders those of good will who are not better informed from obtaining a knowledge of the truth."
- Beckford 1975, p. 31
- Penton 1997, pp. 71–72
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 109–110. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.
- Beckford 1975, p. 35
- Garbe, Detlef (2008). Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-299-20794-3.
- 1943 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1942. pp. 221–222.
- Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1959. pp. 312–313.
- Beckford 1975, pp. 47–52
- Beckford 1975, pp. 52–55
- Penton 1997, pp. 89–90
- George Chryssides, They Keep Changing the Dates, A paper presented at the CESNUR 2010 conference in Torino.
- Chryssides, George D. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. Scarecrow Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-8108-6074-0.
- Penton 1997, p. 95
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.
- Awake!. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. October 8, 1968. p. 14. "Does this mean that the above evidence positively points to 1975 as the complete end of this system of things? Since the Bible does not specifically state this, no man can say... If the 1970s should see intervention by Jehovah God to bring an end to a corrupt world drifting toward ultimate disintegration, that should surely not surprise us."
- "How Are You Using Your Life?". Our Kingdom Ministry: 63. May 1974. "Reports are heard of brothers selling their homes and property and planning to finish out the rest of their days in this old system in the pioneer service. Certainly this is a fine way to spend the short time remaining before the wicked world's end."
- Franz, Raymond. "1975—The Appropriate Time for God to Act" (PDF). Crisis of Conscience. pp. 237–253. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. Retrieved 2006–07–27.
- Singelenberg, Richard (1989). "The '1975'-prophecy and its impact among Dutch Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Analysis 50 (1): 23–40. doi:10.2307/3710916. JSTOR 3710916. Notes a nine percent drop in total publishers (door-to-door preachers) and a 38 per cent drop in pioneers (full-time preachers) in the Netherlands.
- Stark and Iannoccone (1997). "Why the Jehovah's Witnesses Grow So Rapidly: A Theoretical Application" (PDF). Journal of Contemporary Religion: 142–143. Retrieved 2013–7–16.
- Dart, John (January 30, 1982). "Defectors Feel 'Witness' Wrath: Critics say Baptism Rise Gives False Picture of Growth". Los Angeles Times. p. B4. Cited statistics showing a net increase of publishers worldwide from 1971 to 1981 of 737,241, while baptisms totaled 1.71 million for the same period.
- Hesse, Hans (2001). Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime. Chicago: Edition Temmen c/o. pp. 296, 298. ISBN 3-861-08750-2.
- The Watchtower. March 15, 1980. pp. 17–18. "With the appearance of the book Life Everlasting—in Freedom of the Sons of God, ... considerable expectation was aroused regarding the year 1975. ... there were other statements published that implied that such realization of hopes by that year was more of a probability than a mere possibility. It is to be regretted that these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already initiated. ... persons having to do with the publication of the information ... contributed to the buildup of hopes centered on that date."
- Chryssides Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 32,112
- Chryssides Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 64
- Chryssides Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 79
- "Overseers and Ministerial Servants Theocratically Appointed". The Watchtower: 16. 15 January 2001. "Theocratic appointments come from Jehovah through his Son and God’s visible earthly channel, “the faithful and discreet slave” and its Governing Body."
- The Watchtower, October 1, 1967 pg 591–92: "Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect. We cannot claim to love God, yet deny his Word and channel of communication. Therefore, in submitting to Jehovah's visible theocratic organization, we must be in full and complete agreement with every feature of its apostolic procedure and requirements."
- Penton 1997, pp. 211–252
- Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. pp. 4, 6.
- Botting, Heather & Gary (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.
- The Watchtower, May 15, 2008, page 29
- "Seek God's guidance in all things", The Watchtower, April 15, 2008, page 11.
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.
- Yearbook, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 2010.
- "Annual Meeting Report".
- Penton 1997, p. 101, 233–235
- Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006), Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America 2, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, p. 69, ISBN 0-275-98712-4
- Taylor, Elizabeth J. (2012). Religion: A Clinical Guide for Nurses. Springer Publishing Company. p. 163. ISBN 0-8261-0860-1.
- DuShane, Tony (2012). Confessions of a Teenage Jesus Jerk. ReadHowYouWant. p. 126. ISBN 1-4587-8357-X.
- Hoekema, Anthony A. (1963). The Four Major Cults. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans. p. 291. ISBN 0-8028-3117-6.
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 116–120. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.
- Chryssides Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 14
- What Does the Bible Really Teach. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. p. 182. "Going beneath the water symbolizes that you have died to your former life course. Being raised up out of the water indicates that you are now alive to do the will of God. Remember, too, that you have made a dedication to Jehovah God himself, not to a work, a cause, other humans, or an organization."
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 449–464. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 32, "The structure of the movement and the intense loyalty demanded of each individual at every level demonstrates the characteristics of totalitarianism."
- You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1989, page 255, "It is simply not true that all religions lead to the same goal. (Matthew 7:21–23; 24:21) You must be part of Jehovah's organization, doing God's will, in order to receive his blessing of everlasting life."
- "You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth—But How?", The Watchtower, February 15, 1983, page 12, "Jehovah is using only one organization today to accomplish his will. To receive everlasting life in the earthly Paradise we must identify that organization and serve God as part of it."
- "Serving Jehovah Loyally", The Watchtower, November 15, 1992, page 21, "I determined to stay by the faithful organization. How else can one get Jehovah's favor and blessing?" There is nowhere else to go for divine favor and life eternal."
- How are you funded? Jehovah’s Witnesses Official Media Web Site
- "Jehovah’s Witnesses — Publishing Titans". "AT THE TOP / NYC COMPANY PROFILES / NYC 40".
- Yearbook 2002, Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, p. 31, 2002
- Van Voorst,Robert E. (2012). RELG: World (with Religion CourseMate with eBook Printed Access Card). Cengage Learning. p. 288. ISBN 1-1117-2620-5.
- Organized to Do Jehovah's Will, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2005, pages 17–18.
- "Cooperating With the Governing Body Today,", The Watchtower, March 15, 1990, page 19.
- Beckford 1975, p. 119
- "Focus on the Goodness of Jehovah's Organization". The Watchtower: 22. 15 July 2006.
- "Impart God's Progressive Revelation to Mankind", The Watchtower, March 1, 1965, pp. 158–159
- Penton 1997, pp. 165–171
- "Flashes of Light—Great and Small", The Watchtower, May 15, 1995, page 15.
- Penton 1997, p. 165
- J. F. Rutherford, Preparation, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1933, page 64, 67, "Enlightenment proceeds from Jehovah by and through Christ Jesus and is given to the faithful anointed on earth at the temple, and brings great peace and consolation to them. Again Zechariah talked with the angel of the Lord, which shows that the remnant are instructed by the angels of the Lord. The remnant do not hear audible sounds, because such is not necessary. Jehovah has provided his own good way to convey thoughts to the minds of his anointed ones ... Those of the remnant, being honest and true, must say, We do not know; and the Lord enlightens them, sending his angels for that very purpose."
- "The Spirit Searches into the Deep Things of God", The Watchtower, July 15, 2010, page 23, "When the time comes to clarify a spiritual matter in our day, holy spirit helps responsible representatives of 'the faithful and discreet slave' at world headquarters to discern deep truths that were not previously understood. The Governing Body as a whole considers adjusted explanations. What they learn, they publish for the benefit of all."
- "Do We Need Help to Understand the Bible?". The Watchtower: 19. February 15, 1981. "True, the brothers preparing these publications are not infallible. Their writings are not inspired as are those of Paul and the other Bible writers. (2 Tim. 3:16) And so, at times, it has been necessary, as understanding became clearer, to correct views. (Prov. 4:18)"
- "Do You See the Evidence of God's Guidance?", The Watchtower, April 15, 2011, pages 3–5, "How, then, do we react when we receive divine direction? Do we try to apply it “right afterward”? Or do we continue doing things just as we have been accustomed to doing them? Are we familiar with up-to-date directions, such as those regarding conducting home Bible studies, preaching to foreign speaking people, regularly sharing in family worship, cooperating with Hospital Liaison Committees, and conducting ourselves properly at conventions? ... Do you clearly discern the evidence of divine guidance? Jehovah uses his organization to guide us, his people, through “the wilderness” during these last days of Satan’s wicked world."
- "Unity Identifies True Worship", The Watchtower, September 15, 2010, page 13 par.8 "This spiritual food is based on God’s Word. Thus, what is taught is not from men but from Jehovah."
- "Overseers of Jehovah’s People", The Watchtower, June 15, 1957, "Let us now unmistakably identify Jehovah’s channel of communication for our day, that we may continue in his favor ... It is vital that we appreciate this fact and respond to the directions of the “slave” as we would to the voice of God, because it is His provision."
- Penton 1997, p. 172
- All Scripture is Inspired of God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1990, page 336.
- All Scripture is Inspired of God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1990, page 9.
- Reasoning From The Scriptures | pp. 199–208 Jehovah's Witnesses
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 67, "Materials such as The Watchtower are almost as significant to the Witnesses as the Bible, since the information is presented as the inspired work of theologians, and they are, therefore, believed to contain as much truth as biblical texts."
- James A. Beverley, Crisis of Allegiance, Welch Publishing Company, Burlington, Ontario, 1986, ISBN 0-920413-37-4, pages 25–26, 101, "For every passage in Society literature that urges members to be bold and courageous in critical pursuits, there are many others that warn about independent thinking and the peril of questioning the organization ... Fear of disobedience to the Governing Body keeps Jehovah's Witnesses from carefully checking into biblical doctrine or allegations concerning false prophecy, faulty scholarship, and injustice. Witnesses are told not to read books like this one."
- "Keep Clear of False Worship!", The Watchtower, 15 March 2006, "True Christians keep clear of false worship, rejecting false religious teachings. This means that we avoid exposure to religious programs on radio and television as well as religious literature that promotes lies about God and his Word."
- "Questions From Readers—Why do Jehovah’s Witnesses decline to exchange their Bible study aids for the religious literature of people they meet". The Watchtower: 31. May 1, 1984. "So it would be foolhardy, as well as a waste of valuable time, for Jehovah’s Witnesses to accept and expose themselves to false religious literature that is designed to deceive."
- Question Box, Our Kingdom Ministry, September 2007, "Throughout the earth, Jehovah’s people are receiving ample spiritual instruction and encouragement at congregation meetings, assemblies, and conventions, as well as through the publications of Jehovah’s organization. Under the guidance of his holy spirit and on the basis of his Word of truth, Jehovah provides what is needed so that all of God’s people may be fitly united in the same mind and in the same line of thought and remain stabilized in the faith. Surely we are grateful for Jehovah’s spiritual provisions in these last days. Thus, the faithful and discreet slave does not endorse any literature, meetings, or Web sites that are not produced or organized under its oversight."
- "Make Your Advancement Manifest", The Watchtower, August 1, 2001, page 14, "Since oneness is to be observed, a mature Christian must be in unity and full harmony with fellow believers as far as faith and knowledge are concerned. He does not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding. Rather, he has complete confidence in the truth as it is revealed by Jehovah God through his Son, Jesus Christ, and the faithful and discreet slave."
- Testimony by Fred Franz, Transcript, Lord Strachan vs. Douglas Walsh, 1954. page 123, Q: "Did you imply that the individual member has the right of reading the books and the Bible and forming his own view as to the proper interpretation of Holy Writ? A:" .... No....The Scripture is there given in support of the statement, and therefore the individual when he looks up the Scripture and thereby verifies the statement,...search[es] the Scripture to see whether these things were so."
- "Do We Need Help to Understand the Bible?", The Watchtower, February 15, 1981, page 19, "Jesus’ disciples wrote many letters to Christian congregations, to persons who were already in the way of the truth. But nowhere do we read that those brothers first, in a skeptical frame of mind, checked the Scriptures to make certain that those letters had Scriptural backing, that the writers really knew what they were talking about. We can benefit from this consideration. If we have once established what instrument God is using as his 'slave' to dispense spiritual food to his people, surely Jehovah is not pleased if we receive that food as though it might contain something harmful. We should have confidence in the channel God is using."
- Beckford 1975, pp. 84, 89, 92, 119–120
- "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower April 1, 1986 pp. 30–31.
- Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 0-415-26609-2.
- Ringnes, Hege Kristin; Helje Kringlebotn Sødal (ed.) (2009). Jehovas vitner—en flerfaglig studie (in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. p. 27.
- Holden, A. (2002). Cavorting With the Devil: Jehovah's Witnesses Who Abandon Their Faith (PDF). Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. p. Endnote [i]. Retrieved 2009–06–21.
- Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 87.
- Beckford 1975, p. 105
- Revelation Its Grand Climax, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, pg 36, "In the songbook produced by Jehovah’s people in 1905, there were twice as many songs praising Jesus as there were songs praising Jehovah God. In their 1928 songbook, the number of songs extolling Jesus was about the same as the number extolling Jehovah. But in the latest songbook of 1984, Jehovah is honored by four times as many songs as is Jesus. This is in harmony with Jesus’ own words: 'The Father is greater than I am.' Love for Jehovah must be preeminent, accompanied by deep love for Jesus and appreciation of his precious sacrifice and office as God’s High Priest and King."
- Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 90.
- "What is the Holy Spirit?". The Watchtower: 5. October 1, 2009. "There is a close connection between the holy spirit and the power of God. The holy spirit is the means by which Jehovah exerts his power. Put simply, the holy spirit is God’s applied power, or his active force."
- Hoekema 1963, p. 262
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 276–277
- Penton 1997, p. 372
- Hoekema 1963, p. 270
- "Stay in the “City of Refuge” and Live!", The Watchtower, November 15, 1995, page 19
- Penton 1997, pp. 188–189
- Penton 1997, pp. 188–190
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 298–299
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 25
- "Identifying the Wild Beast and Its Mark". The Watchtower: 5. 1 April 2004. "This does not mean, however, that every human ruler is a direct tool of Satan."
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 322–324
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 265–269
- Penton 1997, p. 186
- Penton 1997, p. 193–194
- "Remaining Organized for Survival Into the Millennium", The Watchtower, September 1, 1989, page 19, "Only Jehovah's Witnesses, those of the anointed remnant and the 'great crowd,'as a united organization under the protection of the Supreme Organizer, have any Scriptural hope of surviving the impending end of this doomed system dominated by Satan the Devil."
- You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth,, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, pg 255, "Do not conclude that there are different roads, or ways, that you can follow to gain life in God's new system. There is only one ... there will be only one organization—God's visible organization—that will survive the fast-approaching 'great tribulation.' It is simply not true that all religions lead to the same goal. You must be part of Jehovah's organization, doing God's will, in order to receive his blessing of everlasting life."
- "Our Readers Ask: Do Jehovah's Witnesses Believe That They Are the Only Ones Who Will Be Saved?", The Watchtower, November 1, 2008, page 28, "Jehovah's Witnesses hope to be saved. However, they also believe that it is not their job to judge who will be saved. Ultimately, God is the Judge. He decides."
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 315–319
- Insight on the Scriptures Volume 1 p. 606 "Declare Righteous"
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 295–296
- Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 106.
- "God's Kingdom—Earth's New Rulership", The Watchtower, October 15, 2000, page 10.
- Hoekema 1963, p. 298
- Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 105.
- The Watchtower, November 1, 1993, pages 8–9, "In 1914 the appointed times of the nations ended, and the time of the end for this world began. The Davidic Kingdom was restored, not in earthly Jerusalem, but invisibly in “the clouds of the heavens.” ... Who would represent on earth the restored Davidic Kingdom? ... Without any doubt at all, it was the small body of anointed brothers of Jesus who in 1914 were known as the Bible Students but since 1931 have been identified as Jehovah’s Witnesses."
- Hoekema 1963, p. 297
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 286
- "Apocalypse—When?", The Watchtower, February 15, 1986, page 6.
- Penton 1997, p. 180
- Hoekema 1963, pp. 307–321
- Penton 1997, p. 17–19
- The Watchtower 10/1/92 p. 16 par. 6 "The Messiah’s Presence and His Rule"
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 64–69
- 2010 Yearbook of Jehovah’s Witnesses: p. 6 Highlights of the Past Year "UPBUILDING AND ENJOYABLE FAMILY WORSHIP"
- The Watchtower 5/15 2011 p. 14 par 13 Christian Families—“Keep Ready” Maintain a Family Worship Evening
- Hoekema 1963, p. 292
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. p. 5. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.
- Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 1. ISBN 978-0094559400.
- Whalen, William J. (1962). Armageddon Around the Corner: A Report on Jehovah's Witnesses. New York: John Day Company. p. 15,18.
- "Good News in 500 Languages", The Watchtower, November 1, 2009, page 24, Press release adaptation online, "These translators are part of an army of some 2,300 volunteers who work in over 190 locations around the world. They range in age from 20 to nearly 90 and expend themselves [translating] the Bible's message in 500 languages."
- Ringnes, Hege Kristin; Helje Kringlebotn Sødal (ed.) (2009). Jehovas vitner—en flerfaglig studie (in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. p. 43.
- "Be "Intensely Occupied" With Your Ministry". 'Our Kingdom Ministry: 3. April 2001. "If a person is making progress and has studied the Require brochure and the Knowledge book, the Bible study may be continued in a second book—either the God’s Word book, the True Peace book, or the United in Worship book. Your goal is to help the student achieve greater insight into the truth, qualify as an unbaptized publisher, and become a dedicated and baptized Witness of Jehovah."
- Bearing Thorough Witness About God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2009, page 63, "Do you obey the command to bear thorough witness, even if the assignment causes you some apprehension?"
- "Determined to bear thorough witness," The Watchtower, December 15, 2008, page 19, "When the resurrected Jesus spoke to disciples gathered in Galilee, likely 500 of them, he commanded: 'Go therefore and make disciples of people of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy spirit, teaching them to observe all the things I have commanded you.' That command applies to all true Christians today."
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.
- "Do You Contribute to an Accurate Report?", Our Kingdom Ministry, December 2002, page 8, "Jehovah’s organization today instructs us to report our field service activity each month ... At the end of the month, the book study overseer makes sure that all in the group have followed through on their responsibility to report their activity."
- "Regularity in Service Brings Blessings", Our Kingdom Ministry, May 1984, page 7.
- "Helping Irregular Publishers". Our Kingdom Ministry: 7. December 1987.
- "Keep the Word of Jehovah Moving Speedily". Our Kingdom Ministry: 1. October 1982.
- Chryssides, G.D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 0-304-33651-3.
- "Imitate Jehovah—Exercise Justice and Righteousness", The Watchtower, August 1, 1998, page 16.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, pp. 26–27, 173
- Penton 1997, pp. 152, 180
- "The Bible's Viewpoint What Does It Mean to Be the Head of the House?". Awake!: 26. July 8, 2004.
- "Christian Weddings That Bring Joy". The Watchtower: 11. 15 April 1984.
- Shepherd the Flock of God. pp. 37–38, 124–125.unreliable source?
- "How should individual Christians and the congregation as a whole view the Bible advice to marry "only in the Lord"?". The Watchtower: 31. 15 March 1982.
- Penton 1997, pp. 110–112
- "Adultery". Insight on the Scriptures 1. p. 53.
- "Marriage—Why Many Walk Out", Awake!, July 8, 1993, page 6, "A legal divorce or a legal separation may provide a measure of protection from extreme abuse or willful nonsupport."
- "When Marital Peace Is Threatened". The Watchtower: 22. 1 November 1988.
- Beckford 1975, pp. 54–55
- Penton 1997, pp. 106–108
- Osamu Muramoto (August 1998). "Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 1. Should bioethical deliberation consider dissidents' views?". Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (4): 223–230. doi:10.1136/jme.24.4.223. PMC 1377670. PMID 9752623.
- The Watchtower April 15, 1988.
- Jehovah's Witnesses Official Media Web Site: Our History and Organization, "Do you shun former members? ... If, however, someone unrepentantly practices serious sins, such as drunkenness, stealing or adultery, he will be disfellowshipped and such an individual is avoided by former fellow-worshipers. ... The marriage relationship and normal family affections and dealings can continue. ... Disfellowshipped individuals may continue to attend religious services and, if they wish, they may receive spiritual counsel from the elders with a view to their being restored. They are always welcome to return to the faith [emphasis retained from source]"
- "Display Christian Loyalty When a Relative Is Disfellowshipped". Our Kingdom Ministry: 3–4. August 2002.
- "Disfellowshipping-How to View It". The Watchtower: 24. 15 September 1981.
- "Appendix: How to Treat a Disfellowshipped person". Keep Yourselves in God's Love. Jehovah's Witnesses. 2008. pp. 207–209.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 163
- "Disfellowshiping—How to View It", The Watchtower, September 15, 1981, page 23.
- "Do You Hate Lawlessness?", The Watchtower, February 15, 2011, page 31.
- Franz, Raymond. Crisis of Conscience. p. 358.
- Shepherd the Flock of God. Watch Tower Society. p. 119.unreliable source?
- "Questions From Readers", The Watchtower, January 1, 1983 pp. 30–31.
- "Should the Religions Unite?". The Watchtower: 741–742. 15 December 1953.
- "Is Interfaith God's Way?". The Watchtower: 69. 1 February 1952.
- Beckford 1975, p. 202, "The ideological argument states that, since absolute truth is unitary and exclusive of all relativisation, there can only 'logically' be one human organization to represent it. Consequently, all other religious organizations are in error and are to be strictly avoided. The absolutist view of truth further implies that, since anything less than absolute truth can only corrupt and destroy it, there can be no justification for Jehovah's witnesses having any kind of association with other religionists, however sincere the motivation might be."
- "15 Worship That God Approves". What Does The Bible Really Teach?. p. 145.
- Reasoning From the Scriptures, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, pages 435–436.
- "Live a Balanced, Simple Life", The Watchtower, July 15, 1989, page 11.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 12
- "Keep Your Distance When Danger Threatens". The Watchtower: 23. February 15, 1994. "Steering Clear of Danger ... We must also be on guard against extended association with worldly people. Perhaps it is a neighbor, a school friend, a workmate, or a business associate. ... What are some of the dangers of such a friendship? We could begin to minimize the urgency of the times we live in or take a growing interest in material rather than spiritual things. Perhaps, because of a fear of displeasing our worldly friend, we would even desire to be accepted by the world."
- Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 409. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.
- ""Each One Will Carry His Own Load", The Watchtower, March 15, 2006, page 23.
- Bryan R. Wilson, "The Persistence of Sects", Diskus, Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions, Vol 1, No. 2, 1993, "They have extensive contact with the wider public, [in Britain in 1989, 108,000 publishers undertook 23 million hours of house-calls]. Yet, they remain little affected by that exposure—they confine their contacts to their single-minded purpose and avoid all other occasions for association."
- Questions From Readers, The Watchtower, November 1, 1999, p. 28,"As to whether they will personally vote for someone running in an election, each one of Jehovah's Witnesses makes a decision based on his Bible-trained conscience and an understanding of his responsibility to God and to the State."
- Questions From Readers, The Watchtower, March 1, 1983, p. 30
- Reasoning From The Scriptures p. 178 Holidays
- The Watchtower 8/15/09 p. 22 par. 20 “Keep Yourselves in God’s Love”
- The Watchtower 9/15/68 p. 573 par 6 "The Seriousness of It"
- The Watchtower 10/15/92 p. 18 par. 21 "Work to Preserve Your Family Into God’s New World"
- Worship the Only True God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2002, p. 159.
- Korea government promises to adopt alternative service system for conscientious objectors
- Education, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 2002, pp. 20–23
- Owens, Gene (September 1997). "Trials of a Jehovah's Witness.(The Faith of Journalists)". Nieman Reports.
- Racial and ethnic unity Jehovah’s Witnesses Official Media Web Site
- Ronald Lawson, "Sect-state relations: Accounting for the differing trajectories of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses", Sociology of Religion, Winter 1995, "The urgency of the Witness's apocalyptic has changed very little over time. The intellectual isolation of the Witness leaders has allowed them to retain their traditional position, and it is they who continue to be the chief purveyors of the radical eschataology ....This commitment (to principle) was bolstered by their organizational isolation, intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline, and considerable persecution."
- Penton 1997, p. i
- Reasoning From the Scriptures, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1989, pages 70–75.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 91
- Muramoto, O. (January 6, 2001). "Bioethical aspects of the recent changes in the policy of refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses". BMJ 322 (7277): 37–39. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7277.37. PMC 1119307. PMID 11141155.
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, page 183.
- United in Worship of the Only True God, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1983, pages 156–160.
- Bowman, R. M.; Beisner, E. C. , Ehrenborg, T. (1995). Jehovah's Witnesses. Zondervan. p. 13. ISBN 0-310-70411-1.
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.
- "How Blood Can Save Your Life," Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, pages 13–17
- "Questions From Readers—Do Jehovah's Witnesses accept any medical products derived from blood?". The Watchtower: 30. June 15, 2000.
- Sniesinski et al.; Chen, EP; Levy, JH; Szlam, F; Tanaka, KA (April 2007). "Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Jehovah's Witness Patients: Management of Two Cases Using Fractionated Components and Factor VIIa" (PDF). Anesthesia & Analgesia 104 (4): 763–5. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000250913.45299.f3. PMID 17377078. Retrieved 2008–12–30.
- "The Real Value of Blood". Awake!: 11. August 2006.
- Durable Power of Attorney form. Watch Tower Society. January 2001. p. 1. Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins and Factor VIII; preparations made from Hemoglobin such as PolyHeme and Hemopure. Examples of permitted procedures involving the medical use of one's own blood include: cell salvage, hemodilution, heart lung machine, dialysis, epidural blood patch, plasmapheresis, blood labeling or tagging and platelet gel (autologous)
- Our Kingdom Ministry (PDF). November 2006. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2009–06–21.
- "Jehovah's Witnesses and Medical Profession Cooperate". The Awake. November 22 2003. Retrieved 2009–10–24.
- Kim Archer, "Jehovah's Witness liaisons help surgeons adapt", Tulsa World, May 15, 2007.
- Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Society. 1996–2013.
- U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. February 2008. pp. 9, 30.
- The Association of Religion Data Archives
- David Van Biema, "America's Unfaithful Faithful," Time magazine, February 25, 2008.
- PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life. U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic. The next lowest retention rates, excluding those raised unaffiliated with any church, were Buddhism at 50% and Catholicism at 68%.
- Beckford 1975, pp. 92, 98–100
- Beckford 1975, pp. 196–207
- Bryan R. Wilson, "The Persistence of Sects", Diskus, Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions, Vol 1, No. 2, 1993
- "Comparisons". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Jubber, Ken (1977). "The Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Southern Africa". Social Compass, 24 (1): 121,. doi:10.1177/003776867702400108.
- Penton, James (2004). Jehovah's witnesses and the third reich. Canada: University of Toronto Press. p. 376. ISBN 0802086780.
- Garbe, Detlef (2008). Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 484. ISBN 0-299-20794-3.
- Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.
- Holocaust Education Foundation website.
- Hesse, Hans (2001). Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi Regime. Edition Temmen. p. 12. ISBN 3-86108-750-2.
- Kaplan, William (1989). State and Salvation. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.
- Yaffee, Barbara (1984–09–09). Witnesses Seek Apology for Wartime Persecution. The Globe in Mail. p. 4.
- Валерий Пасат ."Трудные страницы истории Молдовы (1940–1950)". Москва: Изд. Terra, 1994 (Russian)
- "Jehovah’s Witnesses—Proclaimers of God’s Kingdom",chapter 22,page.490
- "Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses 1991",page.221
- Claims that Jehovah's Witnesses chose a deliberate course of martyrdom are contained in:
Peters, Shawn Francis (2000). Judging Jehovah's Witnesses: Religious Persecution and the Dawn of the Rights Revolution. University Press of Kansas. pp. 82, 116–9. ISBN 0-7006-1008-1.
Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Visions of Glory, 1978, chapter 6.
Whalen, William J. (1962). Armageddon Around the Corner: A Report on Jehovah's Witnesses. New York: John Day Company. p. 190.
Schnell, William (1971). 30 Years a Watchtower Slave. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids. pp. 104–106. ISBN 0-8010-6384-1.
- Advice for Kingdom Publishers(1939), Watchtower Bible and Tract Society, Brooklyn, N.Y.
- Gary Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1993)
- Jehovah’s Witnesses—Proclaimers of God’s Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, 1993, pp. 679–701.
- Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 1–14; Shawn Francis Peters, Judging Jehovah's Witnesses, University Press of Kansas: 2000, pages 12–16.
- "Jehovah's Witnesses and civil rights". Knocking.org. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- Botting, Fundamental Freedoms..., pp. 15–201
- "Following Faithful Shepherds with Life in View", The Watchtower, October 1, 1967, page 591, "Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect ... in submitting to Jehovah's visible theocratic organization, we must be in full and complete agreement with every feature of its apostolic procedure and requirements."
- "Loyal to Christ and His Faithful Slave", The Watchtower, April 1, 2007, page 24, "When we loyally submit to the direction of the faithful slave and its Governing Body, we are submitting to Christ, the slave's Master."
- Beckford 1975, pp. 89, 95, 103, 120, 204, 221
- "Exposing the Devil's Subtle Designs" and "Armed for the Fight Against Wicked Spirits", The Watchtower, January 15, 1983
- "Serving Jehovah Shoulder to Shoulder", The Watchtower, August 15, 1981, page 28.
- "Jehovah's Theocratic Organization Today",The Watchtower, February 1, 1952, pages 79–81.
- "Avoid Independent Thinking". The Watchtower: 27. 15 January 1983. "From the very outset of his rebellion Satan called into question God's way of doing things. He promoted independent thinking. ... How is such independent thinking manifested? A common way is by questioning the counsel that is provided by God's visible organization."
- "Avoid Independent Thinking". The Watchtower: 20. February 15, 1979. "In a world where people are tossed about by confusing winds of religious doctrine, Jehovah's people need to be stable, full-grown Christians. (Eph. 4:13, 14) Their position must be steadfast, not shifting quickly because of independent thinking or emotional pressures."
- The Watchtower: 277–278. May 1, 1964. "It is through the columns of The Watchtower that Jehovah provides direction and constant Scriptural counsel to his people, and it requires careful study and attention to details in order to apply this information, to get a full understanding of the principles involved, and to assure ourselves of right thinking on these matters. It is in this way that we "are thoroughly able to grasp mentally with all the holy ones" the fullness of our commission and of the preaching responsibility that Jehovah has placed on all Christians as footstep followers of his Son. Any other course would produce independent thinking and cause division."
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 163
- See also Raymond Franz, In Search of Christian Freedom, pg. 358.
- "Will You Heed Jehovah’s Clear Warnings?", The Watchtower, July 15, 2011, page 15, "apostates are 'mentally diseased,' and they seek to infect others with their disloyal teachings. (1 Tim. 6:3, 4)."
- The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, passim.
- Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 50.
- Beckford 1975, pp. 204, 221, The habit of questioning or qualifying Watch Tower doctrine is not only under-developed among the Witnesses: it is strenuously combated at all organizational levels
- Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. "Most Witnesses, although capable of intelligent, reasonable thought, have as part of the payment for paradise delegated authority to the organization for directing their lives ... and finally abrogate all responsibility and rights over their personal lives—in effect, allowing the society to do their thinking for them."
- Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 178, "The newly converted Witness must conform immediately to the doctrines of the Watchtower Society, thus whatever individuality of mind he possessed before conversion is liable to be eradicated if he stays in the movement.".
- James A. Beverley, Crisis of Allegiance, Welch Publishing Company, Burlington, Ontario, 1986, ISBN 0-920413-37-4, pages 25–26, 101.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 153
- Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 2, "In addition to the prevalent ignorance outside the Witness movement, there is much ignorance within it. It will soon become obvious to the reader that the Witnesses are an indoctrinated people whose beliefs and thoughts are shaped by the Watchtower Society."
- R. Franz, "In Search of Christian Freedom", chapter 12
- The Watchtower (8/15). August 1988.
- The Routledge History of the Holocaust, Routledge, 2010, "Labeling the Jehovah's Witnesses as totalitarian trivializes the term totalitarian and defames the Jehovah's Witnesses."
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, pp. x, 7
- Penton 1997, p. 174–176
- Haas, Samuel; Hauptmann, O. H. (December 1955). "Escorial Bible I.j.4: Vol. I; the Pentateuch". Journal of Biblical Literature (Society of Biblical Literature) 74 (4): 283. doi:10.2307/3261682. "This work indicates a great deal of effort and thought as well as considerable scholarship, it is to be regretted that religious bias was allowed to colour many passages"
- See Ankerberg, John and John Weldon, 2003, The New World Translation of the Jehovah's Witnesses, accessible online
- Rhodes R, The Challenge of the Cults and New Religions, The Essential Guide to Their History, Their Doctrine, and Our Response, Zondervan, 2001, p. 94
- Bruce M Metzger, "Jehovah's Witnesses and Jesus Christ," Theology Today, (April 1953 p. 74); see also Metzger, "The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures," The Bible Translator (July 1964)
- H.H. Rowley, "How Not To Translate the Bible", The Expository Times, 1953; 65; 41.
- Jason BeDuhn (2003). Truth in Translation: Accuracy and Bias in English Translations of the New Testament. University Press of America. ISBN 0-7618-2556-8.
- G. Hébert/eds., "Jehovah's Witnesses", The New Catholic Encyclopedia, Gale, 20052, Vol. 7, p. 751.
- Metzger, Bruce M., The New World Translation of the Christian Greek Scriptures, The Bible Translator 15/3 (July 1964), pp. 150–153. UBS
- "God's Name and the New Testament", The Divine Name That Will Endure Forever, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1984, pages 23, 27.
- "Messengers of Godly Peace Pronounced Happy", The Watchtower, May 1, 1997, page 21
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Society, 1993, page 708.
- "Execution of the "Great Harlot" Nears", The Watchtower, October 15, 1980, page 17.
- "What Jehovah’s Day Will Reveal", The Watchtower, July 15, 2010, page 5.
- The Watchtower, July 15, 1960, page 444, "In 1942 the faithful and discreet slave guided by Jehovah's unerring spirit made known that the democracies would win World War II and that there would be a United Nations organization set up ... Once again the faithful and discreet slave has been tipped off ahead of time for the guidance of all lovers of God." (Footnote cites the booklet Peace—Can It Last, 1942, pages 21,22.)
- The Watchtower, Jan. 15, 1959, pp. 39–41
- Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 9, 115. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.
- Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1993, pages 78, 632.
- Beckford 1975, pp. 219–221
- James A. Beverley, Crisis of Allegiance, Welch Publishing Company, Burlington, Ontario, 1986, ISBN 0-920413-37-4, page 86–91.
- "Why So Many False Alarms?", Awake!, March 22, 1993, pages 3–4, footnote.
- Revelation—Its Grand Climax, Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society, 1988, page 9.
- "False Prophets—Have not Jehovah's Witnesses made errors in their teachings?". Reasoning From the Scriptures. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. p. 137.
- "To Whom Shall We Go but Jesus Christ?". Watchtower: 23. March 1, 1979. "the “faithful and discreet slave” has alerted all of God’s people to the sign of the times indicating the nearness of God’s Kingdom rule. In this regard, however, it must be observed that this “faithful and discreet slave” was never inspired, never perfect. Those writings by certain members of the “slave” class that came to form the Christian part of God’s Word were inspired and infallible [the bible], but that is not true of other writings since."
- George D. Chryssides (2008). Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. p. xiv.
- Holden & 2002 Portrait, p. 7
- "Another Church Sex Scandal" (April 29, 2003). CBS News.
- Cutrer, Corrie (March 5, 2001). "Witness Leaders Accused of Shielding Molesters", Christianity Today.
- Channel 9 Sunday, November 2005.
- "Secret database protects paedophiles", BBC Panorama, 2003.
- "Jehovah's Witnesses and Child Protection". Jehovah's Witnesses Official Media Web Site. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 1997. Retrieved 2010–03–13. See to confirm date.
- "To all Bodies of Elders in the United States". WTBS. 1995–08–01. Retrieved 2010–03–13. dead linkunreliable source?
- Pay Attention to Yourselves and to All the Flock. Brooklyn, New York: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 1977. p. 138.unreliable source?
- "Let Us ABHOR What Is Wicked". The Watchtower: 27–29. 1997–01–01. Retrieved 2010–03–13.
- Jehovah’s Witnesses Told to Pay in Abuse Case
- Woman molested by Jehovah's Witnesses member at age NINE wins $28million in America's BIGGEST religious sex abuse payout
- Amended judgment, page 2 (TIF image).
- Case documents
- Botting, Gary (1993). Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 1-895176-06-9.
- Botting, Heather and Gary (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.
- Chryssides, George D. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-6074-0.
- Crompton, Robert. Counting the Days to Armageddon. James Clarke & Co, Cambridge, 1996. ISBN 0-227-67939-3
- A detailed examination of the development of Jehovah's Witnesses' eschatology.
- Holden, Andrew (2002). Jehovah's Witnesses: Portrait of a Contemporary Religious Movement. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26609-2.
- An academic study on the sociological aspects of Jehovah's Witnesses phenomenon.
- Kaplan, William. State and Salvation Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1989. ISBN 0-8020-5842-6
- Documents the Witnesses' fight for civil rights in Canada and the US amid political persecution during World War II.
- Penton, M. James (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3.
- Penton, professor emeritus of history at University of Lethbridge and a former member of the religion, examines the history of Jehovah's Witnesses, and their doctrines.
- Rogerson, Alan. Millions Now Living Will Never Die. London: Constable & Co, 1969. ISBN 978-0094559400
- Detailed history of the Watch Tower movement, particularly its early years, a summary of Witness doctrines and the organizational and personal framework in which Witnesses conduct their lives.
- Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom (1993)
- Official history of Jehovah's Witnesses.
- Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. Faith In Action (2-DVD series), (2010–2011)
- Official history of Jehovah's Witnesses.
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