John Eliot Gardiner
Gardiner's early musical experience came largely through singing with his family and in a local church choir. A self-taught musician who also played the violin, he began to study conducting at the age of 15. He was educated at Bryanston School, then studied history, Arabic, and medieval Spanish at King's College, Cambridge. While at Cambridge he conducted the Oxford and Cambridge Singers on a concert tour of the Middle East and founded his first musical ensemble, the Monteverdi Choir, with whom he made his conducting debut at the Wigmore Hall in London in 1966.1
After graduating with a master's degree in history, Gardiner continued his musical studies at King's College London under Thurston Dart and in Paris with Nadia Boulanger, whose music had been a very early influence. In 1968 he founded the Monteverdi Orchestra. Upon changing from modern instruments to period instruments in 1977, the orchestra changed its name to the English Baroque Soloists. In 1969 Gardiner made his opera debut with a performance of Mozart's The Magic Flute at the English National Opera. Four years later, in 1973, he made his first appearance at the Covent Garden conducting Gluck's Iphigénie en Tauride. The English Baroque Soloists made their opera debut with him in the 1977 Innsbruck Festival of Early Music, performing Handel's Acis and Galatea on period instruments. His American debut came in 1979 when he conducted the Dallas Symphony Orchestra. He then became the lead conductor of Canada's CBC Vancouver Orchestra from 1980 to 1983.2
After his period with the CBC Vancouver Orchestra, Gardiner went to France. From 1983 to 1988 he was Music Director of the Opéra National de Lyon. During his period with the Opéra he founded an entirely new orchestra.3 During his time with the Opéra National de Lyon Gardiner was also Artistic Director of the Göttingen Handel Festival (1981 until 1990).4 In 1989 the Monteverdi Choir had its 25th anniversary, touring the world giving performances of Handel's oratorio "Israel in Egypt" and Bach's "Magnificat" among other works. In 1990, Gardiner formed a new period-instrument orchestra, the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique, to perform music of the 19th century. From 1991 until 1995 he was principal conductor of the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra.
From the 1990s onwards he undertook more world tours with his ensembles, including:
- A European tour in 1993 with the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique featured Berlioz's rediscovered Messe solennelle. Beginning in Bremen, Germany the tour ended with a recorded performance in Westminster Cathedral, London 1993.56
- In 2000, Gardiner set out on his Bach Cantata Pilgrimage, performing, over a 52-week period, all of Bach's sacred cantatas in churches around Europe and the United States.7
- In late 2004, Gardiner toured France and Spain with the Monteverdi Choir performing pieces from the Codex Compostelanus in cathedrals and churches along the Camino de Santiago.8
He founded the Monteverdi Choir (1964), the English Baroque Soloists (1975) and the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique (1989). Gardiner has recorded over 250 albums with these and other musical ensembles, most of which have been published by Deutsche Grammophon and Philips Classics.9 Gardiner is most famous for his interpretations of Baroque music on period instruments with the Monteverdi Choir and the English Baroque Soloists, but his repertoire and discography are not limited to early music. With the Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique Gardiner has performed a wide range of Classical and Romantic music, including many works of Hector Berlioz and all of Beethoven's symphonies. A recording of the third symphony of the latter was used in a dramatisation by the BBC of Beethoven's writing of that symphony.10 Gardiner has served as chief conductor of the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra and has appeared as guest conductor with such major orchestras as the Berlin Philharmonic, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Cleveland Orchestra, London Symphony Orchestra, Philharmonia, Royal Concertgebouw Orchestra, and Vienna Philharmonic.
Gardiner has received a variety of honours and awards.12 In particular:
- Honorary doctorate from the University of Lyon, 19879
- Commander of the Order of the British Empire, 1990 New Year Honours13
- Honorary Fellow of King's College and the Royal Academy of Music, 19929
- Grammy, Best Choral Performance, 199414
- Knight Bachelor, 199815
- Grammy, Best Opera Recording, 199914
- Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, 200516
- Doctorate Honoris Causa in Musicology at the University of Cremona (birthplace of Claudio Monteverdi), 20069
- Bach Prize of the Royal Academy of Music-Kohn Foundation, 20089
- Voted into the Gramophone Hall of Fame in 201217
- Chevalier de la Legion d'honneur, 2011.
Gardiner is the son of the British rural revivalist Rolf Gardiner,18 and the grandson of the Egyptologist Alan Henderson Gardiner. He was married to violinist Elizabeth Wilcock from 1981 to 1997; they have three daughters. In 2001 he married Isabella de Sabata, granddaughter of conductor Victor de Sabata.19 In his spare time, Gardiner runs an organic farm at Springhead20 in North Dorset, which was set up by his great uncle, composer Henry Balfour Gardiner.
- "John Eliot Gardiner", in Contemporary Musicians (1999), Detroit: Gale
- CBC Radio Orchestra, retrieved 2007-05-17
- The Opera House Orchestra, archived from the original on December 3, 2006, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Göttingen Händelfestspiele (2007), A Brief History of the Göttingen Händelfestspiele (PDF), archived from the original on June 15, 2007, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Orchestre Revolutionnaire et Romantique, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Berlioz: Messe solennelle, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Bach Cantata Pilgrimage, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Santiago Pilgrimage 2004 Website, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Monteverdi Productions website, retrieved 2007-05-17
- "[[Ian Hart]] is Beethoven in unique drama of the first performance of the Eroica Symphony" (Press release). BBC. 15 May 2003. Retrieved 2007-05-17. Wikilink embedded in URL title (help)
- Melissa Lesnie, "John Eliot Gardiner pulls out of ACO Christmas concerts", Limelight, 19 October 2012; Retrieved 11 April 2013
- John Eliot Gardiner (Bio), retrieved 2007-05-17
- The London Gazette: . 29 December 1989. Retrieved 2007-12-12.
- Grammy Award Winners, retrieved 2007-05-17
- The London Gazette: . 14 September 1999. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
- Sir John Eliot Gardiner erhält Bundesverdienstkreuz, retrieved 2005-12-05
- "Sir John Eliot Gardiner (conductor)". Gramophone. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "John Eliot Gardiner Biography". Musicianguide.com. Retrieved 31 October 2012.
- John Eliot Gardiner — gewend zijn eigen beslissingen te nemen (Dutch), archived from the original on October 1, 2006, retrieved 2007-05-17
- Springhead Trust
- Soli Deo Gloria (record label), Gardiner's label, the name of which is taken from Bach's signature.
- Monteverdi Productions
- Concordance covering all Bach's vocal works recorded by John Eliot Gardiner
- musicOMH.com: Interview with John Eliot Gardiner
- Goldberg Magazine: Interview with John Eliot Gardiner
- YouTube video of Gardiner directing the opening chorus of the first cantata in J. S. Bach's Christmas Oratorio, BWV 248
|Music Director, Opéra National de Lyon
|Chief Conductor, North German Radio Symphony Orchestra