John Taylor of Caroline
|United States Senator
October 18, 1792 – May 11, 1794
|Preceded by||Richard H. Lee|
|Succeeded by||Henry Tazewell|
June 4, 1803 – December 7, 1803
|Preceded by||Stevens T. Mason|
|Succeeded by||Abraham B. Venable|
December 18, 1822 – August 21, 1824
|Preceded by||James Pleasants|
|Succeeded by||Littleton W. Tazewell|
December 19, 1753|
Caroline County, Colony of Virginia
|Died||August 21, 1824
Caroline County, Virginia
John Taylor (December 19, 1753 – August 21, 1824) usually called John Taylor of Caroline was a politician and writer. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates (1779–81, 1783–85, 1796–1800) and in the United States Senate (1792–94, 1803, 1822–24). He wrote several books on politics and agriculture. He was a Jeffersonian Democrat and his works provided inspiration to the later states' rights and libertarian movements. Sheldon and Hill (2008) locate Taylor at the intersection of republicanism and classical liberalism. They see his position as a "combination of a concern with Lockean natural rights, freedom, and limited government along with a classical interest in strong citizen participation in rule to prevent concentrated power and wealth, political corruption, and financial manipulation" (p. 224).
Taylor opposed a strong national government:
In the creation of the federal government, the states exercised the highest act of sovereignty, and they may, if they please, repeat the proof of their sovereignty, by its annihilation. But the union possesses no innate sovereignty, like the states; it was not self-constituted; it is conventional, and of course subordinate to the sovereignties by which it was formed — John Taylor of Caroline
Taylor was orphaned as a small child. He was adopted by a maternal uncle, Edmund Pendleton, a leading Virginia politician, lawyer and judge. He attended Donald Robertson's Academy with fellow students: James Madison (a distant cousin), and George Rogers Clark. Taylor attended the College of William and Mary and then studied law at his uncle's office. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, rising to the rank of colonel, and serving under Patrick Henry and General William Woodford, and leading a regiment under the Marquis de Lafayette.
After the war Taylor lived as a lawyer, planter and part-time politician, serving in the Virginia legislature and appointed to complete three unexpired terms in the U.S. Senate. In 1783, he married his cousin, Lucy Penn, daughter of John Penn of North Carolina, a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was a member of the Tertium Quids who believed that Jefferson and Madison had sacrificed true republican principles. While the Quids opposed some of Jefferson's policies, Taylor's judgment of Jefferson had been generous. In 1804, Taylor issued a pamphlet entitled, "A Defence of the Measures of the Administration of Thomas Jefferson." Jefferson and Taylor had long agreed on many things. In fact, from Jefferson's perspective, they agreed on almost everything. James Madison and John Marshall were Taylor's most prominent adversaries, as they "distorted the record [of the founding] in an effort to justify a more energetic central authority." 1 In 1808, Taylor opposed the election of Madison as President and supported James Monroe instead.
Taylor served as the first president of the Virginia Agricultural Society and was a lifetime member of the Philadelphia Society for Promoting Agriculture.2
English legal historian M.J.C. Vile views Taylor as "in some ways the most impressive political theorist that America has produced." 3 Historian Clyde N. Wilson describes Taylor as "the systematic philosopher of Jeffersonian democracy,"4 and as "representing 'both a conservative allegiance to local community and inherited ways and a radical-populist suspicion of capitalism, ‘progress,’ government and routine logrolling politics.'"5 According to historian Adam L. Tate, Taylor was "an agrarian who 'viewed happiness as possession of family, farm, and leisure,' had no great love for organized religion, social hierarchy, and other such traditional institutions."6 "Taylor took solid liberal ground in holding that men were a mixture of good and evil. Self-interest was the only real constant in human action. . . . . Indeed, while other thinkers, from Thomas Jefferson to Federalist John Adams, agonized over the need for a virtuous citizenry, Taylor took the view that 'the principles of a society may be virtuous, though the individuals composing it are vicious.'" 7 Taylor's solution to the effects of factionalism was to "remove the base from under the stock jobbers, the banks, the paper money party, the tariff-supported manufacturers, and so on; destroy the system of patronage by which the executive has corrupted the legislature; bring down the usurped authority of the Supreme Court." 8 "The more a nation depends for its liberty on the qualities of individuals, the less likely it is to retain it. By expecting publick good from private virtue, we expose ourselves to publick evils from private vices." 9
Taylor wrote in defense of slavery, although he admitted it was wrong.10 "Let it not be supposed that I approve of slavery because I do not aggravate its evils, or prefer a policy which must terminate in a war of extermination."11 Rather, he defended the institution because he "thought blacks incapable of liberty."6 Taylor feared that widespread emancipation would ultimately, and invariably in his view, lead to the horrific bloodshed witnessed in the French colony of Santo Domingo in 1791, the site of the greatest of all successful slave insurrections, the Haitian Revolution.12 "Taylor is one with most American thinkers from Washington to Jefferson to Lincoln in doubting that the free Negro could ever be anything but a problem for American politics . . . ." 13 Thus, he advocated the deportation of free African Americans.
"Negro slavery is a misfortune to agriculture, incapable of removal, and only within the reach of palliation." 14 Taylor criticized Thomas Jefferson's ambivalence towards slavery in Notes on the State of Virginia. Taylor agreed with Jefferson that the institution was an evil, but took issue with Jefferson's repeated references to the specific cruelties of slavery, arguing that "slaves are docile, useful and happy, if they are well managed," and that "the individual is restrained by his property in the slave, and susceptible of humanity . . . . Religion assails him both with her blandishments and terrours. It indissolubly binds his, and his slaves happiness or misery together." "The possibility that slaveholding may have had the kind of positive effects on a republican society that Taylor believes it often did has been reconsidered recently by Edmund S. Morgan.15 Taylor's approach, defending the preservation of slavery under the circumstances and apprehensions of his day, was used to support later and more emphatic defenses of slavery by writers, such as John C. Calhoun, Edmund Ruffin, and George Fitzhugh, who extended the argument by claiming the institution to be a "positive good."
Stromberg, says Taylor's role in calling for Virginia's secession in 1798 and his role in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, "show how seriously he took the reserved rights [interposition (nullification) and secession] of these primary political communities [the States]." 16 Taylor was responsible for guiding the Virginia Resolution, written by James Madison, through the Virginia legislature.17 He wrote: "enormous political power invariably accumulates enormous wealth and enormous wealth invariably accumulates enormous political power." 18 "Like his radical bourgeois counterparts in England, Taylor would not concede that great extremes of wealth and poverty were natural outcomes of differences in talent; on the contrary they were invariably the result of extra-economic coercion and deceit." 19 "Along with John Randolph of Roanoke and a few others, Taylor opposed Madison's War of 1812--his own party's war--precisely because it was a war for empire." 20
Tate (2011) undertakes a literary criticism of Taylor's book New Views of the Constitution of the United States, arguing it is structured as a forensic historiography modeled on the techniques of 18th-century whig lawyers. Taylor believed that evidence from American history gave proof of state sovereignty within the union against the arguments of nationalists such as U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall.21
Taylor County, West Virginia was formed in 1844 and named in Senator Taylor's honor.
- An Enquiry into the Principles and Tendency of Certain Public Measures (Philadelphia: Thomas Dobson, 1794).
- A Definition of Parties: Or the Political Effects of the Paper System Considered (Philadelphia: Francis Bailey, 1794).
- Arator (1818) (first published as a book in 1813 (without attribution) from a collection of sixty-four essays, originally published in a Georgetown newspaper in 1803, which pertain to American agriculture, including some of Taylor's views on slavery).
- A Defence of the Measures of the Administration of Thomas Jefferson, attributed to "Curtius" (1804).
- A Pamphlet Containing a Series of Letters (Richmond: E. C. Stanard, 1809).
- An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the Government of the United States (1814) - a detailed and elaborate critique of the political-philosophical system developed and defended by John Adams in his Defence of the Constitutions of Government of the United States of America (1787).
- Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated (Richmond: Shepherd and Pollard, 1820).
- Tyranny Unmasked (Washington: Davis and Force, 1822).
- New Views of the Constitution of the United States (Washington: Way and Gideon, 1823).
The last three books listed "are to be valued chiefly for their insight into federal-state relations and the true nature of the Union." M. E. Bradford, ed., Arator 35 (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1977).
The above publication notations are credited to F. Thornton Miller, ed., Tyranny Unmasked, Foreword ix-xxii (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1992).
From Reprints of Legal Classics (1)
- "Little-known today, Taylor's work is of great significance in the political and intellectual history of the South and is essential for understanding the constitutional theories that Southerners asserted to justify secession in 1861. Taylor fought in the Continental army during the American Revolution and served briefly in the Virginia House of Delegates and as a U.S. Senator. It was as a writer on constitutional, political, and agricultural questions, however, that Taylor gained prominence. He joined with Thomas Jefferson and other agrarian advocates of states' rights and a strict construction of the Constitution in the political battles of the 1790s. His first published writings argued against Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton's financial program. Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated was Taylor's response to a series of post-War of 1812 developments including John Marshall's Supreme Court decision in McCulloch v. Maryland, the widespread issuance of paper money by banks, proposals for a protective tariff, and the attempt to bar slavery from Missouri. Along with many other Southerners, Taylor feared that these and other measures following in the train of Hamilton's financial system, were undermining the foundations of American republicanism. He saw them as the attempt of an "artificial capitalist sect" to corrupt the virtue of the American people and upset the proper constitutional balance between state and federal authority in favor of a centralized national government. Taylor wrote, "If the means to which the government of the union may resort for executing the power confided to it, are unlimited, it may easily select such as will impair or destroy the powers confided to the state governments." Jefferson, who noted that "Col. Taylor and myself have rarely, if ever, differed in any political principle of importance," considered Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated "the most logical retraction of our governments to the original and true principles of the Constitution creating them, which has appeared since the adoption of the instrument." Later Southern thinkers, notably John C. Calhoun, were clearly indebted to Taylor."
- - Sabin, A Dictionary of Books Relating to America 94486.
- - Cohen, Bibliography of Early American Law 6333.(21527)
- See M.E. Bradford, "A Virginia Cato: John Taylor of Caroline and the Agrarian Republic" (republished as ed. intro. to Taylor's Arator 35 (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1977) (1818)).
- Id. at 41.
- Joseph R. Stromberg, Country Ideology, Republicanism, and Libertarianism: The Thought of John Taylor of Caroline, The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol VI, No. 1, 35 (Winter 1982) (citing M.J.C. Vile, Constitutionalism and the Separation of Powers, 167 (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1967)).
- Wilson, Clyde (2011-11-03) A Little Rebellion, Chronicles
- Hales, Dylan (2008-12-01) Left Turn Ahead, The American Conservative
- McCarthy, Daniel (2005-08-01) Liberty and Order in the Slave Society, The American Conservative
- Stromberg, pp. 39-40.
- Id. at 41 (quoting Grant McConnell, "John Taylor and the Democratic Tradition," Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 4, No. 1, 27 (March 1951)).
- Forrest McDonald, Novus Ordo Seclorum 75 (Lawrence: University of Kansas Press 1985) (quoting Taylor).
- Stromberg, Country Ideology, Republicanism, and Libertarianism 44.
- Bradford, ed., "Arator," 124 (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund 1977) (1818) (Taylor in his own words).
- See id. at 115-125 (discussing slavery).
- M. E. Bradford, ed., "Arator," 39-40.
- Bradford, ed. "Arator" 115 (Taylor in his own words).
- Id. at 122 (ed. note) (citing Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1975))
- Stromberg, Country Ideology, Republicanism, and Libertarianism 42 (citations omitted).
- Taylor, Jeff (2010-07-01) States' Fights, The American Conservative
- Taylor (2010) at 43 (quoting from McConnell, John Taylor and the Democratic Tradition, 24).
- Taylor (2010) at 43 (citing Charles A. Beard Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915) 323-25 ).
- Taylor (2010) at 44.
- Tate, "A Historiography of States' Rights: John Taylor of Caroline's New Views of the Constitution" (2011)
- Christopher M. Curtis, Chapter I, Can These be the Sons of their Fathers? The Defense of Slavery in Virginia, 1831-1832.
- Vernon Parrington, Main Currents in American Thought (1927) v 2 online
- Sheldon, Garrett Ward, and C. William Hill Jr. The Liberal Republicanism of John Taylor of Caroline (2008)
- Tate, Adam. "A Historiography of States' Rights: John Taylor of Caroline's New Views of the Constitution," Southern Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal of the South, Spring/Summer 2011, Vol. 18 Issue 1, pp 10–28
- Mudge, Eugene T. The Social Philosophy of John Taylor of Caroline (New York: Columbia University Press 1939).
- Shallhope, Robert E. John Taylor of Caroline: Pastoral Republican (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1980).
- Wright, Benjamin F. "The Philosopher of Jeffersonian Democracy," American Political Science Review Vol. 22, No. 4 (Nov., 1928), pp. 870–892 in JSTOR
- John Taylor of Caroline at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- Taylor, John. (1823). "New Views of the Constitution of the United States
- Taylor, John. (1821). "Tyranny Unmasked"
- Taylor, John. (1820). "Construction Construed and Constitutions Vindicated"
- John Taylor's works at the Online Library of Liberty.
- John Taylor of Caroline at Find a Grave
|United States Senate|
Richard H. Lee
|United States Senator (Class 2) from Virginia
October 18, 1792 - May 11, 1794
Served alongside: James Monroe
Stevens T. Mason
|United States Senator (Class 1) from Virginia
June 4, 1803 - December 7, 1803
Served alongside: Wilson C. Nicholas
Abraham B. Venable
|United States Senator (Class 2) from Virginia
December 18, 1822 - August 1, 1824
Served alongside: James Barbour
Littleton W. Tazewell