Cash in 1969.
|Birth name||J. R. Cash|
February 26, 1932|
Kingsland, Arkansas, United States
|Died||September 12, 2003
Nashville, Tennessee, United States
|Genres||Country, rock and roll, gospel|
|Occupations||Singer-songwriter, musician, actor|
|Labels||Sun, Columbia, Mercury, American, House of Cash, Legacy Recordings|
|Associated acts||The Tennessee Three, The Highwaymen, June Carter Cash, The Statler Brothers, The Carter Family, Area Code 615|
|Martin Acoustic Guitars1|
John R. "Johnny" Cash (February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003) was an American singer-songwriter, actor, and author2 who was considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century.3 Although he is primarily remembered as a country icon, his songs and sound spanned other genres including rock and roll and rockabilly—especially early in his career—and blues, folk, and gospel. This crossover appeal won Cash the rare honor of induction in the Country Music Hall of Fame, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and the Gospel Music Hall of Fame.
Cash was known for his deep, distinctive bass-baritone voice,a5 for the "boom-chicka-boom" sound of his Tennessee Three backing band; for a rebelliousness,67 coupled with an increasingly somber and humble demeanor;4 for providing free concerts inside prison walls;89page needed and for his dark performance clothing, which earned him the nickname "The Man in Black".b He traditionally began his concerts with the phrase "Hello, I'm Johnny Cash."c, followed by his standard "Folsom Prison Blues".
Much of Cash's music echoed themes of sorrow, moral tribulation and redemption, especially in the later stages of his career.412 His best-known songs included "I Walk the Line", "Folsom Prison Blues", "Ring of Fire", "Get Rhythm" and "Man in Black". He also recorded humorous numbers like "One Piece at a Time" and "A Boy Named Sue"; a duet with his future wife, June Carter, called "Jackson"; and railroad songs including "Hey, Porter" and "Rock Island Line".13 During the last stage of his career, Cash covered songs by several late 20th-century rock artists, most notably "Hurt" by Nine Inch Nails.
- 1 Personal life
- 2 Career
- 3 Last years
- 4 Death
- 5 Religious beliefs
- 6 Legacy
- 7 Awards and honors
- 8 Discography
- 9 Published works
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Johnny Cash was born in Kingsland, Arkansas,14 the fourth of seven children to Ray Cash (May 13, 1897, Kingsland, Arkansas – December 23, 1985, Hendersonville, Tennessee)15 and Carrie Cloveree (née Rivers; March 13, 1904, Rison, Arkansas – March 11, 1991, Hendersonville, Tennessee).1617 Cash was named J. R. Cash because his parents could not think of a name. When Cash enlisted in the Air Force, they wouldn't let him use initials as his name, so he started to use the legal name John R. Cash. In 1955, when signing with Sun Records, he took Johnny Cash as his stage name.18
In March 1935, when Cash was three years old, the family settled in Dyess, Arkansas. He started working in cotton fields at age five, singing along with his family while working. The family farm was flooded on at least two occasions, which later inspired him to write the song "Five Feet High and Rising".21page needed His family's economic and personal struggles during the Great Depression inspired many of his songs, especially those about other people facing similar difficulties.
Cash was very close to his older brother, Jack.22 In May 1944, Jack was pulled into a whirling head saw in the mill where he worked and was almost cut in two. He suffered for over a week before he died on May 20, 1944, at age 15.21page needed Cash often spoke of the horrible guilt he felt over this incident. According to Cash: The Autobiography, his father was away that morning, but he and his mother, and Jack himself, all had premonitions or a sense of foreboding about that day, causing his mother to urge Jack to skip work and go fishing with his brother. Jack insisted on working, as the family needed the money. On his deathbed, Jack said he had visions of heaven and angels. Decades later, Cash spoke of looking forward to meeting his brother in heaven.
Cash's early memories were dominated by gospel music and radio. Taught by his mother and a childhood friend, Cash began playing guitar and writing songs at the age of twelve. When Cash was young, he had a high tenor voice.23 In high school he sang on a local radio station; decades later he released an album of traditional gospel songs, called My Mother's Hymn Book. He was also significantly influenced by traditional Irish music that he heard performed weekly by Dennis Day on the Jack Benny radio program.24page needed
Cash enlisted in the United States Air Force on July 7, 1950.25 After basic training at Lackland Air Force Base and technical training at Brooks Air Force Base, both in San Antonio, TX, Cash was assigned to a U.S. Air Force Security Service unit, assigned as a Morse Code Intercept Operator for Soviet Army transmissions at Landsberg, Germany where he created his first band named "The Landsberg Barbarians."26 He was the first radio operator to pick up the news of the death of Joseph Stalin.27 After he was honorably discharged as a Staff Sergeant on July 3, 1954, he returned to Texas.28
Marriages and family
On July 18, 1951, while in Air Force training, Cash met 17-year-old Vivian Liberto at a roller skating rink in her native San Antonio. They dated for three weeks, until Cash was deployed to Germany for a three-year tour. During that time, the couple exchanged hundreds of pages of love letters.29 On August 7, 1954, one month after his discharge, they were married at St. Ann's Catholic church in San Antonio. The ceremony was performed by her uncle, Father Vincent Liberto. They had four daughters: Rosanne, Kathy, Cindy and Tara. Liberto stated that Cash's drug and alcohol abuse as well as constant touring, affairs with other women, and his close relationship with June Carter led her to file for divorce in 1966.30
In 1968, 13 years after they first met backstage at the Grand Ole Opry, Cash proposed to June Carter, of the famed Carter Family, during a live performance in London, Ontario.31 The couple married on March 1, 1968, in Franklin, Kentucky. They had one child together, John Carter Cash, born March 3, 1970. Cash and Carter continued to work together and tour for 35 years until Carter's death in 2003. Cash died four months later.
Cash researched his heritage and found a mix of mostly Scottish and English ancestry. He learned, upon researching his paternal heritage, that he was of Scottish royal descent, traced back to Malcolm IV of Scotland.323334 After meeting with the then laird of Falkland, Fife, Major Michael Crichton-Stuart, Johnny traced the Cash family tree to eleventh-century Fife.353637 Cash Loch and other locations in Fife bear the name of his family.35
Though he did not have Native American ancestry, his empathy and compassion for Native Americans were unabated. These feelings were expressed in several of his songs, including "Apache Tears" and "The Ballad of Ira Hayes", and on his album, Bitter Tears: Ballads of the American Indian.
In 1954, Cash and Vivian moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where he sold appliances while studying to be a radio announcer. At night he played with guitarist Luther Perkins and bassist Marshall Grant. Perkins and Grant were known as the Tennessee Two. Cash worked up the courage to visit the Sun Records studio, hoping to get a recording contract. After auditioning for Sam Phillips, singing mostly gospel songs, Phillips told him that he didn't record gospel music any longer. It was once rumored that Phillips told Cash to "go home and sin, then come back with a song I can sell," though in a 2002 interview Cash denied that Phillips made any such comment.38 Cash eventually won over the producer with new songs delivered in his early rock'a'billy style. In 1955, Cash made his first recordings at Sun, "Hey Porter" and "Cry! Cry! Cry!", which were released in late June and met with success on the country hit parade.
On December 4, 1956, Elvis Presley dropped in on Phillips while Carl Perkins was in the studio cutting new tracks, with Jerry Lee Lewis backing him on piano. Cash was also in the studio and the four started an impromptu jam session. Phillips left the tapes running and the recordings, almost half of which were gospel songs, survived and have since been released under the title Million Dollar Quartet. In Cash: the Autobiography, Cash wrote that he was the one farthest from the microphone and was singing in a higher pitch to blend in with Elvis.
Cash's next record, "Folsom Prison Blues", made the country Top 5, and "I Walk the Line" became No. 1 on the country charts and entered the pop charts Top 20. "Home of the Blues" followed, recorded in July 1957. That same year Cash became the first Sun artist to release a long-playing album. Although he was Sun's most consistently selling and prolific artist at that time, Cash felt constrained by his contract with the small label partly due to the fact that Phillips wasn't keen on Johnny recording gospel, and he was only getting a 3% royalty as opposed to the standard rate of 5%. Presley had already left Sun, and Phillips was focusing most of his attention and promotion on Lewis. The following year Cash left the label to sign a lucrative offer with Columbia Records, where his single "Don't Take Your Guns to Town" became one of his biggest hits.
In the early 1960s, Cash toured with the Carter Family, which by this time regularly included Mother Maybelle's daughters, Anita, June and Helen. June later recalled admiring him from afar during these tours.
In the 1960s he appeared on Pete Seeger's short lived television series Rainbow Quest.39 He also acted in a 1961 film entitled Five Minutes to Live, later re-released as Door-to-door Maniac. He also wrote and sang the opening theme.
As his career was taking off in the late 1950s, Cash started drinking heavily and became addicted to amphetamines and barbiturates. For a brief time, he shared an apartment in Nashville with Waylon Jennings, who was heavily addicted to amphetamines. Cash used the uppers to stay awake during tours. Friends joked about his "nervousness" and erratic behavior, many ignoring the warning signs of his worsening drug addiction. In a behind-the-scenes look at The Johnny Cash Show, Cash claims to have "tried every drug there was to try."
Although in many ways spiraling out of control, Cash's frenetic creativity was still delivering hits. His rendition of "Ring of Fire" was a crossover hit, reaching No. 1 on the country charts and entering the Top 20 on the pop charts. The song was written by June Carter and Merle Kilgore. The song was originally performed by June's sister, but the signature mariachi-style horn arrangement was provided by Cash,40 who said that it had come to him in a dream. Vivian Liberto claims a different version of the origins of "Ring of Fire". In her book, I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, Liberto states that Cash gave Carter the credit for monetary reasons.41
In June 1965, his truck caught fire due to an overheated wheel bearing, triggering a forest fire that burnt several hundred acres in Los Padres National Forest in California.4243 When the judge asked Cash why he did it, Cash said, "I didn't do it, my truck did, and it's dead, so you can't question it."21page needed The fire destroyed 508 acres (206 ha), burning the foliage off three mountains and driving off 49 of the refuge's 53 endangered condors.44 Cash was unrepentant and claimed, "I don't care about your damn yellow buzzards." The federal government sued him and was awarded $125,172 ($927224 in 2013 dollars). Cash eventually settled the case and paid $82,001.45 He said he was the only person ever sued by the government for starting a forest fire.21page needed
Although Cash carefully cultivated a romantic outlaw image, he never served a prison sentence. Despite landing in jail seven times for misdemeanors, each stay lasted only a single night. His most infamous run-in with the law occurred while on tour in 1965, when he was arrested October 4 by a narcotics squad in El Paso, TX. The officers suspected that he was smuggling heroin from Mexico, but found instead 688 Dexedrine capsules and 475 Equanil tablets that the singer had hidden inside his guitar case. Because the pills were prescription drugs rather than illegal narcotics, he received a suspended sentence.
Cash had also been arrested on May 11, 1965, in Starkville, Mississippi, for trespassing late at night onto private property to pick flowers. (This incident gave the spark for the song "Starkville City Jail", which he spoke about on his live At San Quentin prison album.)
In the mid-1960s, Cash released a number of concept albums, including Sings the Ballads of the True West (1965), an experimental double record mixing authentic frontier songs with Cash's spoken narration, and Bitter Tears (1964), with songs highlighting the plight of the Native Americans. His drug addiction was at its worst at this point, and his destructive behavior led to a divorce from his first wife and canceled performances.
Johnny Cash's final arrest was in 1967 in Walker County, Georgia, where he was taken in after being involved in a car accident while carrying a bag of prescription pills. Cash attempted to bribe a local deputy, who turned the money down, and then spent the night in a LaFayette, Georgia, jail. The singer was released after a long talk with Sheriff Ralph Jones, who warned him of his dangerous behavior and wasted potential. Cash credited that experience for saving his life, and he later came back to LaFayette to play a benefit concert that attracted 12,000 people (the city population was less than 9,000 at the time) and raised $75,000 for the high school.46 Reflecting on his past in a 1997 interview, Cash noted: “I was taking the pills for awhile, and then the pills started taking me."47
Cash curtailed his use of drugs for several years in 1968, after a spiritual epiphany in the Nickajack Cave, when he attempted to commit suicide while under the heavy influence of drugs. He descended deeper into the cave, trying to lose himself and "just die", when he passed out on the floor. He reported to be exhausted and feeling at the end of his rope when he felt God's presence in his heart and managed to struggle out of the cave (despite the exhaustion) by following a faint light and slight breeze. To him, it was his own rebirth. June, Maybelle, and Ezra Carter moved into Cash's mansion for a month to help him conquer his addiction. Cash proposed onstage to June at a concert at the London Gardens in London, ON, CA on February 22, 1968; the couple married a week later (on March 1) in Franklin, KY. June had agreed to marry Cash after he had "cleaned up".48 He rediscovered his Christian faith, taking an "altar call" in Evangel Temple, a small church in the Nashville area, pastored by Rev. Jimmie Rodgers Snow, son of country music legend Hank Snow.
According to longtime friend Marshall Grant, Cash's 1968 rebirth experience did not result in his completely stopping use of amphetamines. However, in 1970, Cash ended all drug use for a period of seven years. Grant claims that the birth of Cash's son, John Carter Cash, inspired Cash to end his dependence. Cash began using amphetamines again in 1977. By 1983, he was once again addicted, and entered the Betty Ford Clinic in Rancho Mirage, CA for rehabilitation. Cash managed to stay off drugs for several years, but by 1989, he was dependent again and entered Nashville's Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment Center. In 1992, he entered the Loma Linda Behavioural Medicine Centre in Loma Linda, California for his final rehabilitation (several months later, his son followed him into this facility for treatment).495051
Folsom Prison Blues
Cash felt great compassion for prisoners. He began performing concerts at various prisons starting in the late 1950s. His first prison concert was held on January 1, 1958, at San Quentin State Prison.52 These performances led to a pair of highly successful live albums, Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison (1968) and Johnny Cash at San Quentin (1969).
The Folsom Prison record was introduced by a rendition of his classic "Folsom Prison Blues", while the San Quentin record included the crossover hit single "A Boy Named Sue", a Shel Silverstein-penned novelty song that reached No. 1 on the country charts and No. 2 on the U.S. Top Ten pop charts. The AM versions of the latter contained a couple of profanities which were edited out. The modern CD versions are unedited and uncensored and thus also longer than the original vinyl albums, though they still retain the audience reaction overdubs of the originals.
In addition to his performances at U.S. prisons, Cash also performed at the Österåker Prison in Sweden in 1972. The live album På Österåker ("At Österåker") was released in 1973. "San Quentin" was recorded with Cash replacing "San Quentin" with "Österåker", which was greatly appreciated by the inmates.
"The Man in Black"
From 1969 to 1971, Cash starred in his own television show, The Johnny Cash Show, on the ABC network. The Statler Brothers opened up for him in every episode; the Carter Family and rockabilly legend Carl Perkins were also part of the regular show entourage. However, Cash also enjoyed booking more mainstream performers as guests; such notables included Neil Young, Louis Armstrong, Kenny Rogers and The First Edition (who appeared a record four times), James Taylor, Ray Charles, Roger Miller, Derek and the Dominos, and Bob Dylan. During the same period, he contributed the title song and other songs to the film Little Fauss and Big Halsey, which starred Robert Redford, Michael J. Pollard, and Lauren Hutton. The title song, The Ballad of Little Fauss and Big Halsey, written by Carl Perkins, was nominated for a Golden Globe award.
Cash had met with Dylan in the mid-1960s and became closer friends when they were neighbors in the late 1960s in Woodstock, New York. Cash was enthusiastic about reintroducing the reclusive Dylan to his audience. Cash sang a duet with Dylan on Dylan's country album Nashville Skyline and also wrote the album's Grammy-winning liner notes.
Another artist who received a major career boost from The Johnny Cash Show was Kris Kristofferson, who was beginning to make a name for himself as a singer/songwriter. During a live performance of Kristofferson's "Sunday Mornin' Comin' Down", Cash refused to change the lyrics to suit network executives, singing the song with its references to marijuana intact:
On a Sunday morning sidewalk
I'm wishin', Lord, that I was stoned.53
By the early 1970s, he had crystallized his public image as "The Man in Black". He regularly performed dressed all in black, wearing a long black knee-length coat. This outfit stood in contrast to the costumes worn by most of the major country acts in his day: rhinestone suits and cowboy boots. In 1971, Cash wrote the song "Man in Black", to help explain his dress code:
We're doing mighty fine I do suppose
In our streak of lightning cars and fancy clothes
But just so we're reminded of the ones who are held back
Up front there ought to be a man in black.
He wore black on behalf of the poor and hungry, on behalf of "the prisoner who has long paid for his crime",54 and on behalf of those who have been betrayed by age or drugs.54 "And," Cash added, "with the Vietnam War as painful in my mind as it was in most other Americans', I wore it 'in mournin' for the lives that could have been.'... Apart from the Vietnam War being over, I don't see much reason to change my position... The old are still neglected, the poor are still poor, the young are still dying before their time, and we're not making many moves to make things right. There's still plenty of darkness to carry off."54
He and his band had initially worn black shirts because that was the only matching color they had among their various outfits.21page needed He wore other colors on stage early in his career, but he claimed to like wearing black both on and off stage. He stated that, political reasons aside, he simply liked black as his on-stage color.21page needed The outdated US Navy's winter blue uniform used to be referred to by sailors as "Johnny Cashes", as the uniform's shirt, tie, and trousers are solid black.55
In the mid-1970s, Cash's popularity and number of hit songs began to decline. He made commercials for Amoco, an unpopular enterprise in an era in which oil companies made high profits while consumers suffered through high gasoline prices and shortages. However, his autobiography (the first of two), titled Man in Black, was published in 1975 and sold 1.3 million copies. A second, Cash: The Autobiography, appeared in 1997. His friendship with Billy Graham led to the production of a film about the life of Jesus, The Gospel Road, which Cash co-wrote and narrated.
He also continued to appear on television, hosting an annual Christmas special on CBS throughout the 1970s. Later television appearances included a starring role in an episode of Columbo: Swan Song He also appeared with his wife on an episode of Little House on the Prairie entitled "The Collection" and gave a performance as John Brown in the 1985 American Civil War television mini-series North and South. Johnny and June also appeared in Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman as a recurring couple.
He was friendly with every US President starting with Richard Nixon. He was closest to Jimmy Carter, with whom he became close friends.21page needed He stated that he found all of them personally charming, noting that this was probably essential to getting oneself elected.21page needed
When invited to perform at the White House for the first time in 1970,56 Richard Nixon's office requested that he play "Okie from Muskogee" (a satirical Merle Haggard song about people who despised youthful drug users and war protesters) and "Welfare Cadillac" (a Guy Drake song which denies the integrity of welfare recipients). Cash declined to play either and instead selected other songs, including "The Ballad of Ira Hayes" (about a brave Native American World War II veteran who was mistreated upon his return to Arizona), and his own compositions, "What Is Truth" and "Man in Black". Cash wrote that the reasons for denying Nixon's song choices were not knowing them and having fairly short notice to rehearse them, rather than any political reason.21page needed However, Cash added, even if Nixon's office had given Cash enough time to learn and rehearse the songs, their choice of pieces that conveyed "antihippie and antiblack" sentiments might have backfired.57
In 1980, Cash became the Country Music Hall of Fame's youngest living inductee at age 48, but during the 1980s his records failed to make a major impact on the country charts, although he continued to tour successfully. In the mid-1980s, he recorded and toured with Waylon Jennings, Willie Nelson, and Kris Kristofferson as The Highwaymen, making three hit albums which were released beginning with the originally titled "Highwaymen" in 1985, followed by "Highwaymen 2" in 1990, and concluding with "Highwaymen – The Road Goes on forever" in 1995. Of the group's four members, Cash was the only one not a Texan.
During that period, Cash appeared in a number of television films. In 1981, he starred in The Pride of Jesse Hallam, winning fine reviews for a film that called attention to adult illiteracy. In the same year, Cash appeared as a "very special guest star" in an episode of the Muppet Show. In 1983, he appeared as a heroic sheriff in Murder in Coweta County, based on a real-life Georgia murder case, which co-starred Andy Griffith as his nemesis. Cash had tried for years to make the film, for which he won acclaim.
Cash relapsed into addiction after being administered painkillers for a serious abdominal injury in 1983 caused by an unusual incident in which he was kicked and wounded by an ostrich he kept on his farm.58
At a hospital visit in 1988, this time to watch over Waylon Jennings (who was recovering from a heart attack), Jennings suggested that Cash have himself checked into the hospital for his own heart condition. Doctors recommended preventive heart surgery, and Cash underwent double bypass surgery in the same hospital. Both recovered, although Cash refused to use any prescription painkillers, fearing a relapse into dependency. Cash later claimed that during his operation, he had what is called a "near death experience".
Cash's recording career and his general relationship with the Nashville establishment were at an all-time low in the 1980s. He realized that his record label of nearly 30 years, Columbia, was growing indifferent to him and was not properly marketing him (he was "invisible" during that time, as he said in his autobiography). Cash recorded an intentionally awful song to protest, a self-parody.citation needed "Chicken in Black" was about Cash's brain being transplanted into a chicken. Ironically, the song turned out to be a larger commercial success than any of his other recent material. Nevertheless, he was hoping to kill the relationship with the label before they did, and it was not long after "Chicken in Black" that Columbia and Cash parted ways.
In 1986, Cash returned to Sun Studios in Memphis to team up with Roy Orbison, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins to create the album Class of '55. Also in 1986, Cash published his only novel, Man in White, a book about Saul and his conversion to become the Apostle Paul. He also recorded Johnny Cash Reads The Complete New Testament in 1990.
His career was rejuvenated in the 1990s, leading to popularity with an audience not traditionally interested in country music. In 1991, he sang a version of "Man in Black" for the Christian punk band One Bad Pig's album I Scream Sunday. In 1993, he sang "The Wanderer" on U2's album Zooropa. Although no longer sought after by major labels, he was offered a contract with producer Rick Rubin's American Recordings label, better known for rap and hard rock.
Under Rubin's supervision, he recorded American Recordings (1994) in his living room, accompanied only by his Martin Dreadnought guitar – one of many Cash played throughout his career.59 The album featured covers of contemporary artists selected by Rubin and had much critical and commercial success, winning a Grammy for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Cash wrote that his reception at the 1994 Glastonbury Festival was one of the highlights of his career. This was the beginning of a decade of music industry accolades and commercial success. Cash teamed up with Brooks & Dunn to contribute "Folsom Prison Blues" to the AIDS benefit album Red Hot + Country produced by the Red Hot Organization. On the same album, he performed the Bob Dylan favorite "Forever Young".
Cash and his wife appeared on a number of episodes of the television series Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman starring Jane Seymour. The actress thought so highly of Cash that she later named one of her twin sons after him. He lent his voice for a cameo role in The Simpsons episode "El Viaje Misterioso de Nuestro Jomer (The Mysterious Voyage of Homer)," as the "Space Coyote" that guides Homer Simpson on a spiritual quest. In 1996, Cash enlisted the accompaniment of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers and released Unchained, which won the Best Country Album Grammy. Believing he did not explain enough of himself in his 1975 autobiography Man in Black, he wrote Cash: The Autobiography in 1997.
In 1997, Cash was diagnosed with the neurodegenerative disease Shy-Drager syndrome, a form of multiple system atrophy. The diagnosis was later altered to autonomic neuropathy associated with diabetes. This illness forced Cash to curtail his touring. He was hospitalized in 1998 with severe pneumonia, which damaged his lungs. The albums American III: Solitary Man (2000) and American IV: The Man Comes Around (2002) contained Cash's response to his illness in the form of songs of a slightly more somber tone than the first two American albums. The video that was released for "Hurt", a cover of the song by Nine Inch Nails, fits Cash's view of his past and feelings of regret. The video for the song, from American IV, is now generally recognized as "his epitaph,"60page needed and received particular critical and popular acclaim.
June Carter Cash died on May 15, 2003, at the age of 73. June had told Cash to keep working, so he continued to record, completing 60 more songs in the last four months of his life, and even performed a couple of surprise shows at the Carter Family Fold outside Bristol, Virginia. At the July 5, 2003, concert (his last public performance), before singing "Ring of Fire", Cash read a statement about his late wife that he had written shortly before taking the stage:
The spirit of June Carter overshadows me tonight with the love she had for me and the love I have for her. We connect somewhere between here and heaven. She came down for a short visit, I guess, from heaven to visit with me tonight to give me courage and inspiration like she always has.
While hospitalized at Baptist Hospital in Nashville, Cash died of complications from diabetes at approximately 2:00 a.m. CT on September 12, 2003—less than four months after his wife. It was suggestedby whom? that Johnny's health worsened due to a broken heart over June's death.6162 He was buried next to his wife in Hendersonville Memory Gardens near his home in Hendersonville, TN.
On May 24, 2005, Vivian Liberto, Cash's first wife and the mother of Rosanne Cash and three other daughters, died at the age of 71 from complications from surgery to remove lung cancer. It was her daughter Rosanne's 50th birthday.63
In June 2005, Cash's lakeside home on Caudill Drive in Hendersonville was put up for sale by his estate. In January 2006, the house was sold to Bee Gees vocalist Barry Gibb and wife Linda and titled to their Florida limited liability company for $2.3 million. The listing agent was Cash's younger brother, Tommy Cash. On April 10, 2007, during a major restoration of the property by the new owner, Cash's home was accidentally destroyed in a spontaneous combustion-ignited fire caused by workers using linseed oil products.64
One of Cash's final collaborations with producer Rick Rubin, entitled American V: A Hundred Highways, was released posthumously on July 4, 2006. The album debuted in the No.1 position on the Billboard Top 200 album chart for the week ending July 22, 2006.
On February 23, 2010, three days before what would have been Cash's 78th birthday, the Cash Family, Rick Rubin, and Lost Highway Records released his second posthumous record, titled American VI: Ain't No Grave.
A troubled but devout Christian,6667page needed Cash has been characterized as a "lens through which to view American contradictions and challenges."d6970 A biblical scholar,27172 he penned a Christian novel titled Man in White; in its introduction Cash writes about a reporter who, interested in Cash's religious beliefs, questions whether the book is written from a Baptist, Catholic, or Jewish perspective. Cash denies an answer to the book's view and his own, and replies, "I'm a Christian. Don't put me in another box."73page needed74 and he made a spoken word recording of the entire New King James Version of the New Testament.7576 Even so, Cash declared that he was "the biggest sinner of them all", and viewed himself overall as a complicated and contradictory man.77e Accordingly,f Cash is said to have "contained multitudes," and has been deemed "the philosopher-prince of American country music".8283
From his early days as a pioneer of rockabilly and rock and roll in the 1950s, to his decades as an international representative of country music, to his resurgence to fame in the 1990s as a living legend and an alternative country icon, Cash influenced countless artists and left a large body of work. Upon his death, Cash was revered by the greatest popular musicians of his time. His rebellious image and often anti-authoritarian stance influenced punk rock.8485
Cash nurtured and defended artists (such as Bob Dylan40) on the fringes of what was acceptable in country music even while serving as the country music establishment's most visible symbol. At an all-star concert which aired in 1999 on TNT, a diverse group of artists paid him tribute, including Dylan, Chris Isaak, Wyclef Jean, Norah Jones, Kris Kristofferson, Willie Nelson, Dom DeLuise and U2. Cash himself appeared at the end and performed for the first time in more than a year. Two tribute albums were released shortly before his death; Kindred Spirits contains works from established artists, while Dressed in Black contains works from many lesser-known artists.
In total, he wrote over 1,000 songs and released dozens of albums. A box set titled Unearthed was issued posthumously. It included four CDs of unreleased material recorded with Rubin as well as a Best of Cash on American retrospective CD.
In recognition of his lifelong support of SOS Children's Villages, his family invited friends and fans to donate to the Johnny Cash Memorial Fund in his memory. He had a personal link with the SOS village in Diessen, at the Ammersee Lake in Southern Germany, near where he was stationed as a G.I, and with the SOS village in Barrett Town, by Montego Bay, near his holiday home in Jamaica.8687
The main street in Hendersonville, Tennessee, Highway 31E, is known as "Johnny Cash Parkway"; the Johnny Cash Museum is located in the town.
On November 2–4, 2007, the Johnny Cash Flower Pickin' Festival was held in Starkville, MS. Starkville, where Cash was arrested over 40 years earlier and held overnight at the city jail on May 11, 1965, inspired Cash to write the song "Starkville City Jail". The festival, where he was offered a symbolic posthumous pardon, honored Cash's life and music, and was expected to become an annual event.90
JC Unit One, Johnny Cash's private tour bus from 1980 until 2003, was put on exhibit at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame + Museum in 2007. The Cleveland, Ohio museum offers public tours of the bus on a seasonal basis (it is stored during the winter months and not exhibited during those times).
In November 2005, Walk the Line, a biopic about Cash's life, was released in the United States to considerable commercial success and critical acclaim. The film featured Joaquin Phoenix as Johnny (for which he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Actor) and Reese Witherspoon as June (for which she won the Academy Award for Best Actress). Phoenix and Witherspoon also won the Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Musical or Comedy and Best Actress in a Musical or Comedy, respectively. They both performed their own vocals in the film, and Phoenix learned to play guitar for the role. Phoenix received a Grammy Award for his contributions to the soundtrack. John Carter Cash, the first child of Johnny and June, served as an executive producer.
On March 12, 2006, Ring of Fire, a jukebox musical of the Cash oeuvre, debuted on Broadway at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre, but closed due to harsh reviews and disappointing sales on April 30. Million Dollar Quartet, a musical portraying the early Sun recording sessions involving Cash, Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Carl Perkins, debuted on Broadway on April 11, 2010. Actor Lance Guest portrayed Cash. The musical was nominated for three awards at the 2010 Tony Awards, and won one.
Robert Hilburn, former Los Angeles Times pop music critic, is currently at-work on a biography, to be titled In Search of Johnny Cash. It will be published by Little, Brown and Co., but no release date has been announced.92
Awards and honors
- For detailed lists of music awards, see List of awards received by Johnny Cash.
In a career that spanned almost five decades during which he rose to recording industry icon status, Cash was the personification of country music to many people around the world. Cash was a musician who was not tied to a single genre. He recorded songs that could be considered rock and roll, blues, rockabilly, folk, and gospel, and exerted an influence on each of those genres. Moreover, he had the unique distinction among country artists of having "crossed over" late in his career to become popular with an unexpected audience, young indie and alternative rock fans. His diversity was evidenced by his presence in three major music halls of fame: the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame (1977), the Country Music Hall of Fame (1980), and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1992). Only thirteen performers are in both of the last two, and only Hank Williams Sr., Jimmie Rodgers, Bob Wills, and Bill Monroe share the honor with Cash of being in all three. However, only Cash was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in the regular manner, unlike the other country members, who were inducted as "early influences." His pioneering contribution to the genre has also been recognized by the Rockabilly Hall of Fame.93 He received the Kennedy Center Honors in 1996. Cash stated that his induction into the Country Music Hall of Fame, in 1980, was his greatest professional achievement. In 2001, he was awarded the National Medal of Arts.94 He was nominated for an MTV Video Music Award for best cinematography for "Hurt" and was supposed to appear, but died during the night.
- See Johnny Cash albums discography, Johnny Cash singles discography and Johnny Cash Sun Records discography.
- Man in Black: His Own Story in His Own Words, Zondervan, 1975
- Cash: The Autobiography, with Patrick Carr, Harper Collins, 1997, ISBN 978‐0‐06‐101357‐7
- Man in white: A novel about the Apostle Paul, Thomas Nelson, 2008
- Although Cash's voice type endured over the years, his timbre changed noticeably: "Through a recording career that stretche[d] back to 1955", Pareles writes, Cash's "bass-baritone voice [went] from gravelly to grave"4.
- For Cash, black stage attire was a "symbol of rebellion—against a stagnant status quo, against... hypocritical houses of God, against people whose minds are closed to others' ideas"10.
- Schultz refers to this phrase as Cash's "trademark greeting", and places his utterance of this line, on Cash's At Folsom Prison album, "among the most electrifying [seconds] in the history of concert recording."11
- Other appraisals of Cash's iconic value have been even bolder68.
- Urbanski78 notes that Cash's habit of performing in black attire began in a church. In the following paragraph, he79 quotes Cash80 as indicating that this habit was partially reflective of Cash's rebellion "against our hypocritical houses of God".
- According to Urbanski, Cash's self-perception was accurate: "He never intended to be categorized or pigeonholed", and indeed he amassed a "cluster of enigmas" which "was so impenetrably deep that even those closest to him never got to see every part of him".81
- Johnny Cash—Guitars and Equipment, Über Pro Audio, 2009, retrieved May 15, 2009
- Johnny Cash & June Carter, Last.fm, 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010
- Holden, Stephen (September 13, 2003), "Johnny Cash, Country Music Bedrock, Dies at 71", The New York Times, retrieved February 25, 2013
- Pareles 1994.
- Dickie, M (2002) , "Hard talk from the God-fearin’, pro-metal man in Black", in Streissguth, M, Ring of fire: The Johnny Cash reader, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo, pp. 201–5
- Streissguth, M (2006), Johnny Cash (biography), Philadelphia: Da Capo, p. 196
- Fox, JA (October 17, 2005), "Hard time's never a 'circus'", The Boston Herald (Baylor University), retrieved March 22, 2010
- Streissguth 2005.
- Schultz, B (July 1, 2000), "Classic Tracks: Johnny Cash's 'Folsom Prison Blues'", Mix, retrieved March 22, 2010
- Mulligan, J (February 24, 2010), "Johnny Cash: American VI: Ain't No Grave", (album review), entertainment.ie, retrieved March 22, 2010.
- For discussion of, and lyrics to, Cash's songs, see Cusic, D, ed. (2004), Johnny Cash: The songs, New York: Thunder's Mouth
- Miller 2003, p. 341.
- Ray Cash, Find a grave
- Carrie Cash, Find a grave
- Streissguth 2005, p. 11.
- "Johnny Cash's Funeral", Johnny and June Carter Cash Memorial, Buddy Case, retrieved January 16, 2009
- "Reba Cash Hancock", Harpeth Family Funeral Services, Harpeth hills, retrieved January 16, 2009
- Cash & Carr 1997.
- Jack D. Cash, Find a grave
- Gross, Terry (2004). A man's voice. All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors, musicians, and artists (p. 31). New York, NY: Hyperion.
- Gross 2006.
- Abbott, William ‘Billy’. "Johnny Cash — February 26, 1932 – September 12, 2003". Southern music. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Malone, William ‘Bill’; McCulloh, Judith (1975), Stars of Country Music, Chicago
- Miller 2003, p. 40.
- Berkowitz, Kenny (June 2001). "No Regrets — Johnny Cash, the man in black, is back at the top of his game". Acoustic Guitar (102). Retrieved June 28, 2009.
- Turner 2004, pp. 43–4.
- Turner 2004, pp. 116–17.
- Sweeting, Adam (September 12, 2003), "Johnny Cash", The Guardian (obituary) (UK), retrieved January 26, 2009
- Millar, Anna (June 4, 2006), "Celtic connection as Cash walks the line in Fife", Scotland on Sunday (Scotsman), retrieved April 12, 2011
- Cash, Roseanne (2010). Composed a memoir. Viking Press; Penguin Group. ISBN 978-1-101-45769-6.
- Manzoor, Sarfraz (February 7, 2010), Scottish roots of Johnny Cash, the man in black tartan, UK: The Guardian, retrieved April 12, 2011
- Miller 2003, p. 11.
- Dalton, Stephanie (January 15, 2006), "Walking the line back in time", Scotland on Sunday (Scotsman), retrieved June 28, 2007
- Cash & Carr 1997, p. 3.
- The Man in Black's Musical Journey Continues, NPR, retrieved February 9, 2010
- "Rainbow Quest". Richard & Mimi. February 26, 1966. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- Johnny Cash interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969).
- Liberto, I Walked the Line: My Life with Johnny, p. 294.
- "Major brush fire." Los Angeles Times, June 28, 1965, p. 1.
- "Control of Brush Fire Near; 700 Acres Burned." Los Angeles Times, June 29, 1965, p. 27.
- Johnson, Brett (November 18, 2007), "Cash's first wife tells of romance, heartbreak", Ventura County Star. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
- Williford, Stanley and Howard Hertel. "Singer Johnny Cash Pays $82,000 to U.S. in Fire Case." Los Angeles Times, Jul 3, 1969, p. A3.
- "12 000 at LaFayette show", Rome News Tribune (LaFayette, GA,: Google News), August 14, 1970: 5A
- Gross, Terry (2004). A man's voice. All I did was ask: Conversations with writers, actors,musicians, and artists (p. 34). New York, NY: Hyperion.
- Zwonitzer, Mark (2002). Will You Miss Me When I'm Gone: The Carter Family and Their Legacy in American Music. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-85763-4.
- Grant, Marshall (2005). I Was There When It Happened – My Life With Johnny Cash. Cumberland House. ISBN 1-58182-510-2.
- Cash, John Carter (2007). Anchored In Love. Thomas Nelson. ISBN 0-8499-0187-1.
- "Cash In Treatment", Orlando Sentinel, November 26, 1989
- "Inmate Merle Haggard hears Johnny Cash play San Quentin State Prison",
- The Best of the Johnny Cash TV Show 1969–1971, Disc 1 (of 2), Reverse Angle Production, 2007
- Cash & Carr 1997, pp. 85–6.
- "The good, bad and ugly of proposed uniforms", Navy Times, October 4, 2004
- 17 April 1970: RN Welcomes ‘The Man In Black’ to the White House (blog), Nixon Foundation, April 17, 2011
- Cash & Carr 2003, p. 212.
- Johnny Cash: The Rebel, CA: Exclaim, p. 3
- The Guitars of Johnny Cash, Fretbase, Aug 2008
- The Rolling Stone Encyclopedia of Rock & Roll, Rolling Stone Magazine, 2004
- "Death from a Broken Heart". Medicine net. November 24, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- "Johnny Cash Dead at Age 71". Country music. About. September 12, 2003. Retrieved December 31, 2011.
- Cash, Rosanne, Black Cadillac, liner notes
- "Fire destroys Johnny Cash house". News (BBC). April 11, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2010.
- Johnny Cash, Man In Black (book), Zondervan, ISBN 978-9992431580
- Urbanski 2003.
- Clapp 2008, p. xvi: ‘Very few figures in recent history are seen as more representative of American identity as Cash... His has often been suggested as the face that should be added to the select pantheon on Mt. Rushmore’
- Clapp 2008, p. xviii.
- Stoudt, C (June 9, 2009), "Review: 'Ring of Fire' at La Mirada Theatre", The Los Angeles Times, retrieved January 20, 2010
- Johnny Cash: Amazing Grace, Public Radio Exchange, 2010, retrieved January 20, 2010
- Cash 2008.
- "Johnny Cash", News (obituary) (BBC), 2003, retrieved January 20, 2010
- Rivkin, D, ed. (2007), Johnny Cash reading the complete New Testament (audio recording) (deluxe ed.), Nashville: Thomas Nelson
- Morris, E (January 20, 2010), Johnny Cash's reading of the New Testament now on DVD, Country Music Television
- Urbanski 2003, pp. xx–xxi.
- Urbanski 2003, p. 39.
- Urbanski 2003, pp. 39–40.
- Cash & Carr 2003, p. 64.
- Urbanski, D (2010), "Johnny Cash's complicated faith: Unwrapping the enigma of the Man in Black", Relevant Magazine, retrieved March 22, 2010
- Huss, J; Werther, D, eds. (2008), Johnny Cash and philosophy: The burning ring of truth, Chicago: Open Court
- Johnny Cash and Philosophy, Open Court, 2007, retrieved March 22, 2010
- DeRogatis, James ‘Jim’ (September 14, 2003), The original punk rocker, retrieved February 9, 2010
- Cibula, Matthew ‘Matt’ (September 15, 2003), Johnny Cash Made the Most Punk-Rock Album Ever. In 1969., retrieved February 9, 2010
- "Johnny Cash", Celebrities as partners, SOS Children's Villages
- "Johnny Cash", Supporters, USA: SOS Children's Villages
- Kristofferson, Kris. "31 Johnny Cash". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "The Immortals: The First Fifty". Rolling Stone. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "Mississippi town to honor the 'Man in Black'". MSNBC. MSN. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "Johnny Cash Stamp Release Celebrated By Family". Huffington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
- Hacket, Vernell (March 5, 2012). "Johnny Cash Biography to Detail Complexity of Singer's Life". The Boot. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "RHOF Inductees with Certificates". Rockabilly Hall of Fame. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "Lifetime Honors", National Medal of Arts
- Cash & Carr 1997.
- Clapp, R (2008), Johnny Cash and the great American contradiction: Christianity and the battle for the soul of a nation, Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox.
- D'Ambrosio, Antonino; original art, Shepard Fairey; photos, Jim Marshall (2009), A Heartbeat and A Guitar: Johnny Cash and the Making of Bitter Tears, Perseus Books/Nation Books, ISBN 978-1-56858-407-2.
- Gross, Terry (2006), All I Did Was Ask: Conversations with Writers, Actors, Musicians, and Artists, Hyperion, ISBN 1-4013-0010-3.
- Holmes, Cynthia S (January 2004), "Remembering H Dale Jackson", Connect (newsletter) (The CBF of Missouri): 2.
- Millier, William ‘Bill’, "Awards", Johnny Cash, retrieved September 7, 2004.
- Miller, Stephen (2003), Johnny Cash: The Life of an American Icon, Omnibus, ISBN 0-7119-9626-1.
- Streissguth, Michael (2004), Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978‐0‐306‐81338‐2.
- Streissguth, Michael (2005) , Johnny Cash at Folsom Prison: The Making of a Masterpiece, Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, ISBN 978‐0‐306‐81453‐2.
- Thomson, Elisabeth ‘Liz’, "Cash, Johnny", Grove Music, Oxford music online, retrieved May 18, 2010.
- Turner, Stephen ‘Steve’ (2004), The Man Called Cash: The Life, Love, and Faith of an American Legend (authorized biography), Nashville: W Publishing.
- Urbanski, David ‘Dave’, The Man Comes Around: The Spiritual Journey of Johnny Cash, New York: Relevant Books, ISBN 0-9729276-7-0.
- Graeme Thomson, The Resurrection of Johnny Cash: Hurt, Redemption, and American Recordings, Jawbone Press, ISBN = 978-1-906002-36-7
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johnny Cash.|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Johnny Cash|
- Official website
- Johnny Cash (official label website).
- Johnny Cash, Lost Highway.
- "Johnny Cash", Full list of inductees, Country Music Hall of Fame.
- "Johnny Cash", Inductees, Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
- "Johnny Cash", Rockabilly Hall of Fame.
- "Inductee Johnny Cash", Candidates, Hit Parade Hall of Fame.
- Johnny Cash at the Internet Movie Database
- Johnny Cash biography at allmusic.com
- "Johnny Cash". Find a Grave. Retrieved November 30, 2013.
None recognized before
|First Amendment Center/AMA "Spirit of Americana" Free Speech Award
Buddy & Julie Miller
|AMA Album of the Year (artist)
|AMA Artist of the Year